California

Climate change and peak flows: Knowledge-to-action to help managers address impacts on streamflow dynamics and aquatic habitat

Contact First Name: 
Gordon
Contact Last Name: 
Grant
Principal Investigator(s): 
Gordon Grant, Anne Nolin, Becky Flitcroft
Research Partners: 
Oregon State University
FS Research Station(s): 
Pacific Northwest Research Station
Summary: 

What will the rivers of the Pacific Northwest look like in the future? Will they be stable or unstable? Will they have salmon or other species? Will the waters be cold and clear or warm and muddy? These questions motivate our study of the effects of climate warming on streams draining the Cascade Mountains.

Previous studies have shown that snowpacks throughout the Cascades are highly vulnerable to warming temperatures, readily changing from snow to rain, and melting earlier. Less certain is how these changes are likely to affect streamflows, particularly in streams that derive much of their flow from deep groundwater and springs. These groundwater streams, which are currently characterized by very stable bed, banks, and vegetation, are particularly sensitive to increasing peak flows in the winter. We want to know how changing snowpacks and increased peak flows are likely to affect these channels, potentially changing their suitability as habitat for threatened species such as bull trout and spring Chinook. Results from our work, which include field and modeling components, will be used to guide management decisions affecting these streams: how dams are operated, whether water suppliers need to worry about turbidity, and how we should manage riparian vegetation.

Geographic Region: 
United States
Pacific Southwest Region (R5)
California
Pacific Northwest Region (R6)
Oregon
Washington
Project Status: 
Action
Record Entry Date: 
Tue, 09/23/2014

Coupling snowpack and groundwater dynamics to interpret historical streamflow trends in the western United States

Contact First Name: 
Gordon
Contact Last Name: 
Grant
Principal Investigator(s): 
Gordon Grant, Mohammad Safeeq
Research Partners: 
Oregon State University
FS Research Station(s): 
Pacific Northwest Research Station
Summary: 

A key challenge for resource and land managers is predicting the consequences of climate warming on streamflow and water resources. Over the last century in the western US, significant reductions in snowpack and earlier snowmelt have led to an increase in the fraction of annual streamflow during winter, and a decline in the summer. This study explores the relative roles of snowpack accumulation and melt, and landscape characteristics or 'drainage efficiency', in influencing streamflow. An analysis of streamflow during 1950-2010 for 81 watersheds across the western US indicates that summer streamflows in watersheds that drain slowly from deep groundwater and receive precipitation as snow are most sensitive to climate warming. During the spring, however, watersheds that drain rapidly and receive precipitation as snow are most sensitive to climate warming. Our results indicate that not all trends in the western US are associated with changes in snowpack dynamics; we observe declining streamflow in late fall and winter in rain-dominated watersheds as well. These empirical findings have implications for how streamflow sensitivity to warming is interpreted across broad regions.

Project Abstract: 

See more below

Research Results: 

Coupling snowpack and groundwater dynamics to interpret historical stream flow trends in the western United States - http://www.fsl.orst.edu/wpg/pubs/13_Safeeqetal_HP.pdf

Geographic Region: 
United States
Northern Region (R1)
Idaho
Montana
Intermountain Region (R4)
Idaho
Nevada
Utah
Pacific Southwest Region (R5)
California
Pacific Northwest Region (R6)
Oregon
Washington
Project Status: 
Complete
Record Entry Date: 
Tue, 09/23/2014
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