Articles Regarding the BWCAW

Selected articles regarding aspects of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness

Sustainable campsite management in protected areas: A study oflong-term ecological changes on campsites in the boundary waters canoe area wilderness, Minnesota

USA Holly Eaglestona,∗, Jeffrey L. Marionba Virginia Tech, 310 W. Campus Dr., Blacksburg, VA 24061, United States USDI


A Synthesis of the Economic Values of Wilderness

Thomas P. Holmes, J.M. Bowker, Jeffrey Englin, Evan Hjerpe, John B. Loomis, Spencer Phillips, and Robert Richardson

Early applications of wilderness economic research demonstrated that the values of natural amenities and commodities produced from natural areas could be measured in commensurate terms. To the surprise of many, the economic values of wilderness protection often exceeded the potential commercial values that might resultfrom resource extraction. Here, the concepts and tools used in the economic analysis of wilderness are described, and the wilderness economic literature is reviewed with a focus on understanding trends in use, value, and economic impacts. Although our review suggests that each of these factors is trending upward, variations in research methods plus large gaps in the literature limit understanding of long-run trends. However, as new data on wilderness use, visitor origins, and spatially referenced features of landscapes are becoming increasingly available, more robust economic analysis of both onsite and offsite wilderness economic values and impacts is now becoming possible.


Mapping Wilderness Character in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness

James Tricker, Ann Schwaller, Teresa Hanson, Elizabeth Mejicano, Peter Landres

A GIS-based approach was used to depict how threats to wilderness character vary in extent and magnitude across the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness.


Celebrating the 50th Anniversay of the Wilderness Act

The National Wilderness Conference Proceedings | Albuquerque, New Mexico | October 15-19, 2014


Naturalness” in Designated Wilderness: Long-Term Changes in Non-Native Plant Dynamics on Campsites, Boundary Waters, Minnesota

Holly A. Eagleston and Jeffrey L. Marion

Wilderness areas in the United States are preserved for their untrammeled naturalness and opportunities for unconfined recreation. The Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness has these qualities, but long-term recreation visitation pressures on campsites can cause significant ecological changes. This article explores changes on campsites, specifically examining non-native plant ecology over 3 decades. 


Structural Constraints to Wilderness Impacts on Visitation and Experience

Ingrid E. Schneider, Sierra l. Schroeder, and Ann Schwaller

A significant research body on recreation constraints exists, but wilderness constraints research is limited. Like other recreationists, wilderness visitors likely experience a number of constraints, factors that limit leisure preference formation or participation and enjoyment. This project explored how visitors’ experiences with and in wilderness are constrained, and examined responses to those constraints.  International Journal of Wilderness 


Visitor Attitudes Toward Fire and Wind  Disturbances in Wilderness

Robert G. Dvorak and Erin D. Small

Abstract: This study examines visitor attitudes across the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness regarding the effects of natural disturbances on visitor planning and wilderness conditions. Visitors were intercepted at entry points and permit distribution locations during 2007. Results suggest that respondents were aware of recent wind and fire disturbances. Few respondents reported that these events had affected trip plans. Evidence of natural  disturbances was evaluated as desirable or indifferent conditions in wilderness. Further investigation of these events related to travel patterns and perceptions may help understand their impacts on visitor use and behavior.