Ticks and Lyme Disease
We don't have lions or tigers or bears on the Hoosier National Forest, but we do have ticks. Over the past 20-30 years the number of ticks on the Hoosier National Forest, especially in the area south of Interstate 64 has increased dramatically. Along with the increase in the numbers of ticks, is a growing problem with human diseases associated with ticks.
For many people, finding a tick latched onto their leg is enough to put a damper on a trip to the woods. It's like finding a mouse in the cupboard or a roach in your bed sheets, and leaves you feeling unaccountably paranoid. With recent publicity given to the threat of Lyme disease, people's fears have intensified and some are actually afraid to visit the forest.
Weather conditions seem to have the greatest effect on the density of ticks. After a mild winter tick populations are especially high. Ticks are worse in early spring when adults who have over-wintered start moving around looking for a host to feed on. Eggs from the previous year begin to hatch as well.
Ticks are not particularly choosy about their hosts. Any warm-blooded host will do. They climb up in brush and wait for a host to happen by. They attach themselves to the host and suck the host's blood, feeding only until they're full (6-13 days), then drop off and lay eggs. Incredibly, some ticks can survive up to two years between feedings. A female tick lays from 4,000-6,000 eggs. After the eggs hatch, the tiny larvae or seed ticks, find hosts and feed just as the adults do. The larvae of some types of ticks are almost invisible to the human eye but literally hundreds can feed on one person resulting in painful itching and in some people, an allergic reaction. In most species, the larvae feed only on small mammals and are not a problem for humans.
There are over 300 species of ticks. Different species carry different diseases. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and Lyme Disease are two of the better known diseases spread by ticks. Some diseases, such as Lyme Disease may effect pets and livestock as well as people.
Ticks are going to congregate where they have a high chance of finding a host or where they hatch out as larvae. Any high traffic area should be avoided, including cow paths in pastures and deer paths in the woods. Also avoid tall grass and thick brush. If your pets roam into areas where they are likely to pick up ticks, routinely check them for ticks and use baths, dips, and flea and tick collars to reduce the chances of your pets bringing ticks into your home and yard.
Several commercial insect repellents work quite well. Insure the repellant has the ingredient DEET or PERMETHRIN which is most effective on ticks. In areas of high tick infestation, you'll need to apply it every 2-3 hours. Another proven method of repelling ticks is to sprinkle sulfur on your socks, boots, and pant legs. Tying or taping your pant legs tight around your ankles so the ticks can't crawl up inside your pants and tucking in your shirt is also recommended. It won't cut down on the number of ticks you might get, but it will make them easier to spot and remove. Another suggestion is to wear light colored clothing which make the ticks easier to spot. Be sure and wash all clothing promptly to kill any ticks that might remain. Visitors to recreation areas are also encouraged to stay on mowed trails where the chance of picking up ticks is much less.
Diseases carried by Ticks
Once embedded, the recommended method of removing the tick is to pull it straight out with tweezers. Grasp the tick close to its head with tweezers and pull firmly. Apply antiseptic to the bite. Removing a tick within 36 hours of when it becomes embedded will lessen the chance of disease transmission.
You may wish to keep the tick for a few weeks in a vial labeled with the date and location of the bite. If medical attention is later sought, the type of tick has some bearing on the type of disease it might be carrying. For instance, it is the deer tick, much smaller than other common ticks, which is usually associated with Lyme disease. Deer ticks are mahogany brown, oval shaped, and appear to have two separate plates on their backs. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever is carried by the Lone Star tick which is a round dark brown tick with a distinctive white mark on its back.
According to some researchers, "Lyme hysteria is vastly a bigger problem than Lyme disease". This may be true, but we recommend people be aware of the disease's symptoms. Many cases have now been documented in southern Indiana. Two other diseases, ehrlichiosis and babesiosis have also been diagnosed which have symptoms similar to Lyme Disease and are easily treated. If the bite looks suspicious, you should see your local physician.
Symptoms of Lyme Disease include:
• a red or pink rash, or a bump near the area bitten which expands in size and may become as large as 10-15 inches in diameter.
• fever, chills, headache, and fatigue
• enlarged lymph nodes
• stiff joints - particularly the knees.
If these symptoms are present, a physician should be consulted immediately. Lyme disease can be confirmed by a blood test and progression of the disease can be prevented by proper treatment. For more information on Lyme Disease contact the American Lyme Disease Foundation, Inc., Mill Pond Offices, 293 Route 100, Somers, NY 10589; phone 914-277-6970 or email to firstname.lastname@example.org. The symptoms will likely occur 1 to 8 weeks after a person is bitten by a tick.