Heber Wild Horse Territory: GLOSSARY & ACRONYMS

Adaptive Management - Adaptive management is the general framework encompassing the three phases of planning: assessment, plan development, and monitoring (36 CFR 219.5).  This framework supports decision-making that meets management objectives while simultaneously accruing information to improve future management by adjusting the plan or plan implementation.  Adaptive management is a structured, cyclical process for planning and decision-making in the face of uncertainty and changing conditions with feedback from monitoring, which includes using the planning process to actively test assumptions, track relevant conditions over time, and measure management effectiveness. (FSH 1909.12_zero_code Page 3 of 35)

Animal Unit (AU) - Considered to be one mature cow of about 1,000 pounds (450 kg), either dry or with calf up to 6 months age, or their equivalent, consuming about 26 pounds (12 kg) of forage/day on an oven-dry basis. * (FSH 2209.13 Chapter 90 Page 5 of 63)

* Definition from “A Glossary of Terms Used in Range Management.”  Fourth Edition, edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Society for Range Management, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. 1998.  Third Printing 2005.

Animal-Unit-Month (AUM) - The amount of oven-dry forage (forage demand) required by one animal unit for a standardized period of 30 animal-unit-days.  Not synonymous with animal month.  The term AUM is commonly used in three ways:  (a) stocking rate, as in "X acres per AUM"; (b) forage allocations, as in "X AUMs in Allotment A"; (c) utilization, as in "X AUMs taken from Unit B." *(FSH 2209.13 Chapter 90 Page 5 of 63)

* Definition from “A Glossary of Terms Used in Range Management.”  Fourth Edition, edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Society for Range Management, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. 1998.  Third Printing 2005.

Appropriate Management Level - The Interior Board of Land Appeals (IBLA) has defined the appropriate management level as the “optimum” number of wild horses (or burros) which results in a thriving natural ecological balance and avoids a deterioration of the range. (109 IBLA 119; also reference Dahl vs. Clark, supra at 592). It is usually expressed as a range of numbers. From Bureau of Land Management (ASNFs LMP).

Available forage –That amount of growth of a vigorous and healthy plant that can be utilized as feed (regardless of what animal is using it) without impairing the plant’s long term health and productivity or other uses such as riparian filtering. The amount of available forage may be less where there is a need to restore health and vigor of forage plants. That amount may also depend on time of year and plant physiological stage or other conditions such as drought (ASNFs LMP).

Community-Forest Intermix - The Community-Forest Intermix Management Area consists of National Forest System (NFS) lands that are within one-half mile of communities-at-risk. Due to the threat of fire moving into or from developed areas, more intensive treatments (including regular maintenance) may be needed to reduce the risk of uncharacteristic wildfire and restore fire-adapted ecosystems. This management area may act as a zone in which fire suppression activities can be safely and effectively conducted. Likewise, it can act as a buffer to protect forest resources (ASNFs LMP).

Connectivity –The arrangement of habitats that allows organisms and ecological processes to move across the landscape; patches of similar habitats are either close together or linked by corridors of appropriate vegetation; the opposite of fragmentation (ASNFs LMP).

Equine –Horses, mules, and asses. [adapted from Arizona Revised Statue, Title 3 –Agriculture, Chapter 11 (Ownership, Control and Regulation of Livestock), Article 1, 3-1201 (Definitions)].

Feral animal –". . . animals, including horses, burros, cattle, swine, sheep, goats, reindeer, dogs, and cats, without ownership, that have reverted to the wild from a domestic state . . ." (50 CFR 30.11). Feral horses and burros are animals that do not meet the definition of a wild free-roaming horse in accordance with 36 CFR 222.60(b)(13).

Habitat –The physical location or type of environment in which an organism or biological population lives or occurs (ASNFs LMP).

Herd - "herd" means one or more stallions and his mares; (source: The Wild Free-Roaming Horses and burros Act of 1971 § 1332(d)

Herd Unit - An area of land within a Wild Horse and Burro Territory that is designated as a territorial habitat of one or more stallions/jacks, and their mares/jennies, and progeny, all ranging as one band of animals.  A herd unit identifies land area boundaries used by the herd under varying conditions necessary for survival and reproduction (FSM 2260).

Livestock –Cattle, equine, sheep, goats, and swine, except feral hogs [adapted from Arizona Revised Statue, Title 3 –Agriculture, Chapter 11 (Ownership, Control and Regulation of Livestock), Article 1, 3-1201 (Definitions)].

Monitoring - The collection and analysis of repeated observations or measurements over time to detect changes in conditions and values and evaluate progress toward meeting a resource or management objective.  A monitoring activity may include an information needs assessment; planning and scheduling; data collection, classification, mapping, data entry, storage and maintenance; product development; evaluation; and reporting phases (FSM 1940.5).

Implementation monitoring - This short-term monitoring answers the question, was the management implemented as designed.  Annually documents several items.  Examples include:  (a) were management actions implemented as designed; and (b) did the management actions achieve the annual effect expected?  Items which may be documented through implementation monitoring include, but are not limited to:  actual use (livestock numbers and days), condition of range improvements, utilization, wildlife observations.

Effectiveness monitoring - This long-term monitoring documents whether management actions are having the expected progress towards achieving resource management objectives.

(FSH 2209.13 Chapter 90, page 9 of 63)

National Forest System (NFS) –As defined in the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-378), the “National Forest System” includes all national forest lands reserved or withdrawn from the public domain of the United States, all national forest lands acquired through purchase, exchange, donation, or other means; the national grasslands and land use projects administered under Title III of the Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act (50 Stat. 525, 7 USC 1010-1012); and other lands, waters, or interests therein administered by the Forest Service or are designated for administration through the Forest Service as part of the system.

Range condition –The present state of vegetation of a range site in relation to the climax (potential natural) plant community for that site. It is an expression of the relative degree to which the kinds, proportions, and amounts of plants in a plant community resemble that of the climax plant community for the site (Forest Service 1999). Range condition as evaluated and ranked by the Forest Service, is an adjective expression of the status or health of the vegetation and soil relative to the combined potential to produce a sound and stable biotic community. Soundness and stability are evaluated relative to a standard that encompasses the composition, density, and vigor of the vegetation and physical characteristics of the soil. The adjectives that describe range condition are: excellent, good, fair, poor and very-poor (FSH 2209.21, Southwestern Region). According to Holechek et al. (1989), range condition is measured in degrees of departure from climax; excellent range condition would represent climax, and very-poor range condition would represent the greatest departure from climax.

Stray animal

  • " . . . livestock, bison or ratites whose owner is unknown or cannot be located, or any such animal whose owner is known but permits the animal to roam at large on the streets, alleys, roads, range or premises of another without permission." (Arizona Revised Statute: Title 3, Chapter 11, Article 7, 3-1401).
  • Stray horses and burros are animals that do not meet the definition of a wild free-roaming horse in accordance with 16 USC 1332(b), 36 CFR 222.60(b)(13), and 36 CFR 222.63.

Sustainability –Meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Sustainability is composed of desirable social, economic, and ecological conditions or trends interacting at varying spatial and temporal scales embodying the principles of multiple use and sustained yield (ASNFs LMP).

Territorial Plan - An operational plan for managing one or more herd units of wild free-roaming horses and burros.  The plan describes desired population level, detailed management practices, interagency coordination, scheduling, and monitoring requirements for managing each herd unit, within the direction established in the Forest plan (FSM 2260).

Unauthorized livestock –Any cattle, sheep, goat, hog, or equine not defined as a wild free-roaming horse or burro by 36 CFR § 222.20(b)(13), which is not authorized by permit (or Bill for Collection) to be upon the land on which the livestock is located and which is not related to use authorized by a grazing permit (livestock owned by other than a national forest grazing permit holder). Noncommercial pack and saddle stock used by recreationists, travelers, other forest visitors for occasional trips, as well as livestock to be trailed over an established driveway when there is no overnight stop on Forest Service administered land do not fall under this definition.

Wild free-roaming horses and burros –

  • " . . . all unbranded and unclaimed horses and burros on public lands of the United States." (16 USC 1332(b)).
  • "Wild free-roaming horses and burros mean all unbranded and unclaimed horses and burros and their progeny that have used lands of the National Forest System on or after December 15, 1971, or do hereafter use these lands as all or part of their habitat, but does not include any horse or burro introduced onto the National Forest System on or after December 15, 1971, by accident, negligence, or willful disregard of private ownership. Unbranded, claimed horses and burros for which the claim is found to be erroneous, are also considered as wild and free-roaming if they meet the criteria above." (36 CFR 222.60(b)(13)).
  • "Horses and burros not within the definition in § 222.20(b)(13) [recodified as 36 CFR § 222.60(b)(13)] which are introduced onto Wild Horse and Burro Territories or ranges after December 15, 1971, by accident, negligence, or willful disregard of private ownership, and which do not become intermingled with wild free-roaming horses or burros shall be considered as unauthorized livestock and treated in accordance with provisions in 36 CFR 261.7 and 262.10." (36 CFR 222.63).

Wild Horse and Burro Territory –" . . . lands of the National Forest System which are identified by the Chief, Forest Service, as lands which were territorial habitat of wild free-roaming horses and/or burros at the time of the passage of the Act." (36 CFR 222.60(b)(15)).

COMMONLY USED ACRONYMS

AML Appropriate Management Level

ASNFs Apache-Sitgreaves National Forests

AZGFD Arizona Game and Fish Department

BLM Bureau of Land Management

CFI Community-Forest Intermix

CFR Code of Federal Regulations

FSM Forest Service Manual

FSH Forest Service Handbook

HWHT Heber Wild Horse Territory

LMP Land Management Plan

NEPA National Environmental Policy Act

NF National Forest

USC United States Code

USDA United States Department of Agriculture

USFS United States Forest Service

 

 





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