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Climate FAQs

Frequently Asked Questions

What is climate?
What has caused climate change in the past?
How do human activities affect climate?
What is the greehouse effect?
Find answers to these questions and more.

How does climate change affect the water cycle?
How does climate change affect severe weather events?
What are primary ecological effects of climate change?
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What are adaptation and mitigation in a management context?
What are examples of adaptation strategies for ecosystems?
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Beever, E.A.; Brussard, P.F.; Berger, J. 2003. Patterns of apparent extirpation among isolated populations of pikas (Ochotona princeps) in the Great Basin [pdf]. Journal of Mammalogy. 84: 37-54.

Cayan, D.R.; Kammerdiener, S.A.; Dettinger, M.D.; Caprio, J.M.; Peterson, D.H. 2001. Changes in the onset of spring in the western United States. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 82: 399-415.

Chapin, F.S.; Matson, P.A.; Mooney, H.A. 2002. Principles of terrestrial ecosystem ecology. New York: Springer-Verlag. 436 p.

Climate Central FAQ's. "What is the Greenhouse Effect" Nov. 7th 2009. http://www.climatecentral.org/library/faqs/ (Accessed 12-8-2011)

Crozier, L. 2004. Warmer winters drive butterfly range expansion by increasing survivorship. Ecology. 85: 231-41.

Davis, M.G.; Shaw, R.G. 2001. Range shifts and adaptive responses to Quaternary climate change. Science. 292(5517): 673-679.

Delcourt, H.R.; Delcourt, P.A.,(eds.). 1991. Quaternary ecology: a paleoecological perspective. New York: Chapman and Hall. 252 p.

Heyerdahl, E.K.; McKenzie, D.; Daniels, L.; Hessl, A.E.; Littell, J.S.; Mantua, N.J. 2008. Climate drivers of regionally synchronous fires in the inland Northwest (1651-1900). International Journal of Wildland Fire. 2008(17): 40-49.

Inouye, D.W.; Barr, B.; Armitage, K.B.; Inouye, B.D. 2000. Climate change is affecting altitudinal migrants and hibernating species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 97: 1630-33.

IPCC, 2007a: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S.; Qin, D.; Manning, M.; Chen, Z.; Marquis, M.; Averyt, K.B.; Tignor, M.; Miller, H.L. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

Janowiak, M.K.; Swanston, C.W.; Nagel, L.M.; Palik, B.J.; Twery, M.J.; Bradford, J.B.; Webster, C.R.; Parker, L.R.; Hille, A.T.; Johnson, S.M. 2011. Silvicultural Decision Making in an Uncertain Climate Future: A Workshop-based Exploration of Considerations, Strategies, and Approaches. GTR NRS-81. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 14 p.

Joyce, L.; Blate, G.M.; Littell, J.S.; McNulty, S.G.; Millar, C.I.; Moser, S.C.; Neilson, R.P.; O'Halloran, K.; Peterson. D.L. 2008. National forests (Chapter 3). In: Synthesis and assessment product 4.4, adaptation options for climate-sensitive ecosystems and resources. Washington, DC: U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research.

Klein, R.J.T.; Huq, S.; Denton F.; Downing, T.E.; Richels, R.G.; Robinson, J.B.; Toth, F.L. 2007. Inter-relationships between adaptation and mitigation. Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In: Parry, M.L.; Canziani, O.F.; Palutikof, J.P.; van der Linden, P.J.; Hanson, C.E., eds. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press: 745-777.

Lean, J. 2010. Cycles and trends in solar irradiance and climate. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change. 1: 111-122.

Logan, J.A.; Powell, J.A. 2001. Ghost forests, global warming, and the mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) [pdf]. American Entomologist. 47: 160-172.

Maness, T.C. 2009. Forest Management and Climate Change Mitigation: Good Policy Requires Careful Thought. Journal of Forestry. 107:119-124.

McKenzie, D.H.; Gedalof, Z.; Peterson, D.L.; Mote, P. 2004. Climatic change, wildfire, and conservation. Conservation Biology. 18: 890-902.

McKenzie, D.; Heinsch, F.A.; Heilman, W.E. 2011. Wildland Fire and Climate Change. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Climate Change Resource Center.

McLachlan, J.S.; Heilmann, J.; Schwartz, M. 2007. A framework for debate of assisted migration in an era of climate change. Conservation Biology. 21: 297-302.

Millar, C.I.; Stephenson, N.L.; Stephens, S.L. 2007. Climate change and forests of the future: managing in the face of uncertainty. Ecological Applications. 17: 2145-2151.

Millar, C.I.; Stephenson, N.L.; Stephens, S.L. 2008. Re-Framing Forest and Resource Management Strategies for a Climate Change Context.

Mohan, J.E.; Cox, R.M.; Iverson, L.R. 2009. Composition and carbon dynamics of forests in northeastern North America in a future, warmer world. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 39: 213-230.

Mote, P.W. 2003. Trends in snow water equivalent in the Pacific Northwest and their climatic causes [pdf]. Geophysical Research Letters. 30: 1601.

Mote, P.W.; Hamlet, A.F.; Clark, M.; Lettenmaier, D.P. 2005. Declining mountain snowpack in western North America [pdf]. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 86: 39-49.

Mote, P.; Hamlet, A.; Salathe, E. 2008. Has spring snowpack declined in the Washington Cascades? Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 12: 193-206.

NASA - Goddard Institute for Space Studies. 2011. NASA Research Finds 2010 Tied for Warmest Year on Record. Research News. http://www.giss.nasa.gov/research/news/20110112/. (Accessed 12-8-2011).

Parmesan, C. 2006. Ecological and Evolutionary Responses to Recent Climate Change. The Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. 37: 637-669.

Rodenhouse, N.L.; Christenson, L.M.; Parry, D.; Green, L.G. 2009. Climate change effects on native fauna of northeastern forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Resources. 39: 249-263.

Ryan, M.G.; Archer, S.R.; Birdsey, R.A.; Dahm, C.N.; Heath, L.S.; Hicke, J.A.; Hollinger, D.Y.; Huxman, T.E.; Okin, G.S.; Oren, R.; Randerson, J.T.; Schlesinger, W.H. 2008. Land Resources (Chapter 3) In: Synthesis and assessment product 4.3, the effects of climate change on agriculture, land resources, water resources, and biodiversity in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research.

Shindell, D.; Faluvegi, G. 2009. Climate response to regional radiative forcing during the twentieth century. Nature Geoscience. 2:294-300

Stewart, I.T.; Cayan, D.R.; Dettinger, M.D. 2005. Changes toward earlier streamflow timing across western North America [pdf]. Journal of Climatology. 18: 1136- 1155.

Swanston, C.; Janowiak, M.; Iverson, L.; Parker, L.; Mladenoff, D.; Brandt, L.; Butler, P.; St. Pierre, M.; Prasad, A.; Matthews, S.; Peters, M.; Higgins, D.; Dorland, A. 2011. Ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Climate Change Response Framework Project in northern Wisconsin. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-82. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 142 p.

Taylor, A.H.; Trouet, V.; Skinner, C.N. 2008. Climatic influences on fire regimes in montane forests of the southern Cascades, California, USA. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 2008(17): 60-71.

United States Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). 2009. Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States. Karl, T.R.; Melillo, J.M.; Peterson, T.C. (eds). Cambridge University Press.

Westerling, A.L.; Hidalgo, H.G.; Cayan, D.R.; Swetnam, T.W. 2006. Warming and earlier spring increase Western United States forest wildfire activity. Science. 313: 940-943.

Woodall, C.W.; Oswalt, C.M.; Westfall, J.A.; Perry, C.H.; Nelson, M.D.; Finley, A.O. 2009. An indicator of tree migration in forests of the eastern United States. Forest Ecology and Management. 257: 1434-1444.

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