Inside Agroforestry: Summer 2004

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"If your only tool is a hammer, you tend to see every problem as a nail." - Abraham Maslow

Vegetated Stream Riparian Zones: Their Effects on Stream Nutrients, Sediments, and Toxic Substances

An Annotated and Indexed Bibliography of the world literature,
including buffer strips and interactions with hyporheic zones and floodplains

by Dave Correll

3970 N. Timucua Point
Crystal River, FL 34428 USA

Thirteenth Edition, April 2003

Introduction

The goal of this document is to comprehensively cite and subject index the World literature on vegetated stream riparian zone water quality effects. The scope of the bibliography has been expanded to include literature on hyporheic zone and floodplain/stream channel interactions. Buffer strip research is also included, since these studies seem easily transferable. Unless denoted by an asterisk, each citation has been obtained, studied for content, and cross-indexed for other relevant citations. Only publications which were readily obtained through a research library system were included. Publications on tidaly-influenced wetlands and exclusively lake riparian zones were excluded.

In order to make this goal tenable I have established somewhat arbitrary, but fairly rigid boundaries for relevant subject matter. Studies of all types of vegetation were included; forest, grass, herbaceous. Relevant studies include influences on water quality of inputs of surface and groundwater from the uplands and interactive effects among the water in the channel, the hyporheic zone, and the floodplain. Water quality includes concentrations of nutrients, suspended sediments, dissolved and particulate organic matter, pH, metals, and pesticides of all types. Studies of large woody debris are specifically excluded. Also excluded are studies of the application of municipal sewage and industrial/mining effluent to riparian zones. However, studies were included of effects on agricultural wastewater and a limited number of studies on urban or suburban drainage waters. I have excluded riparian vegetation habitat effects, both terrestrial and aquatic, and in-stream processes such as productivity, nutrient cycling/spiraling, water temperature, and channel morphology.

All citations except for those of student theses have brief annotations to help identify the aspects of these studies, which are particularly relevant. They are also coded for subject matter as listed below.

While these subject codes are not comprehensive, they cover many of the topics relevant to this bibliography. The materials in this bibliography will be maintained in an MS Word computer file, which can be searched for individual or combinations of factors for special interests of users. Obviously, it can also be updated periodically. I hope it will be a useful research and management tool for everyone interested in this topic. You should feel free to download this complete file onto your PC and proceed to conduct your own subject searches. If you are aware of relevant literature not included in this edition, please send a copy to me or E-mail the citation (dcorrell@tampabay.rr.com).

References

1. Addiscott, T.M. (1997) A critical review of the value of buffer zone environments as a pollution control tool. Pp. 236-243, In: Buffer Zones: Their Processes and Potential in Water Protection, N. Haycock, T. Burt, K. Goulding and G. Pinay (Eds). Harpenden, UK: Quest Environmental. A general review of riparian buffers and critique of the literature. R

2. Addy, K.L., A.J. Gold, P.M. Groffman and P.A. Jacinthe (1999) Ground water nitrate removal in subsoil of forested and mowed riparian buffer zones. J. Environ. Qual. 28:962-970. Used undisturbed horizontal soil cores to measure and compare nitrate removal rates in various riparian areas with differing vegetation. Rates were correlated with presence of patches of carbon-rich soil. D, F, G, GW, TS, NIT, POM, Denit-L, Mbal, DAM

3. Addy, K., D.Q. Kellogg, A.J. Gold, P.M. Groffman, G. Ferendo and C. Sawyer (2002) In Situ push-pull method to determine ground water denitrifcation in riparian zones. J. Environ.Qual. 31:1017-1024. Tested a method in which N-15 nitrate and two conservative tracers were injected through mini-piezometers, incubated, and then withdrawn. D, G, H, GW, 1st Order, NIT, Denit-F, TS

4. Alberts, E.E., W.H. Neibling and W.C. Moldenhauer (1981) Transport of sediment nitrogen and phosphorus in runoff through cornstalk residue strips. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 45:1177-1184. Used Rainfall Simulator to Meaure Removal of Total Nitrogen and Available Particulate Phosphate by Experimental Plots. Examined Particle Size Effects and Used a Flume to Measure Overland Flow Volumes. D; OF; TN; PPP

5. Altier, L.S., R.R. Lowrance, R.G. Williams, J.M. Sheridan, D.D. Bosch, W.C. Hubbard, W.C. Mills and D.L. Thomas (1994) An ecosystem model for the management of riparian areas. Pp.373-387, In: Riparian Ecosystems in the Humid U.S., Functions, Values and Management. Wash., D.C.: Natl. Assoc. Conserv. Districts. Description of a Model Under Development for a Riparian Vegetative Buffer System. Includes Hydrology, Nutrient Dynamics, Nutrient Storage in Woody Plant Biomass. Presents Results of Preliminary Hydrologic Calibrations in a Georgia Coastal Plain Site. OF; GW; ET; BioStor; Flux; NutCyc; CP

6. Altman, S.J. and R.R. Parizek (1994) Evaluation of nitrate removal from groundwater in the riparian zone. Pp.277-290, In: Riparian Ecosystems in the Humid U.S., Functions, Values and Management., (ed). Wash., D.C.: Natl. Assoc. Conserv. Districts. Measured 3- Dimensional Groundwater Flow Paths Based on Pressure Differentials of Flows From Cropland Through a Forested Area to a Stream and Attempted to Relate Nitrate Concentrations. D; F; MT; GW; NIT

7. Altman, S.J. and R.R. Parizek (1995) Dilution of nonpoint-source nitrate in groundwater. J. Environ. Qual. 24(4): 707-718. Movement of Groundwater was Measured in two Dimensions and Changes in Nitrate and other Nutrients was Related to Dilution from other Groundwater. D; F; GW; MT; NIT; DAM; DTKN; K; DTP; TS

8. Alvord, H.H. and R.H. Kadlec (1996) Atrazine fate and transport in the Des Plaines wetlands. Ecol. Model. 90(1): 97-107. Studied import and export of dissolved atrazine in three Des Plaines River floodplain constructed wetlands for one growing season. Calibrated simulation models for atrazine transport and degradation. D; H; HERB; MBal

9. Amador, J.A., A.M. Glucksman, J.B. Lyons and J.H. Gorres (1997) Spatial distribution of soil phosphatase activity within a riparian forest. Soil Sci. 162:808-825. Examined phosphatase activity along transects through riparian forest. Activity increased with organic content and moisture content of soils. D, F, Al, Fe, pH, PPP, PTP

10. Ambus, P. (1993) Control of denitrification enzyme activity in a streamside soil. FEMS Microbial Ecol. 102:225-234. Soil Concentrations of Denitrification Enzymes and Potential Denitrification Rates in Surface and Subsoils. D; H; NIT; Denit-L

11. Ambus, P. and S. Christensen (1993) Denitrification variability and control in a riparian fen irrigated with agricultural drainage water. Soil Biol. Biochem. 25:915-923. Measured Denitrification Potential and Nitrate Removal in a Fen Receiving Agricultural Drainage Waters. D; NIT; DOM; Denit-L; G

12. Ambus, P. and R. Lowrance (1991) Comparison of denitrification in two riparian soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55:994-997. Vertical Profiles of Potential Denitrification in Soils. D; F; 1st & 2nd Order; CP; NIT; Denit-L

13. Anbumozhi, V. and E. Yamaji (2002) Watershed level evaluation of water quality change in riparian forest areas. Pp. 304-310 In: R. Hatano, U. Mander, Y. Hayakawa, V. Kuusemets, Y. Watanabe and K. Kanazawa (eds.), Efficiency of Purification Processes in Riparian Buffer Zones, Their Design and Planning in Agricultural Watersheds, Natl. Agric. Res. Center Hokkaido Region, Kushiro, Japan. Water quality in various reaches of streams in Hokkaido, Japan; Indonesia; and India were correlated with physiographic features including the presence or absence of riparian forest. D, F, GW, NIT

14. Anderson, N.H. and J.R. Sedell (1979) Detritus processing by macroinvertebrates in stream ecosystems. Ann. Rev. Ent. 24:351-377. A Broad Review of Stream Detritus Dynamics, Including a Section on Inputs From Forest. R

15. Armour, C., D. Duff and W. Elmore (1994) The effects of livestock grazing on western riparian and stream ecosystem. Fisheries 19(9):9-12. A brief review and a position paper for the American Fisheries Society. R

16. Arora, K., S.K. Mickelson, J.L. Baker, D.P. Tierney and C.J. Peters (1996) Herbicide retention by vegetative buffer strips from runoff under natural rainfall. Trans. Am. Soc. Agr. Eng. 39:2155-2162. Measured volume of overland flows from cornfields and TSS and dissolved and particulate atrazine, metolachlor, and cyanazine concentrations in six summer storm events during two years. D, G, OF, HERB, TSS, Infil, Mbal, SedTrap

17. Asmussen, L.E., A.W. White, E.W. Hansen and J.M. Sheridan (1977) Reduction in 2,4-D load in surface runoff down a grassed waterway. J. Environ. Qual. 6:159-162. Measured Transport of 2,4-D from Cropland Through Grass Buffer. Used Rainfall Simulator. D; G; OF; HERB; CP

18. Aubertin, G.M. and J.H. Patric (1974) Water quality after clear cutting a small watershed in West Virginia. J. Environ. Qual. 3:243-249. Effects of Watershed Clearcutting, but Retaining a Forested Buffer. D; F; 2nd Order; MT; GW; NIT; DPP

19. Axt, J.R. and M.R. Walbridge (1999) Phosphate removal capacity of palustrine forested welands and adjacent uplands in Virginia. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 63:1019-1031. D, F, CP, PT, Al, DPP, Fe, POM

20. Baker, C.J. and E. Maltby (1995) Nitrate removal by river marginal wetlands: Factors affecting the provision of a suitable denitrification environment. Pp. 291-313, In: Hydrology and Hydrochemistry of British Wetlands, J.M.R. Hughes and A.L. Heathwaite (eds.). London: Wiley. A review of riparian zone nitrate removal and a case study in North Devon. Measured soil composition and redox potential along transects. Measured nitrate concentrations at various flumes before and after passing through meadow wetlands. D; R; G; NIT; OF; GW

21. Baker, J.L., S.K. Mickelson, J.L. Hatfield, R.S. Fawcett, D.W. Hoffman, T.G. Franti, C.J. Peter and D.P. Tierney (1995) Reducing herbicide runoff: role of best management practices. Brighton Crop Protection Conference � Weeds pp. 479-487. A brief review. R, HERB

22. Baker, L.A. (1992) Introduction to nonpoint source pollution in the United States and prospects for wetland use. Ecol. Engin. 1:1-26. Review of Status of Nonpoint Source Pollution Nationally. Use of Wetlands to Control Nonpoint Pollution. R; TSS; PTP; PTN; HERB; SedTrap

23. Baker, M.A., C.N. Dahm and H.M. Valett (1999) Acetate retention and metabolism in the hyporheic zone of a mountain stream. Limnol. Oceanogr. 44:1530-1539. Measured concentrations of acetate, nitrate, and sulfate in various groundwater wells after injecting acetate into one well. D, GW, HZ, TS, MT, NIT, DOM

24. Baker, M.A., C.N. Dahm, H.M. Valett, J.A. Morrice, K.S. Henry, M.E. Campana and G.J. Wroblicky (1994) Spatial and temporal variation in methane distribution at the gound water/surface water interface in headwater catchments. Pp. 29-37 in: Proc. Second Internatl. Conf. Ground Water Ecology. J.A. Stanford and H.M. Valett (Eds.), Amer. Water Resourc. Assoc., Herndon, VA. Measured methane concentrations dissolved in groundwater surfacing into three streams. D; 1st order; GW; HZ; MT

25. Baker, M.A., H.M. Valett and C.N. Dahm (2000) Organic carbon supply and metabolism in a shallow groundwater ecosystem. Ecology 81:3133-3148. Studied stream chemistry and incubated sediment cores from the flood plain with various additions of organic matter and mineral nutrients, then measured metabolic rate. D, F, 1st Order, MT, HZ,GW, DOM, POM, DAM, NIT, DPP

26. Ballweber, J.A., D. Parisi and J.R. Steil (2000) Riparian management�s role within a basin-scale management partnership. Pp. 463-468 in: Riparian Ecology and Management in Multi-Land Use Watersheds. P.J. Wigington Jr. and R.L. Beschta (Eds.), Amer. Water Resourc. Assoc., Middleburg, VA. Used GIS to create an integrated voluntary management system for the Pearl River watershed in MS. M

27. Barfield, B.J., E.W. Tollner and J.C. Hayes (1979) Filtration of sediment by simulated vegetation I. Steady-state flow with homogeneous sediment. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agric. Engin. 22(3):540-545, 548. Engineering Model Results for Sediment Trapping in Grassed Buffers. D; G; OF; TSS; SedTrap

28. Barfield, B.J., R.L. Blevins, A.W. Fogle, C.E. Madison, S. Inamdar, D.I. Carey and V.P. Evangelou (1998) Water quality impacts of natural filter strips in karst areas. Trans. Am. Soc. Agr. Eng. 41:371-381. Measured volumes of overland flows for two storms from croplands through grassed filter strips and concentrations of TSS, atrazine, total-P, nitrate and ammonium entering and leaving strips. D, G, OF, MT, HERB, NIT, PAM, PTP, TSS, Infil, SedTrap

29. Barker, J.C. and B.A. Young (1984) Evaluation of a Vegetative Filter for Dairy Wastewater in Southern Appalachia. Raleigh, NC: Water Resources Res. Inst. UNC, pp. 69 pp. A Grass Filter Strip was Treated with Effluent from a Milking Center Settling Pond. Discharge from the Filter Strip was Measured with a Flume and Automatic Sampler. D; G; OF; NIT; DAM; PTKN; DOM; PTP

30. Barling, R.D. and I.D. Moore (1994) Role of buffer strips in management of waterway pollution: A review. Environ. Management. 18(4):543-558. A broad review including grass buffer strips. R

31. Barrington, M., D. Wolf and K. Diebel (2001) Analyzing riparian site capability and management options. J. Am. Water Resourc. Assoc. 37(6):1665-1678. Details of a method for assessing riparian potentials using GIS data and field surveys. M

32. Basnyat, P., L.D. Teeter, K.M. Flynn and B.G. Lockaby (1996) Non-point source pollution and watershed land uses: A conceptual framework for modeling the management of non-point source pollution. Pp. 103-109, In: Proc. Southern Forested Wetlands Ecology and Management Conference, K.M. Flynn (ed.). Consort. Res. Southern Forested Wetlands, Clemson University, Clemson, SC. Used a ranking system to characterize subwatersheds based upon land use, forested buffers, and water quality. M; F; CP; NIT; DPP

33. Basnyat, P., L.D. Teeter, and K.M. Flynn (1999) Relationships between landscape characteristics and nonpoint source pollution inputs to coastal estuaries. Environ. Manage. 23:539-549. Used GIS-linked models to relate land cover in the basin, the contributing zone, and the riparian zone to water quality in streams of the Fish River. D, M, F, CP, NIT, TSS

34. Basnyat, P., L.D. Teeter, B.G. Lockaby and K.M. Flynn (2000) The use of remote sensing and GIS in watershed level analyses of non-point pollution problems. Forest Ecol. Manage. 128:65-73. Used GIS-linked models to relate land cover to nitrate in streams of the Fish River. D, M, F, CP, NIT

35. Batten, T.J. (1999) Hydrologic flow paths control dissolved organic carbon fluxes and metabolism in an alpine stream hyporheic zone. Water Resourc. Res. 36:3159-3169.

36. Beadle, L.C. (1932) Scientific results of the Cambridge expedition to east African lakes, 1930-1. IV. The waters of some east African lakes in relation to their fauna and flora. J. Linn. Soc. (Zool.) 38:157- 211. Measured Total Phosphorus Concentrations in the Chambura River Channel Above and Below an Extensive Papyrus Swamp, Which the River Flowed Through. D; H; TP

37. Beare, M.H., R.R. Lowrance and J.L. Meyer (1994) Biotic regulation of NO3 depletion in a Coastal Plain riparian forest: Experimental approach and preliminary results. Pp. 388-397, In: Riparian Ecosystems in the Humid U.S., Functions, Values and Management. Wash., D.C.: Natl. Assoc. Conserv. Districts. Riparian Soil Cores Were Studied for Microbial and Root Biomass, and Denitrification Potentials. D; F; G; CP; NIT; BioStor; Denit-L

38. Bechtold, S., R.T. Edwards and R.J. Naiman (2001) * Biotic versus hydrologic control over seasonal nitrate leaching in a flood-plain forest. Biogeochem.

39. Beeson, C.E. and P.F. Doyle (1995) Comparison of bank erosion at vegetated and non-vegetated channel bends. Water Resour. Bull. 31(6):983-990. Studied effects of a major flood on bank erosion in four stream reaches in British Columbia, with and without riparian forest. R; F

40. Belksy, A.J., A. Matzke and S. Uselman (1999) Survey of livestock influences on stream and riparian ecosystems in the western United States. J. Soil & Water Conserv. 54:419-431. An in depth review. R

41. Bencala, K.E. and R.A. Walters (1983) Simulation of solute transport in a mountain pool-and-riffle stream: A transient storage model. Water Resourc. Res. 19(3):718-724. Developed a new model for exchange with hyporheic zone. D; HZ; TS

42. Bencala, K.E., V.C. Kennedy, G.W. Zellweger, A.P. Jackman and R.J. Avanzino (1984) Interactions of solutes and streambed sediment 1. An experimental analysis of cation and anion transport in a mountain stream. Water Resourc. Res. 20(12): 1797-1803. Studied patterns of transport of a mixture of Li, K, Na, and Strontium chlorides which were injected continuously for a number of days. D; HZ; TS; K; Na

43. Bencala, K.E. (1984) Interactions of solutes and streambed sediments. 2. A dynamicanalysis of coupled hydrologic and chemical processes that determine solute transport. Water Resourc. Res. 20:1803-1814. Used inorganic tracer injections to examine downstream transport and hyporheic zone interactions in a small mountain stream and develop a hydrologic model. D; HZ; TS

44. Bencala, K.E. (1993) A perspective on stream-catchment connections. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 12(1):44-47. A review of stream channel- hyporheic zone hydrologic interactions. R; HZ

45. Bencala, K.E., J.H. Duff, J.W. Harvey, A.P. Jackman and F.J. Triska (1993) Modelling within the stream-catchment continuum. Pp. 163-187, In: Modelling Change in Environmental Systems. A.J. Jakeman, M.B. Beck, M.J. McAleer, and K.E. Bencala (Eds.). New York: Wiley. A review of stream channel-hyporheic zone-riparian zone interactions and a model of solute transport and transformation though this type system in Little Lost Man Creek. R; MT; DAM; NIT; DTKN

46. Bencala, K.E. (2000) Hyporheic zone hydrological processes. Hydrological Processes 14:2797-2798. A brief description of concepts and definitions. R

47. Benoit, P., E. Barriuso, Ph. Vidon and B. Real (1999) Isoproturon sorption and degradation in a soil from grassed buffer strip. J. Environ. Qual. 28:121-129. Soil samples from three depth zones in a grassed buffer in western France and from the plowed layer of upslope fields were used to measure herbicide binding and rates of degradation. D, G, HERB

48. Benson, L.J. and R.G. Pearson (1993) Litter inputs to a tropical Australian rainforest stream. Australian J. Ecol. 18(4):377-383. Measured Vertical and lateral Litter Inputs to Stream Channel. D; F; 1st order; POM; PTP; PTKN

49. Bernard, C., A. Fabre and P. Vervier (1994) DOC cycling in surface and ground waters interaction zone in a fluvial ecosystem. Verh. Int. Verein. Limnol. 25:1410-1413. Sampled DOC and bacterial numbers in interstitial waters of a gravel bar in the Garonne River, also C/N ratios of fine sediments. D; HZ; DOM; POM; PTKN; TS

50. Bhowmik, N.G. and M. Demissie (1989) Sedimentation in the Illinois River Valley and backwater lakes. J. Hydrology 105:187-195. Summarizes what is known about the sediment trapping in the floodplain over the last 60 years. R; SedTrap

51. Bilby, R.E. (1988) Interactions between aquatic and terrestrial systems. Pp. 13-29, In: Streamside Management: Riparian Wildlife and Forestry Interactions. Contribution # 59, Institute of Forest Resources, K. Raedeke (Ed.). Seattle: Univ. Washington. Overall Review of Forested Riparian Zone Interactions with Streams, Especially in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. R

52. Bilby, R.E. and P.A. Bisson (1992) Allochthonous versus autochthonous organic matter contributions to the trophic support of fish populations in clear-cut and old-growth forested streams. Canad. J. Fish. Aquatic Sci. 49:540-551. Compared Fish Production and Directly Measured Both Vertical and Horizontal Litter Inputs to the Channel in Two Stream Segments with and without Riparian Forest. D; F; POM

53. Bingham, S.C., P.W. Westerman and M.R. Overcash (1980) Effect of grass buffer zone length in reducing the pollution from land application areas. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agric. Engin. 23(2):330-335, 342. Measured Effectiveness of Grass Buffer to Remove Nutrients From a Site Used for Land Disposal of Poultry Manure. Did Not Examine Groundwater Discharges. D; G; OF; TN; TP; POM; DOM; NIT

54. Bird, G.A. and N.K. Kaushik (1981) Coarse particulate organic matter in streams. Pp. 41-68, In: Perspectives in Running Water Ecology, M.A. Lock and D.D. Williams (eds). New York: Plenum. Review Which Includes Studies of Litter Inputs from Forest to Stream Channels. R; F; POM

55. Blackburn, W.M. and T. Petr (1979) Forest litter decomposition and benthos in a mountain stream in Victoria, Australia. Arch. Hydrobiol. 86:453-498. Directly Measured Forest Litter Inputs to Stream Channel. D; F; MT; POM; TN

56. Blackwell, M.S.A., D.V. Hogan and E. Maltby (1999) The use of conventionally and alternatively located buffer zones for the removal of nitrate from diffuse agricultural run-off. Water Sci. Technol. 39:157-164. Studied two sites with upslope buffers, one on a seep area and one with small wetlands along a path of overland storm flows. Measured potential denitrification rates and soil water nitrate concentrations. D, H, G, GW, OF, NIT, Denit-L

57. Blicher-Mathiesen, G. and C.C. Hoffmann (1999) Groundwater dissolved N2 and N2 degassing measured in a riparian wet meadow: Initial observations. Grassland Science in Europe 5:490-492. Studied changes in concentrations of dinitrogen, nitrous oxide, and argon in groundwaters moving from croplands through a riparian wet meadow in Denmark. D, GW, TS, DAM, NIT, Denit-F

58. Blicher-Mathiesen, G. and C.C. Hoffmann (1999) Denitrification as a sink for dissolved nitrous oxide in a freshwater riparian fen. J. Environ. Qual. 28:257-262. Measured concentrations of nitrate, nitrous oxide and dissolved nitrogen in shallow groundwater along a transect from a hillslope into the fen. Also measured denitrification potentials in cores. D, H, GW, NIT, Denit-L

59. Blicher-Mathiesen, G., G.W. McCarty and L.P. Lielsen (1998) Denitrification and degassing in groundwater estimated from dissolved dinitrogen and argon. J. Hydrol. 208:16-24. Measured changes in concentration of dinitrogen and argon along a groundwater transect in a riparian wetland. Calculated rates of denitrification were close to simultaneously measured decreases in nitrate concentration. D, H, GW, TS, NIT, Denit-F

60. Blood, E.R. (1980) Surface Water Hydrology and Biogeochemistry of the Okefenokee Swamp Watershed. Ph. D. Thesis. Athens, GA: Univ. Georgia, pp. 194 pp.

61. Boar, R.R., R.D. DeLaune, C.W. Lindau and W.H. Patrick Jr. (1993) Denitrification in Bottomland Hardwood Soils of the Cache River, Arkansas. Technical Report WRP-CP-1. Washington, DC: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, pp. 35 pp. Measured Denitrification in Floodplain Forest Soils with N-15 Labeled Nitrate. D; F; DAM; NIT; POM; Denit-L; Nitrif

62. Boggs, K. and T. Weaver (1994) Changes in vegetation and nutrient pools during riparian succession. Wetlands 14(2):98-109. Measured changes in P, N, K, and biomass pools during forest succession. D; F; TP; TN; K; BioStor

63. Bohn, C.C. and J.C. Buckhouse (1985) Some responses of riparian soils to grazing management in northeastern Oregon. J. Range Manage. 38:378-381. Measured changes in riparian soils with various grazing management schemes. D, F, Infil

64. Bonetto, C., L. De Cabo, N. Gabellone, A. Vinocur, J. Donadelli and F. Unrein (1994) Nutrient dynamics in the deltaic floodplain of the lower Parana River. Arch. Hydrobiol. 131(3): 277-295. Studied relative concentrations of nutrients in upper and lower river channel and in a floodplain lake connected to the channel permanently. D; F; H; DPP; NIT; PTN; PTP; TSS

65. Bosch, D.D., R.K. Hubbard, L.T. West and R.R. Lowrance (1994) Subsurface flow patterns in a riparian buffer system. Trans. Am. Soc. Agric. Engin. 37:1783-1790. Measured hydraulic characteristics of soils throughout a riparian buffer. D; GW

66. Bosch, D.D., J.M. Sheridan and R.R. Lowrance (1996) Hydraulic gradients and flow rates of a shallow Coastal Plain aquifer in a forested riparian buffer. Trans. Am. Soc. Agr. Eng. 39:865-871. Measured water table slopes for three years from a cropland through riparian zones to a stream. Three riparian zones were undisturbed forest, thinned forest, and clear-cut. D, F, GW, CP, ET, Flux

67. Borg, H., A. Hordacre and F. Batini (1988) Effects of logging in stream and river buffers on watercourses and water quality in the southern forest of Western Australia. Australian Forestry 51(2):98- 105. Experimental logging in riparian forests was carried out. Some buffers were maintained at a width of 200 m as controls, some were narrowed to 100 m and some were completely logged to the stream bank. Only monitored suspended sediments in the streams. D; F; TSS

68. Bormann, F.H., G.E. Likens and J.S. Eaton (1969) Biotic regulation of particulate and solution losses from a forest ecosystem. Bioscience 19:600-610. Forested Watershed Completely Clear Cut and Herbicide Used to Prevent Regrowth. Most complete report on losses of cations, nutrients, sediments, aluminum, dissolved and particulate organic matter, silicate. D; F; 1st order; MT; GW; TSS; POM; NIT

69. Bormann, F.H., G.E. Likens, D.W. Fisher and R.S. Pierce (1968) Nutrient loss accelerated by clear-cutting of a forest ecosystem. Science 159:882-884. Forested Watershed was Completely Clear Cut and Herbicide was used to Prevent Regrowth. D; F; 1st order; MT; GW; NIT; Nitrif; MBAL

70. Bott, T.L., J.T. Brock, C.S. Dunn, R.J. Naiman, R.W. Ovink and R.C. Petersen (1985) Benthic community metabolism in four temperate stream systems: An inter-biome comparison and evaluation of the river continuum concept. Hydrobiol. 123:3-45. Compared net primary production and respiration of a series of 16 streams in four different geographic regions of the US. D; HZ

71. Bott, T.L., L.A. Kaplan and F.T. Kuserk (1984) Benthic bacterial biomass supported by streamwater dissolved organic matter. Microb. Ecol. 10:335-344. Measured bacterial concentrations at steady state in DOC from stream channel and from interstitial water. D; HZ; DOM; 1st order; F

72. Bott, T.L. and L.A. Kaplan (1985) Bacterial biomass, metabolic state, and activity in stream sediments: Relation to environmental variables and multiple assay comparisons. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50(2):508-522. Measured microbial communities in four field sites. D; HZ; DOM; NIT; POM

73. Boulton, A.J. (1993) Stream ecology and surface-hyporheic hydrologic exchange:implications, techniques and limitations. Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 44:553-564. A detailed review of the literature on stream channel water - hyporheic zone exchange. R; HZ

74. Boulton, J.A., S. Findlay, P. Marmonier, E.H. Stanley and H.M. Valett (1998) The functional significance of the hyporheic zone in streams and rivers. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 29: 59-81. A broad review. R; HZ

75. Bourg, A.C.M., D. Darmendrail and J. Ricour (1989) Geochemical filtration of riverbank and migration of heavy metals between the Deule River and the Ansereuilles Alluvion--chalk aquifer (Nord, France). Geoderma 44:229-244. Measured Changes in Concentration of Dissolved Constituents as Water Passed from the River Channel Through the Bank to Pumping Stations. D; GW; TrM; Mn; Fe

76. Bourg, A.C.M. and C. Bertin (1993) Biogeochemical processes during the infiltration of river water into an alluvial aquifer. Environ. Sci. Technol. 27:661-666. Measured changes in composition of river water as it infiltrated the bank and floodplain of the Lot River, a tributary of the Garrone in France. Used natural differences in chloride as a tracer. D, GW, DOM, K, Na, TS, NIT, Mn, Ca, Mg, TrM,

77. Bowden, W.B. (1987) The biogeochemistry of nitrogen in freshwater wetlands. Biogeochemistry 4(3):313-348. A General Review of all Types of Freshwater Wetlands. R; NutCyc

78. Bowden, W.B., W.H. McDowell and C.E. Asbury (1992) Riparian nitrogen dynamics in two geomorphologically distinct tropical rain forest watersheds:nitrous oxide fluxes. Biogeochemistry 18(2):77-99. Transects from Stream Bank to Uplands in two Puerto Rican Forested Watersheds. Measured Potential Nitrification and Potential Denitrification in Vertical Soil Profiles. D; F; GW; MT; NIT; DAM; Denit-L; Nitrif

79. Brandes, J.A., M.E. McClain and T.P. Pimentel (1996) 15N evidence for the origin and cycling of inorganic nitrogen in a small Amazonian catchment. Biogeochemistry 34(1):45-56. Measured patterns of N-15 content in stream channel water, riparian zone groundwater, and upland groundwater of a small forest watershed in Amazonas, Brazil. Also measured N-15 content of leaf nitrogen on watershed uplands and riparian zone. D; F; GW; DON; NIT; DAM

80. Braskerud, B.C. (2002) Factors affecting phosphorus retention in small constructed wetlands treating agricultural non-point source pollution. Ecol. Engin. 19:41-61. Studied sediment and phosphorus retention in four constructed wetlands on first order streams in Norway for a number of years. D, H, 1st order, PTP, TSS, Mbal, Sed Trap

81. Braskerud, B.C. (2002) Factors affecting nitrogen retention in small constructed wetlands treating agricultural non-point source pollution. Ecol. Engin. 18:351-370. Studied sediment and nitrogen retention in four small constructed wetlands on first order streams in Norway for a number of years. D, H, 1st order, TN, TSS, NIT, PON, TAM, Mbal, Sed Trap, BioStor, Denit-L

82. Bren, L.J. (1993) Riparian zone, stream, and floodplain issues: a review. J. Hydrol. 150:277-299. A Very Broad General Review. R

83. Bren, L.J. (1995) Aspects of the geometry of riparian buffers strips and its significance to forestry operations. Forest Ecol. Manage. 75(1-3):1-10. GIS and fractal analyses of a basin in SE Victoria, Australia. Examined effects of protecting forest buffers of various widths along the stream network. D; F; 4th order; MT

84. Bren, L.J. (1998) The geometry of a constant buffer-loading design method for humid watersheds. For. Ecol. Manage. 110(1-3):113-125. Used topography of a watershed to define variable buffer widths based upon equal loading (equal contibuting watershed area per buffer area). D; F; MT

85. Bretschko, G. and H. Moser (1993) Transport and retention of matter in riparian ecotones. Hydrobiologia 251:95-101. Measured vertical and lateral inputs to the channel from vegetation and overland flows in shaded and open reaches of a stream in the Alps. D; 2nd order; TP; TN; POM

86. Bridgham, S.D., C.A. Johnston, J.P. Schubauer-Berigan and P. Weishampel (2001) Phosphorus sorption dynamics in soils and coupling with surface and pore water in riverine wetlands. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 65:577-588. Analyzed 12 soil samples from MN and WI for phosphorus sorption isotherms and correlations between phosphorus concentrations and other soil composition factors. D, H, Al, DPP, Fe, pH

87. Briggs, S.V. and M.T. Maher (1983) Litter fall and leaf decomposition in a river red gum (Eucalyptus camaidulensis) swamp. Aust. J. Bot. 33:307-316. Directly Measured Vertical Litter Inputs to a Eucalyptus Swamp Forest. Also Measured Composition of the Litter. D; F; POM; Ca; PTKN; PPP; Mg; K

88. Brinson, M.M. (1993) Changes in the functioning of wetlands along environmental gradients. Wetlands 13(2):65-74. A Broad Review Comparing the Functions of Various Types of Wetlands. R

89. Brinson, M.M., H.D. Bradshaw and R.N. Holmes (1983) Significance of floodplain sediments in nutrient exchange between a stream and its floodplain. Pp. 223-245, In: Dynamics of Lotic Ecosystems, T.D. Fontaine and S.M. Bartell (Eds.). Ann Arbor, MI: Ann Arbor Science. Monitored Dissolved Nitrogen and Phosphorus in River Channel, Floodwaters over Floodplain, and in Floodplain Soil Pore Waters. Also Conducted Experimental Nutrient Enrichments of Floodwaters with Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen and Phosphorus and Used N-15 and P-32 Isotopic Tracers. Inferred Nutrient Fluxes and Cycling. D; F; CP; NIT; DAM; DPP; NutCyc

90. Brinson, M.M., H.D. Bradshaw and E.S. Kane (1984) Nutrient assimilative capacity of an alluvial floodplain swamp. J. Appl. Ecol. 21(3):1041-1057. Experimental Field Nitrogen and Phosphorus Enrichment. Overall Nutrient Dynamics Measured. D; F; CP; DAM; NIT; DPP; BioStor; NutCyc

91. Brown, G.W., A.R. Gahler and R.B. Marston (1973) Nutrient losses after clearcut logging and slash burning in the Oregon Coast Range. Water Resources Res. 9:1450-1453. Measured Nutrients and Sediments Released From 3 Forested Watersheds for 2 Years Prior and 2 Years After Clear Cutting One, Partially Cutting One, and Leaving One as a Control. D; F; MT; NIT; TSS; K; DTP

92. Brueske, C.C. and G.W. Barrett (1994) Effects of vegetation and hydrologic load on sedimentation patterns in experimental wetland ecosystems. Ecol. Eng. 3:429-447. Used sediment traps to measure gross sedimentation rates in artificial riparian wetlands with high and low hydraulic loading rates. D; H; OF; TSS; TS; SedTrap

93. Brugger, A., B. Wett, I. Kolar, B. Reitner and G.J. Herndl (2001) Immobilization and bacterial utilization of dissolved organic carbon entering the riparian zone of the alpine Enns River, Austria. Aquatic Microbial Ecol. 24:129-142. Sampled DOC, bacterial populations and growth rates in bank sediments for a one year period at four sites. D, HZ, MT, DOM, POM

94. Brunet, R.C. and F. Gazelle (1995) Alternance des phenomenes d'erosion et de retention de la matiere dans la zone inondable de l'Adour au cours d'une saison hydrologique. Acta Ecologica 16(3):331-349. A one-year study of a 25 km reach of the Adour River in southern France. D; F; TSS; SedTrap

95. Brunet, R.C., G. Pinay, F. Gazelle and L. Roques (1994) Role of the floodplain and riparian zone in suspended matter and nitrogen retention in the Adour River, south-west France. Regulated Rivers; Research & Management. 9:55-63. Studied Changes in Particulate Concentrations as Floodwaters Moved into Floodplain. Also Used Sediment Traps. D; F; 7th order; TSS; PTN; NIT; DAM; Flux

96. Brunke, M. and T. Gonser (1997) The ecological significance of exchange processes between rivers and groundwater. Freshwater Biol. 37:1-33. A wide-ranging review. R; HZ, GW

97. Brusch, W. and B. Nilsson (1993) Nitrate transformation and water movement in a wetland area. Hydrobiologia 251:103-111. Measured mass balances of water, nitrate, phosphate, and iron along a transect through an herbaceous riparian zone for two years in Denmark. D; OF; GW; NIT; DPP; Fe; H; MBal; ET; TS; Denit-L

98. Buchanan, D.B. (1982) Transport and Deposition of Sediment in Old Woman Creek, Erie County, Ohio. M.Sc. Thesis. Comumbus, OH: Ohio State Univ., pp. 198 pp.

99. Budd, W.W., P.L. Cohen, P.R. Saunders and F.R. Steiner (1987) Stream corrider management in the Pacific Northwest: I. Determination of stream-corridor widths. Environ. Manage. 11(5):587-597. A very general review of the environmental benefits of riparian corridors along streams and a case study of the determination of desired riparian buffer widths in the Bear-Evans Creek watershed. R; F

100. Buffington, D.E. (1994) Nitrous Oxide Dynamics and Denitrification in Four North Carolina Riparian Systems. M.S. Thesis. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University. Denit D; G; F; GW; NIT; -L

101. Bunn, S.E. (1986) Origin and fate of organic matter in Australian upland streams. Pp. 277-291, In: Limnology of Australia, P. Dedekker and W.D. Williams (Eds.). A Review of Sources, Processing, and Fates of Organic Matter in Streams, Especially Australian Streams. R

102. Burke, M.K., G. Lockaby and W.H. Conner (1999) Aboveground production and nutrient circulation along a flooding gradient in a South Carolina Coastal Plain forest. Can. J. For. Res. 29(9):1402-1418. Studied effects of flood frequency on soil nutrient dynamics and forest productivity on the Chehaw River. D, F, GW, CP, PAM, NIT, Ca, Mg, PPP, POM, K, Mn, pH, BioStor

103. Burns, D.A. and M.L. Nguyen (2002) * Nitrate movement and removal along a shallow groundwater flow path in a riparian wetland within a sheep-grazed pastoral catchment: results of a tracer study. N.Z.J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 36:371-385. D, GW, TS, NIT

104. Burt, T.P. (1997) The hydrological role of floodplains within the drainage basin system. Pp. 21-32, In: Buffer Zones: Their Processes and Potential in Water Protection, N. Haycock, T. Burt, K. Goulding and G. Pinay (Eds.). Harpenden, U.K.: Quest Environmental. A broad review of the hydrological interactions among the stream channel, flood plain, riparian zone, and adjacent uplands. R; GW; OF

105. Burt, T.P. (2002) Hydrological processes in riparian buffer zones. Pp. 1-11 In: R. Hatano, U. Mander, Y. Hayakawa, V. Kuusemets, Y. Watanabe and K. Kanazawa (eds.), Efficiency of Purification Processes in Riparian Buffer Zones, Their Design and Planning in Agricultural Watersheds, Natl. Agric. Res. Center Hokkaido Region, Kushiro, Japan. A broad review with examples from field studies in Europe. R

106. Burt, T.P., L.S. Matchett, K.W. Goulding, C.P. Webster and N.E. Haycock (1999) Denitrification in riparian buffer zones: the role of floodplain hydrology. Hydrol. Proc. 13:1451-1463. Studied the concentration of nitrate in groundwater as it moved from uplands across a floodplain to a river channel in England. Studied the flow paths of the groundwater. D, G, GW, NIT, Denit-L

107. Butturini, A. and F. Sabater (1999) * Importance of tranient storage zones for ammonium and phosphate retention in a sandy-bottom Mediterranean stream. Freshwater Biol. 41:593-603. D, HZ, DAM, DPP

108. Cambell, I.C. and T.J. Doeg (1989) Impact of timber harvesting and production on streams: a review. Australian J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 40:519-539. A review of the effects of forest harvesting on stream water quality. Not specific for riparian forest harvesting. R; F

109. Cambell, I.C. and L. Fuchshuber (1994) Amount, composition and seasonality of terrestrial litter accession to an Australian cool temperate rainforest stream. Arch. Hydrobiol. 130(4):499-512. Directly Measured Vertical Litter Inputs to a Stream Channel from a Forested Watershed. D; F; POM; 2nd Order

110. Cambell, I.C., K.R. James, B.T. Hart and A. Devereaux (1992) Allochthonous coarse particulate organic material in forest and pasture reaches of two south-eastern Australian streams. I. Litter accession. Freshwater Biology 27:341-352. Measured Vertical and Lateral Litter Inputs to Stream Channels. D; F; G; POM; 3rd Order; 4th Order

111. Carbiener, R. and M. Tremolieres (1990) The Rhine rift valley groundwater-river interactions: Evolution of their susceptibility to pollution. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management. 5:375-389. A Review of 20 Years of Research on Interactions Between the Rhine River Channel and its FloodPlain and Shallow Groundwaters. Includes Data on Nutrients, Toxic Metals, and Chlorinated Hydrocarbons. R; TrM; INS

112. Carignan, R. and J.J. Neiff (1992) Nutrient dynamics in the floodplain ponds of the Parana River (Argentina) dominated by the water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes. Biogeochem. 17:85-121. Measured DIN and SRP dynamics and nitrogen fixation on floodplain. D; DAM; NIT; DPP; BioStor; NutCyc

113. Carlyle, G.C. and A.R. Hill (2001) Groundwater phosphate dynamics in a river riparian zone: effects of hydrologic flowpaths, lithology and redox chemistry. J. Hydrol. 247:151-168. Measured concentrations of dissolved phosphate, iron, and oxygen in groundwaters traversing a floodplain to a river in Ontario. Found phosphate concentrations were negatively correlated with DO and positively with Fe. D, F, GW, DPP, Fe

114. Casey, R.E. and S.J. Klaine (2001) Nutrient attenuation by a riparian wetland during natural and artificial runoff events. J. Environ. Qual. 30:1720-1731. Studied storm and simulated storm discharges from a golf course in South Carolina through a forested sandy wetland. Measured fluxes into and out of the wetland, also groundwater chemistry along a transect through the wetland. All storm waters became groundwater within the wetland. D, F, GW, TS, CP, NIT, DPP, Flux

115. Casey, R.E., M.D. Taylor and S.J. Klaine (2001) Mechanisms of nutrient attenuation in a subsurface flow riparian wetland. J. Environ. Qual. 30:1732-1737. Measured denitrification potentials and phosphate binding isotherms in a wetland that received storm discharges from a golf course in South Carolina. D, F, GW, CP, DPP, NIT, Denit-L

116. Castelle, A.J., A.W. Johnson and C. Conolly (1994) Wetland and stream buffer size requirements - A review. J. Environ. Qual. 23:878-882. A General Review of the width of Buffer Required for Various Functions. R

117. Castro, N.M. and G.M. Hornberger (1991) Surface-subsurface water interactions in an alluviated mountain stream channel. Water Resourc. Res. 27(7):1613-1621. A hydrological study of the interactions between the channel water and hyporheic waters. D; HZ; MT; TS

118. Cey, E.E., D.L. Rudolph, R. Aravena and G. Parkin (1999) Role of the riparian zone in controlling the distribution and fate of agricultural nitrogen near a small stream in southern Ontario. J. Contam. Hydrol. 37:45-67. Measured composition of groundwater as it moved from a cropland through a grassed riparian zone to a stream. Used N-15 and O-18 measurements of nitrate to infer denitrification and changes in chloride to measure dilution of shallow groundwater with deeper groundwater within the riparian zone. D, G, GW, TS, NIT

119. Chafiq, M., J. Gibert and C. Claret (1999) Interactions among sediments, organic matter, and microbial activity in the hyporheic zone of an intermittent spring-fed stream on the floodplain of the Garrone River in France. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 56:487-495. Examined bottom sediment composition and microbial activity in an intermittent, first-order stream at five points along the stream. D, F, HZ, DOM, POM

120. Chapra, S.C. and R.L. Runkel (1999) Modeling impact of storage zones on stream dissolved oxygen. J. Environ. Engin. (May), 415-419. Modified an existing model to account for hyporheic zone interactions. D, HZ

121. Chaubey, I., D.R. Edwards, T.C. Daniel, P.A. Moore Jr. and D.J. Nichols (1994) Effectiveness of vegetative filter strips in retaining surface-applied swine manure constituents. Trans. Am. Soc. Agric. Engin. 37:845-850. Used a rainfall simulator to study transport of nutrients and fecal coliforms through filter strips of various widths. D; G; OF; DAM; PAM; DPP; POM; PTKN; TP; TN; TSS; SedTrap

122. Chaubey, I, D.R. Edwards, T.C. Daniel, P.A. Moore Jr. and D.J. Nichols (1995) Effectiveness of vegetative filter strips in controlling losses of surface-applied poultry litter constituents. Trans. Am. Soc. Agric. Engin. 38(6):1687-1692. Used a rainfall simulator to study effectiveness of various widths of grass filter strips. D; HZ; G; OF; TSS; NIT; POM; DOM; TKN; TP; DPP; DAM

123. Chauvet, E. and H. Decamps (1989) Lateral interactions in a fluvial landscape: the river Garonne, France. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 8(1):9-17. Review of the Geomorphology of the Garrone River in France and the Role of the Riparian Forests in Buffering Nitrate in Groundwater and Providing Particulate Organic Matter to the River. R; F; POM; NIT

124. Chauvet, E. and A.M. Jean-Louis (1988) Production de litiere de la ripisylve de la Garonne et apport au fleuve. Acta Oecologia, Oecologia Generalis 9:265-279. Specifically Measured Timing and Flux of Leaf Litter Inputs From Riparian Forests into Stream Channel. D; F; POM; Flux

125. Chescheir, G.M., J.W. Gilliam, R.W. Skaggs and R.G. Broadhead (1991) Nutrient and sediment removal in forested wetlands receiving pumped agricultural drainage water. Wetlands 11:87-103. Study of Natural Forested Buffers Receiving Agricultural Wastewater. D; F; CP; TSS; TN; TP; NIT

126. Chescheir, G.M., J.W. Gilliam, R.W. Skaggs, R.G. Broadhead and R. Lea (1987) The Hydrology and Pollution Removal Effectiveness of Wetland Buffer Areas Receiving Pumped Agricultural Drainage Water. Water Resources Res. Inst. Report Num. 231. Raleigh, NC: Univ. North Carolina, 170 pp. Measured and Modeled Effectiveness of Riparian Forests for Removal of Suspended Sediments and Nutrients from Pumped Agricultural Drainage Waters. D; F; CP; OF; TN; TP; TSS; MBal

127. Chescheir, G.M., R.W. Skaggs, J.W. Gilliam and R.G. Broadhead (1988) Hydrology of wetland buffer areas for pumped agricultural drainage water. Pp. 260-274, In: The Ecology and Management of Wetlands, D.D. Hook (Ed.), Portland, OR: Timber Press. Field Data and Hydrologic Model Development for Pumped Agricultural Drainage Flow Through a Forested Riparian Zone. D; F; CP; OF; GW; Tr

128. Chescheir, G.M., R.W. Skaggs, J.W. Gilliam and R.G. Broadhead (1991) Hydrology of two forested wetlands that receive pumped agricultural drainage water in eastern North Carolina. Wetlands 11(1):29-53. An Engineering and Hydrologic Study of Two Forested Buffers Receiving High Volumes of Pumped Agricultural Drainage Waters. The Same Sites Were Also the Focus of Nutrient and Sediment Dynamic Studies. D; F; TSS

129. Chestnut, T.J. and W.D. McDowell (2000) C and N dynamics in the riparian and hyporheic zones of a tropical stream, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 19:199-214. Measured mass balances by bromide dilution for dissolved fractions of nitrogen and organic carbon in a 100 m reach of a small stream on a forested watershed. Used shallow wells to examine concentrations in riparian and hyporheic zones. D, F, GW, HZ, TS, MT, DAM, DOM, NIT, MBal

130. Cirmo, C.P. and J.J. McDonnell (1997) Linking the hydrologic and biogeochemical controls of nitrogen transport in near-stream zones of temperate-forested catchments: a review. J. Hydrol. 199:88-120. A broad review of nitrogen dynamics in the near-stream saturated zone. R; F; HZ; GW

131. Clairain Jr., F.J. and B.A. Kleiss (1989) Functions and values of bottomland hardwood forests along the Cache River, Arkansas: Implications for management. Pp. 27-33, In: Forested Wetlands of the Southern United States, D. Hook and R. Lea (Eds.). Orlando, FL: USDA Forest Service, SE Exp. Sta. Outline of Plans for Input/Output Study of a River Segment with Extensive Floodplain Forest. D; F; TSS

132. Claret, C. and D. Fontvieille (1997) Characteristics of biofilm assemblages in two contrasted hydrodynamic and trophic contexts. Microb. Ecol. 34:49-57. Studied biofilms on the bottom of the channel and in interstitial water of gravel bars at two locations on the Rhone River. Measured biomass and activity, protein content of biofilms. D; HZ; DOM; POM; TSS; NIT

133. Claret, C., P. Marmonier, J.-M. Boissier, D. Fontvieille and P. Blanc (1997) Nutrient transfer between parafluvial interstitial water and river water:influence of gravel bar heterogeneity. Freshwater Biol. 37:657-670. Studied emerging interstitial waters at downstream ends of two gravel bars in the Rhone River. D; HZ; NIT; DOM

134. Claret, C., P. Marmonier and J.-P. Bravard (1998) Seasonal dynamics of nutrient and biofilm in interstitial habitats of two contrasting riffles in a regulated large river. Aquat. Sci. 60:33-55. Studied intersititial water as it moved through gravel bars in the Rhone River. Related dissolved oxygen changes to water quality changes. D; 7th order; HZ; DOM; NIT; Nitrif; Denit-F

135. Clary, W.P. (1995) Vegetation and soil responses to grazing simulation on riparian meadows. J. Range Manage. 48:18-25. Measured effects on species composition and primary production of various intensities of seasonal grazing. D, H

136. Clausen, J.C., K. Guillard, C.M. Sigmund and K. Martin Dors (2000) Water quality changes from riparian buffer restoration in Connecticut. J. Environ. Qual. 29:1751-1761. Compared two adjacent fields before and after a grassed riparian buffer was established on the lower area of one field. Used piezometers to estimate groundwater flows and sample nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Also sampled overland storm flows and measured potential denitrification in soil samples. Measured plant uptake. D, G, 1st order, GW, OF, DAM, DTKN, DTP, NIT, TSS, TKN, TP, TS, Denit-L, SedTrap, MBal

137. Clausen, J.C., K.G. Wayland, K.A. Saldi and K. Guillard (1993) Movement of nitrogen through an agricultural riparian zone: 1. Field studieds. Water Sci. Tech. 28(3-5):605-612. Studied a riparian site in NE Connecticut that is currently double cropped in corn and winter rye in preparation for a comparison study when part of the site is reforested for 35 m from the stream channel. Sampled overland flows, groundwater along two transects in each of two fields, soil water, precipitation chem. and stream flow and chemistry. Analyzed for hydrol. cond. of soils, dissolved nitrogen species, and chloride. D; G; GW; OF; DAM; DTKN; NIT; MBal

138. Clawson, R.G., B.G. Lockaby and B. Rummer (2001) Changes in production and nutrient cycling across a wetness gradient within a floodplain forest. Ecosystems 4:126-138. Compared three communities in GA which differed in frequency of innundation. D, F, OF, POM, PTN, PPP, K, Mg, Ca, BioStor, NutCyc

139. Clinnick, P.F. (1985) Buffer strip management in forest operations: a review. Australian Forestry 48:34-45. A Review of the Use of Riparian Buffers to Control Suspended Sediments. R

140. Clinton, S.M. and R.T. Edwards (2000) Hyporheic flows in a riparian terrace of a coastal temperate rainforest river. Pp. 173-178 in: Riparian Ecology and Management in Multi-Land Use Watersheds. P.J. Wigington Jr. and R.L. Beschta (Eds.), Amer. Water Resourc. Assoc., Middleburg, VA. Studied flowpaths in hyporheic zone of the Queets River in the Olympic rainforest. D, F, HZ, MT

141. Clinton, S.M., R.T. Edwards and R.J. Naiman (2002) Forest-river interactions: Influence on hyporheic dissolved organic carbon concentrations in a floodplain terrace. J. Amer. Water Resources Assoc. 38:619-631. Measured patterns of dissolved organic carbon concentration, hydrologic flow paths at low and high flow for a river in Washington. D, F, GW, HZ, DOM

142. Congdon, R.A. (1979) Litter fall of the paperbark tree (Melaleuca cuticularis) in the marshes of the Blackwood River Estuary, Western Australia. Aust. J. Ecol. 4:411-417. Directly Measured Vertical Litter Inputs and Analyzed Litter for Total N and P. D; F; POM; PTKN; PTP

143. Conner, W.H. and J.W. Day (1976) Productivity and composition of a baldcypress-water tupelo site and a bottomland hardwood site in a Louisiana swamp. Am. J. Bot. 63:1354-1364. Directly Measured Vertical Litter Inputs from a Swamp Forest. D; CP; POM

144. Conners, M.E. and R.J. Naiman (1984) Particulate allochthonous inputs: relationships with stream size in an undisturbed watershed. Canad. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 41:1473-1488. Unusually Complete Study of Forest Inputs of Both Lateral and Vertical Particulate Organic Matter to a Series of 4 Streams Ranging in Order from 1st to 6th. D; F; POM

145. Constantz, J. (1998) Interactions between stream temperature, stream flow, and groundwater exchanges in alpine streams. Water Resourc. Res. 34:1609-1615.

146. Cooke, J.G. and A.B. Cooper (1988) Sources and sinks of nutrients in a New Zealand catchment. III. Nitrogen. Hydrol. Proc. 2:135-149. Movement of Nitrogen Fractions from a Completely Pastured Watershed into Stream Channel. D; G; 1st order; OF; GW; NIT; Denit-L; Nitrif

147. Cooper, A.B. (1990) Nitrate depletion in the riparian zone and stream channel of a small headwater catchment. Hydrobiologia 202(1-2):13-26. Nitrate Removal from Shallow Groundwater in a Grassed Riparian Zone and Potential Denitrification Rates in the Soils. D; G; 1st order; GW; NIT; Denit-L; MBal

148. Cooper, A.B., J.E. Hewitt and J.G. Cooke (1987) Land use impacts on stream water nitrogen and phosphorus. N. Z. J. Forest Sci. 17:179- 192. Discharges were Measured from Three Adjacent Watersheds for 14 Years. One was Pasture the Whole Time, One was Native Podocarp/Mixed Hardwood Forest the Whole Time, and One was Pasture Initially, then Planted in Pine. D; F; G; TP; DPP; NIT; DAM; Flux

149. Cooper, A.B., C.M. Smith and M.J. Smith (1995) Effects of riparian set- aside on soil characteristics in an agricultural landscape: Implications for nutrient transport and retention. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 55(1):61-67. Three riparian zones on a stream in the Lake Taupo Basin, New Zealand, were compared for their soil physical/chemical/microbial properties after 12 years of the same vegetation. These were native scrub, grazed pasture (fertilized with 40 kg P/ha yr), and ungrazed set-aside pasture. D; Infil; Denit-L; NIT; PAM; PPP; 3rd order

150. Cooper, A.B. and C.E. Thomsen (1988) Nitrogen and phosphorus in streamwaters from adjacent pasture, pine and native forest catchments. New Zealand J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 22:279-291. Comparison of Nutrient Area Yields from Three Nested Watersheds in Three Different Land Uses. D; F; G; TN; TP; NIT; DAM; DPP

151. Cooper, J.R. (1985) Phosphorus and Sediment Redistribution from Cultivated Fields in Riparian Areas. Ph.D. Thesis. Raleigh, NC. North Carolina State Univ.

152. Cooper, J.R. and J.W. Gilliam (1987) Phosphorus redistribution from cultivated fields into riparian areas. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 51:1600- 1604. Long-term Evaluation of Phosphorus Trapping in Riparian Forests by Means of Sediment Trapping. Used Cs-137 for Horizons. D; F; CP; OF; PTP; PPP; SedTrap

153. Cooper, J.R., J.W. Gilliam, R.B. Daniels and W.P. Robarge (1987) Riparian areas as filters for agricultural sediment. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 51(2):416-420. Long-term Evaluation of Total Sediment Trapping by Riparian Forest. Used Cs-137 Horizons. D; F; CP; OF; SedTrap

154. Cooper, J.R., J.W. Gilliam and T.C. Jacobs (1986) Riparian areas as a control of nonpoint pollutants. Pp. 166-192, In: Watershed Research Perspectives, D.L. Correll (Ed.). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Press. Overview of Four Coastal Plain Watersheds and their Riparian Forest Buffer Effects on Sediment, Phosphorus, and Nitrate Transport from Agricultural Uplands. D; F; CP; OF; GW; NIT; SedTrap; PTP

155. Corbett, E.S., J.A. Lynch and W.E. Sopper (1978) Timber harvesting practices and water quality in the eastern United States. J. For. 76(8):484-488. Management Oriented Review of Effects of Clear Cutting Forested Watersheds and Effectiveness of Leaving a Buffer Strip of Forest. M; R; F; TSS; NIT

156. Corley, C.J., G.W. Frasier, M.J. Trlica, F.M. Smith and E.M. Taylor, Jr. (1999) Nitrogen and phosphorus in runoff from 2 montane riparian communities. J. Range Manage. 52:600-605. Measured volumes and composition of overland flows generated with a rainfall simulator as they entered and left grassed and herbaceous riparian zones maintained at three different heights. D, G, H, OF, MT, NIT, PAM, PPP

157. Correll, D.L. (1983) N and P in soils and runoff of three coastal plain land uses. Pp. 207-224, In: Nutrient Cycling in Agricultural Ecosystems, R. Lowrance, R. Todd, L. Assumssen and R. Leonard (Eds.). Athens, GA: Univ. Georgia Press. Comparison of Nutrient Area Yields of Three Adjacent Watersheds in Three Contrasting Land Uses. D; F; G; CP; TN; TP; Flux; NIT

158. Correll, D.L. (1991) Human impact on the functioning of landscape boundaries. Pp. 90-109, In: The Role of Landscape Boundaries in the Management and Restoration of Changing Environments, M.M. Holland, P.G. Risser and R.J. Naiman (Eds.). New York: Chapman and Hall. Field Chamber Measurements of Nitrous Oxide Emissions and Overview of Long- Term Study of One Riparian Forest. D; F; 1st order; CP; GW; NIT; Denit-F

159. Correll, D.L. (1997) Buffer zones and water quality protection: General principles. Pp. 7-20, In: Buffer Zones: Their Processes and Potential in Water Protection, N.E. Naycock, T.P. Burt, K.W.T. Goulding and G. Pinay (Eds.). Hertfordshire, UK: Quest Environment. A broad review of water quality affects of vegetated riparian buffers. R

160. Correll, D.L. (2000) The current status of our knowledge of riparian buffer water quality functions. Pp. 5-10, in: Riparian Ecology and Management in Multi-Land Use Watersheds. P.J. Wigington Jr. and R.L. Beschta (Eds.), Amer. Water Resourc. Assoc., Middleburg, VA. A review emphasizing the need for better definitions, better site descriptions, and a riparian zone classification system. R

161. Correll, D.L. (2002) Principles of planning and establishment of buffer zones. Pp. 274-284, In: R. Hatano, U. Mander, Y. Hayakawa, V. Kuusemets, Y. Watanabe and K. Kanazawa (eds.), Efficiency of Purification Processes in Riparian Buffer Zones, Their Design and Planning in Agricultural Watersheds, Natl. Agric. Res. Center Hokkaido Region, Kushiro, Japan. A review of what is known about re-establishing buffers and the most effective placement of buffers at the watershed level. R, M, F, G

162. Correll, D.L., N.M. Goff and W.T. Peterjohn (1984) Ion balances between precipitation inputs and Rhode River watershed discharges. Pp. 77-111, In: Geological Aspects of Acid Depositon., O. Bricker (Ed.). Ann Arbor: Ann Arbor Science. A Comparison of Three Small Adjacent Watersheds with Uplands in Corn Production, Pasture, and Mature Forest. All had Riparian Forests. All Major Ions and Dissolved Nutrients Measured. D; F; 1st order; CP; OF; GW; NIT; Flux

163. Correll, D.L., T.E. Jordan and D.E. Weller (1992) Nutrient flux in a landscape: Effects of coastal land use and terrestrial community mosaic on nutrient transport to coastal waters. Estuaries. 15:431- 442. A Synthesis of Many Aspects of a Complex Landscape with a Focus on the Role of Riparian Forests in Nutrient Dynamics. R; F; CP; OF; GW; NutCyc

164. Correll, D.L., T.E. Jordan and D.E. Weller (1992) Cross-media inputs to eastern US watersheds and their significance to estuarine water quality. Water Science and Technol. 26(12):2675-2683. A Synthesis of Many Studies of Landscape Level Effects on Receiving Water Quality, Including the Role of Riparian Forests. R; F; CP; OF; GW; HERB; NutCyc

165. Correll, D.L., T.E. Jordan and D.E. Weller (1994) Coastal riparian forests: Their role in filtering agricultural drainage. Pp. 67-72, In: Altered, Artificial, and Managed Wetlands. Focus: Agriculture and Forestry., J.A. Kusler and C. Lassonde (Eds.). Assoc. State Wetland Mngrs. A Review of the Buffering Effects of Riparian Forests in the Coastal Plain. R; F; CP; OF; GW; NIT; MBal; NutCyc

166. Correll, D.L., T.E. Jordan and D.E. Weller (1997) Failure of agricultural riparian buffers to protect surface waters from groundwater nitrate contamination. Pp. 162-165, In: Groundwater/Surface Water Ecotones: Biological and Hydrological Interactions and Management Options., J. Gibert, J. Mathieu and F. Fournier (Eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. Measured Changes in Groundwaters as They Moved Through Grassed and Forested Riparian Zones from Agricultural Fields to a Stream Channel. Measured Eh and Water Table Slopes. D; F; CP; GW; NIT; DTKN; DAM; pH

167. Correll, D.L., J.W. Pierce and T.-L. Wu (1978) Herbicides and submerged plants in Chesapeake Bay. Pp. 858-877, In: Technical, Environmental, Socioeconomic and Regulatory Aspects of Coastal Zone Managment., (Ed.). New York: Amer. Soc. Civil Engin. Transport of Agricultural Herbicides from Row Crops Through a Riparian Forest into a Stream. Changes in Partitioning Coefficients due to Coarse Sediment Trapping in Forest. D; F; 1st order; CP; OF; HERB; Flux

168. Correll, D.L., J.W. Pierce and T.L. Wu (1978) Studies of the transport of atrazine and alachlor from minimum till corn fields into Chesapeake Bay tidal waters. Proc. Northeastern Weed Sci. Soc. 32(Sup.):21-32. Studies of the Transport of Agricultural Herbicides from Row Crops Through a Riparian Forest into a Stream. D; F; 1st order; CP; OF; HERB; Flux

169. Correll, D.L. and D.E. Weller (1989) Factors limiting processes in freshwater wetlands: An agricultural primary stream riparian forest. Pp. 9-23, In: Freshwater Wetlands and Wildlife., R.R. Sharitz and J. W. Gibbons (Eds.). Oak Ridge: US Dept. Energy. Results from Several Years of Measuring Hydrologic Budgets, pH Effects, Nitrate Mass Balances, Forest Nitrogen Storage in Biomass, for Cropland Drainages Through a Riparian Forest. D; F; 1st order; CP; GW; TS; NIT; ET

170. Costello, C.J. (1989) Wetlands treatment of dairy animal wastes in Irish Drumlin Landscape. Pp. 702-709, In: Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment, D.A. Hammer (Ed.). Chelsea, MI: Lewis. Dairy Animal Wastes were Applied to Peat Wetlands and Monitored for Effectiveness at Removal of BOD, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus. D; H; TSS; DOM; POM; DAM; NIT; DPP

171. Coyne, M.S., R.A. Gilfillen, R.W. Rhodes and R.L. Blevins (1995) Soil and fecal coliform trapping by grass filter strips during simulated rain. J. Soil & Water Conserv. 50(4):405-0408. Studied transport of suspended sediments and fecal coliform bacteria from soil plots, which had poultry litter applied, through a grass filter strip. Used a rainfall simulator. D; G; OF; TSS; MBal; Infil

172. Coyne, M.S., R.A. Gilfillen, A. Villalba, Z. Zhang, R. Rhodes, L. Dunn and R.L. Blevins (1998) Fecal bacteria trapping by grass filter strips during simulated rain. J. Soil Water Conserv. 53:140-145. Tested filter strips for removal of TSS, fecal coliforms, and fecal Streptococcus from fields with chicken litter applications, using a rainfall simulator in the summer. D, G, OF, TSS, SedTrap

173. Crocker, M.T. and J.L. Meyer (1987) Interstitial dissolved organic carbon in sediments of a southern Appalachian headwater stream. J. N. Am. Bethol. Soc. 6(3):159-167. Measured water column DOC, and interstitial DOC and bacterial concentrations in a small headwaters stream. Manipulated organic matter content of sediments and related to changes in interstitial DOC. D; HZ; DOM; POM

174. Cronk, J.K. and W.J. Mitsch (1994) Periphyton productivity on artificial and natural surfaces in constructed freshwater wetlands under different hydrologic regimes. Aquatic Botany 48:325-341. Exposed floodplain constructed wetlands to high and low hydraulic inputs. Measured periphyton production. Algae in Periphyton were identified to Genera for Presence. D; H; OF; POM

175. Cronk, J.K. and W.J. Mitsch (1994) Aquatic metabolism in four newly constructed freshwater wetlands with different hydrologic inputs. Ecol. Eng. 3:449-468. For four constructed wetlands on the floodplain of the Des Plaines River, measured diurnal dissolved oxygen mass balances for two growing seasons and calculated gross primary production. D; H; BioStor; MBal

176. Cuffney, T.F. (1988) Input, movement and exchange of organic matter within a subtropical coastal blackwater river-floodplain system. Freshwater Biol. 19:305-320. Overall Study of Transport of Organic Matter from Riparian Forest Litter to Stream Channel. Used Tracers, Pool Sizes, Decomp. Rates, and a Model. D; F; CP; TS; POM; Flux

177. Cushing, C.E. (1988) Allochthonous detritus input to a small, cold desert spring-stream. Verh. Internatl. Verein. Theoret. Angewan. Limn. 23:1107-1113. Directly Measured Litter Inputs, both Vertical and Horizontal. D; F; POM

178. Cushing, C.E. and E.G. Wolf (1982) Organic energy budget of Rattlesnake Springs, WA. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 107:404-407. Measured Litter Inputs from Forested Riparian Zone. D; F; 1st order; POM

179. Dabney, S.M., L.D. Meyer, W.C. Harmon, C.V. Alonso and G.R. Foster (1995) Depositional patterns of sediment trapped by grass hedges. Trans. Am. Soc. Agr. Engin. 38:1719-1729. Carried out flume experiments where the species of grass, the type of suspended sediment, and the flow rates were varied, but the slope was maintained at 5%. Developed and tested a model for sediment trapping. D, G, OF, TSS, SedTrap

180. Dahm, C.N., D.L. Carr and R.L. Coleman (1991) Anaerobic carbon cycling in stream ecosystems. Verh. Int. Verein. Limnol. 24:1600-1604. Measured ferrous iron and methane concentrations in groundwater below and lateral to the channels of three first order mountain streams in New Mexico. D; F; GW; HZ; 1st order; MT; DOM; Fe

181. Dahm, C.N., N.B. Grimm, P. Marmonier, H.M. Valett and P. Vervier (1998) Nutrient dynamics at the interface between surface waters and groundwaters. Freshwater Biol. 40:427-451. An extended review of stream interactions with their watersheds, riparian zones, parafluvial and hyporheic zones. Includes summaries of several case studies. R; GW; HZ

182. Dall�O�, M. W. Kluge and F. Bartels (2001) FEUWAnet: a multi-box water level and lateral exchange model for riparian wetlands. J. Hydrol. 250:40-62. Developed a simulation model for hydrology and pasive transport and tested it on an alder riparian zone. D, F, GW, OF

183. Daniels, R.B., J.W. Gilliam, E.E. Gamble and R.W. Skaggs (1975) Nitrogen movement in a shallow aquifer system of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Water Resourc. Bull. 11:1121-1130. Followed changes in nitrate concentration as groundwater moved from uplands into riparian zone. D, GW, NIT, CP

184. Daniels, R.B. and J.W. Gilliam (1996) Sediment and chemical load reduction by grass and riparian filters. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 60:246-251. Measured for two years the flux of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment species through North Carlina Piedmont riparian buffers composed of grass, forest combinations. Only reported on transport in overland storm flows. Measured sand, silt, and clay. D; F; G; PT; OF; DAM; NIT; DPP; PTKN; TP; TSS; Flux; MBal; SedTrap

185. D�Angelo, D.J., J.R. Webster, S.V. Gregory and J.L. Meyer (1993) Transient storage in Appalachian and Cascade mountain streams as related to hydraulic characteristics. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 12(3):223-235. Tracked the kinetics and concentration patterns of injected tracers movement downstream in a series of stream reaches. D; HZ; TS; MT

186. Davidson, E.A. and W.R. Swank (1986) Environmental parameters regulating gaseous nitrogen losses from two forested ecosystems via nitrification and denitrification. Applied Environ. Microbiol. 52:1287-1292. Both Laboratory Analyses and Field Chamber Measurements were used to Contrast Upland Forest and Riparian Forest Denitrification and Nitrification. Measured Redox Potentials of Soils. D; F; MT; Denit-F; Denit-L; Nitrif; Flux

187. Davidson, E.A. and W.T. Swank (1990) Nitrous oxide dissolved in soil solution: An insignificant pathway of nitrogen loss from a southeastern hardwood forest. Water Resources Res. 26(7):1687-1690. Study of Concentrations of Nitrous Oxide Dissolved in Shallow Groundwater and Soil Water along a Gradient from Upland Forest Through Riparian Forest to a Stream. D; F; MT; GW; Denit-F; Flux

188. Davidson, E.A., W.T. Swank and T.O. Perry (1986) Distinguishing between nitrification and denitrification as sources of gaseous nitrogen production in soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52(6):1280-1286. Field Chambers and Controlled Concentrations of Acetylene were used to Measure Rates and Distinguish Between Denitrification and Nitrification. Sites Included Uplant Forest and Riparian Forest. D; F; MT; Denit-F; Nitrif; Flux

189. Davies-Colley, R. (2000) Can riparian forest be restored without destabilizing stream channels and discrediting managers? Pp. 381-385, in: Riparian Ecology and Management in Multi-Land Use Watersheds. P.J. Wigington Jr. and R.L. Beschta (Eds.), Amer. Water Resourc. Assoc., Middleburg, VA. A review of channel widening that sometimes occurs when riparian forests are first established. R, F, G

190. Dawson, F.H. (1976) Organic contribution of stream edge forest litter fall to the chalk stream ecosystem. Oikos 27:13-18. Directly Measured Vertical Litter Inputs to Two Small Streams in England. D; F; POM

191. Dawson, T.E. and J.R. Ehleringer (1991) Streamside trees that do not use stream water. Nature. 350:335-337. Used natural abundance hydrogen isotope analyses to show the source of water for riparian forest trees. D; F; GW; TS

192. Day, J.W., T.J. Butler and W.G. Conner (1977) Productivity and nutrient export studies in a cypress swamp and lake system in Louisiana. Pp. 255-269, In: Estuarine Processes., M. Wiley (Ed.). New York: Academic Press. Studied Flux of Nutrients from a Swamp Forest into a Lake. D; F; CP; POM; DOM; TP; TN; Flux

193. Decamps, H. (1993) River margins and environmental change. Ecol. Appl. 3(3):441-445. A General Review of the Ecological Interactions Between Forested Riparian Zones and River Channels. R; F

194. Decamps, H. (1996) The renewal of floodplain forests along rivers: a landscape perspective. Verh. Internatl. Ver. Theor. Angewandte Limn. 26:35-59. A wide-ranging review of river/floodplain interactions and regeneration of forested floodplains. R

195. DeLaune, R.D., R.R. Boar, C.W. Lindau and B.A. Kleiss (1996) Denitrification in bottomland hardwood wetland soils of the Cache River. Wetlands 16(3):309-320. Used N-15 nitrate to measure denitrification and nitrification in the soils of floodplain. Correlated rates with organic content of surface soils. D; F; CP; Denit-L; Nitrif; POM

196. Delgado, A.N., E.L. Periago and F. Diaz-Fierros (1997) Effectiveness of buffer strips for attenuation of ammonium and nitrate levels in runoff from pasture amended with cattle slurry or inorganic fertiliser. Pp. 134-139, In: Buffer Zones: Their Processes and Potential in Water Protection., N. Haycock, T. Burt, K. Goulding and G. Pinay (Eds.). Harpenden, UK: Quest Environmental. Pasture plots were either treated with ammonium nitrate or with a slurry from cattle waste. They were then treated with a rainfall simulator and transport downslope was measured. D; OF; NIT; G; DAM

197. Delong, M.D. and M.A. Brusven (1991) Classification and spatial mapping of riparian habitat with applications toward management of streams impacted by nonpoint source pollution. Environ. Manage. 15(4):565-572. Development and Testing of a GIS Approach to Improved Management of Watershed Riparian Zones. M

198. Delong, M.D. and M.A. Brusven (1994) Allochthonous input of organic matter from different riparian habitats of an agriculturally impacted stream. Environ. Manage. 18(1):59-71. Measured vertical litter inputs directly into stream channel in eight reaches of a stream with difering riparian vegetation. Watershed was partly forested, partly agricultural/riparian vegetation. D; F; B; H; MT; 5th order; POM; Flux

199. Delphine, J.-E. and J.-Y. Chapot (2001) Leaching of atrazine and deethylatrazine under a vegetative filter strip. Agonomie 21:461-470. Studied concentrations in natural overland storm flows from a corn field in NE France for three years and the change in concentrations as flows passed through the filter strip. Also measured concentrations in soil solution at various depths. D, G, H, OF, HERB, Infil

200. Dent, L.C., N.B. Grimm and S.G. Fisher (2001) Multiscale effects of surface-subsurface exchange on stream water nutrient concentrations. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 20(2):162-181. Sampled concentrations of nutrients along a stream reach and compared changes to sites of outflow and inflow from hyporheic areas. D, HZ, NIT, DPP

201. Denver, J.M. (1991) Groundwater-sampling network to study agrochemical effects on water quality in the unconfined aquifer. Pp. 139-149, In: Groundwater Residue Sampling Design, Amer. Chem. Soc. Symp. #465. Study of Nitrate Transport From Agricultural Uplands Through a 30 meter deep Unconfined Aquifer of Sand and Gravel Underneath and Adjacent to a Small Stream Lined with Riparian Forest. Nitrate Transport Bypassed the Riparian Zone. D; F; CP; GW; NIT; Flux

202. Desbonnet, A., P. Pogue, V. Lee and N. Wolff (1994) Vegetated Buffers in the Coastal Zone. A Summary Review and Bibliography. Coastal Resources Center Technical Report No. 2064. Narragansett, RI: University of Rhode Island, 71 pp. A Wide-Ranging Review and Bibliography of Vegetated Buffers in General with Many References. R

203. De Snoo, G.R. and P.J. De Wit (1998) Buffer zones for reducing pesticide drift to ditches and risks to aquatic organisms. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safety 41:112-118. A study of the risks of pesticide spray drift reaching streams with no buffer, a three meter or a six meter buffer of unsprayed vegetation. D; G; HERB; INS

204. Devall, M., C. Meier, E. Gardiner, P. Hamel, T. Leininger, N. Schiff and J. Stanturf (2001) Review of restoration of functions and values in bottomland hardwood forests of the lower Mississippi alluvial valley: techniques and functions/values. Wetland Journal 13:24-36. R, F

205. Devito, K.J. and P.J. Dillon (1993) The influence of hydrologic conditions and peat oxia on the phosphorus and nitrogen dynamics of a conifer swamp. Water Resour. Res. 29(8):2675-2685. Constructed mass balances for water, nitrogen and phosphorus inputs and outputs for a forested swamp in Ontario for one year. Measured bulk precipitation inputs. D; F; GW; DPP; DAM; NIT; DTKN; DTP; MBal

206. Devito, K.J., P.J. Dillon and B.D. Lazerte (1989) Phosphorus and nitrogen retention in five precambrian shield wetlands. Biogeochemistry 8(3):185-204. Input and Output Mass Balances for Total N and P and Dissolved Organic Matter for two Forested Wetlands along Streams Draining Canadian Shield Watersheds. D; F; TP; TN; NIT; DOM; MBal

207. Devito, K.J., D. Fitzerald, A.R. Hill and R. Aravena (2000) Nitrate dynamics in relation to lithology and hydrologic flow path in a river riparian zone. J. Environ. Qual. 29:1075-1084. Examined concentration patterns of nitrate, dissolved organic matter along a series of transects from uplands across floodplains. Used isotopes and chloride concentration to trace water. D, F, GW, DOM, NIT, TS

208. Dickey, E.C. and D.H. Vanderholm (1981) Vegetative filter treatment of livestock feedlot runoff. J. Environ. Qual. 10:279-284. Study of Filter Strips for Treating Feedlot Runoff. Most of Volume Infiltrated and Water Quality of Infiltrating Water was not Measured. D; G; OF; TSS; TP; TN

209. Dickson, B.C. (1995) Ecorestoration of Riparian Forest for Nonpoint Source Pollution Control: Policy and Ecological Considerations in Illinois Agroecosystem Watersheds. Ph. D. Thesis. Urbana, IL: U. Illinois. Management-oriented analysis of projected water quality benefits and economic consequences of riparian forest restoration. M; NIT

210. Dickson, B.C. and D.J. Schaeffer (1997) Ecorestoration of riparian forests for non-point source pollution control:Policy and ecological considerations in agroecosystem watersheds. Pp. 221-227, In: Buffer Zones: Their Processes and Potential in Water Protection, N. Haycock, T. Burt, K. Goulding and G. Pinay (Eds.). Harpenden, UK: Quest Environmental. A management-oriented analysis of the projected water quality benefits and economic consequences of riparian forest restoration on watersheds in the Illinois corn belt. M; NIT

211. Dillaha, T.A. and S.P. Inamdar (1997) Buffer zones as sediment traps or sources. Pp. 33-42, In: Buffer Zones: Their Processes and Potential in Water Protection, N. Haycock, T. Burt, K. Goulding and G. Pinay (Eds.). Harpenden, U.K.: Quest Environmental. A review of sediment trapping in riparian zones and filter strips. R; M; OF; TSS

212. Dillaha, T.A., R.M. Reneau, S. Mostaghima and D. Lee (1989) Vegetative filter strips for agricultural non-point source pollution control. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agric. Engin. 32:513-519. Used Rainfall Simulator on Agricultural Crop Plots and Various Lengths of Grass Buffer to Measure Removal Efficiency for Sediments and Nutrients. D; G; TSS; TN; TP; NIT; DAM; DPP

213. Dillaha, T.A., J.H. Sherrard and D. Lee (1986) Long-Term Effectiveness and Maintenance of Vegetative Filter Strips Virginia Water Resources Research Center Bull. No. 153. Blacksburg, VA: USEPA, 39 pp. Review of Literature and Management Recommendations on Grassed Filter Strips Based on a Survey of 33 VA Farms that Installed Filter Strips in the Past. M; G; R

214. Dillaha, T.A., J.H. Sherrard and D. Lee (1989) Long-term effectiveness of vegetative filter strips. Water Environ. & Technol. Nov.: 419-421. General Management Recommendations Based Upon Surveys of 33 Farms for Maintenance Problems and Effectiveness Over Time of Grassed/Herbaceous Filter Strips. M; G; H; OF

215. Dillaha, T.A., J.H. Sherrard, D. Lee, S. Mostaghimi and V.O. Shanholtz (1988) Evaluation of vegetative filter strips as a best management practice for feed lots. J. Water Pollut. Contr. Fed. 60:1231-1238. Experimental Study of the Effectiveness of Grass/Herbaceous Buffers in Removing Sediments and Nutrients. Used Rainfall Simulator. D; H; G; OF; TSS; TP; TN; NIT

216. Dole-Olivier, M.J. (1998) Surface water-groundwater exchanges in three dimensions on a backwater of the Rhone River. Freshwater Biol. 40:93-109. Measured conductivity, temperature, D.O. and biota in shallow and deeper sediments up and down the reach and laterally within a section of reach. D, GW

217. Dorge, C.L. (1977) Phosphorus Cycling in a Southern Illinois Cypress Swamp. M.S. Thesis. Chicago: Illinois Inst. Tech.

218. Dosskey, M.G. (2000) How much can USDA riparian buffers reduce agricultural nonpoint source pollution? Pp. 427-432, in: Riparian Ecology and Management in Multi-Land Use Watersheds. P.J. Wigington Jr. and R.L. Beschta (Eds.), Amer. Water Resourc. Assoc., Middleburg, VA. A critical evaluation which points out that no before and after studies are available at the level of stream water quality. M, R

219. Dosskey, M.G. and P.M. Bertsch (1994) Forest sources and pathways of organic matter transport to a blackwater stream: a hydrologic approach. Biogeochemistry 24(1):1-19. Measured Discharges of Dissolved and Particulate Organic Matter and Formed a Budget for the Volumes Discharged as Groundwater and Storm Flows. D; CP; F; GW; 2nd order; DOM; POM

220. Downes, M.T., C. Howard-Williams and L.A. Schipper (1997) Long and short roads to riparian zone restoration: nitrate removal efficiency. Pp. 244-254, In: Buffer Zones: Their Processes and Potenital in Water Protection, N. Haycock, T. Burt, K. Goulding and G. Pinay (Eds.). Harpenden, UK: Quest Environmental. A review with some new data on three different riparian studies in New Zealand. R; NIT; Denit-L; BioStor

221. Doyle, R.C., D.C. Wolfe and D.F. Bezdicek (1975) Effectiveness of forest buffer strips in improving the water quality of manure polluted runoff. Pp. 299-302, In: Managing Lisestock Wastes. Proc. 3rd Intern. Symp. Livestock Wastes, (Ed.). St. Joseph, MI: Amer. Soc. Agric. Engin. Manure was Applied Directly to Forested Buffer Plots. Overland Storm Flow Nutrient Concentrations were Measured at Various Distances Downhill. No Data on Interactions Between Infiltration into Groundwater and Overland Flows. D; F; TN; TP; DTKN; NIT; DAM; OF

222. Drury, C.F., C.S. Tan, J.D. Gaynor, T.O. Oloya and T.W. Welacky (1996) Influence of controlled drainage-subirrigation on surface and tile drainage nitrate loss. J. Environ. Qual. 25(2):317-324. Measured relative effectiveness of tile drainage and controlled drainage/subirrigation in reduction of nitrate concentrations in shallow groundwater leaving croplands. D; GW; NIT

223. Duff, J.H., C.M. Pringle and F.J. Triska (1996) Nitrate reduction in sediments of lowland tropical streams draining swamp forest in Costa Rica: An ecosystem perspective. Biogeochem. 33:179-196. Measured potential denitrification rates in stream sediments and used a chamber technique to measure sediment-water column exchanges in three lowland streams in La Selva Reserve. Carried out manipulations of the concentrations of nitrate, glucose, and metabolic inhibitors within the chambers. D, F, 3rd order, 4th order, HZ, DAM, NIT, Denit-L, Denit-F, Nitrif

224. Duff, J.H. and F.J. Triska (1990) Denitrification in sediments from the hyporheic zone adjacent to a small forested stream. Can. J. Fish. Aquatic Sci. 47(6):1140-1147. Study of Interactions Between Channel and Hyporheic Zone. Nitrate and Acetylene were Injected into Riparian Zone Soils. D; F; 3rd order; NIT; Denit-F; Denit-L; DOM; HZ

225. Duncan, C.P. and P.M. Groffman (1994) Comparinag microbial parameters in natural and constructed wetlands. J. Environ. Qual. 23:298-305. Compared Soil Microbial Activities in Zones of Riparian Forest Differing in Hydration. D; F; GW; NIT; BioStor; Denit-L; NutCyc

226. Duncan, W.F.A. and M.A. Brusven (1985) Energy dynamics of three low- order southeast Alaska streams: Allochthonous processes. J. Freshwater Ecology 3(2):233-248. Measured Vertical Litter Inputs to Three Stream Channels with Differing Riparian Vegetation. D; POM; 2nd Order

227. Edwards, D.R., T.C. Daniel and P.A. Moore Jr. (1996) Vegetative filter strip design for grassed areas treated with animal manures. Trans. Am. Soc. Agric. Engin. 12(1):31-38. Describes a relatively simple approach to designing grassed filter strips. M, G, OF

228. Edwards, R.T. (1998) The hyporheic zone. Pp. 399-429 in: R.J. Naiman and R.E. Bilby (eds.), River Ecology and Management, Lessons from the Pacific Coastal Ecoregion. Springer, New York. An in depth review. R, HZ

229. Edwards, R.T., J.L. Meyer and S.E.G. Findlay (1990) The relative contribution of benthic and suspended bacteria to system biomass, production, and metabolism in a low-gradient blackwater river. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 9(3):216-228. Measured bacterial parameters in water column, and several types of bottom sediments. D; HZ; TS; 6th order; POM

230. Edwards, R.T. and J.L. Meyer (1987) Metabolism of a sub-tropical low gradient blackwater river. Freshwater Biol. 17:251-263. Measured Open-Water Oxygen Budgets and Import/Exports of Dissolved and Particulate Organic Matter for Stream Channel. Constructed an Organic Carbon Budget and Inferred Inputs from Flood Plain to Balance Budget. D; F; CP; 6th order

231. Edwards, W.M., L.B. Owens, D.A. Norman and R.K. White (1980) A settling basin-grass filter system for managing runoff from a paved beef feedlot. Pp. 265-273, In: Livestock Waste: A Renewable Resource, (Ed.). St. Joseph, MI: Amer. Soc. Agric. Eng. Measured Changes in Nutrient Concentrations For Runoff from a Feedlot as it Moved Through a Grassed Buffer Zone. D; G; POM; TSS; DAM; DTP; K

232. Edwards, W.M., L.B. Owens and R.K. White (1983) Managing runoff from a small, paved beef feedlot. J. Environ. Qual. 12:281-286. Mass Balances of Sediments and Nutrients Draining from a Paved Feed Lot Through a Retention Pond, then two Grassed Buffers. D; G; OF; TSS; TN; TP; MBal

233. Ehrenfeld, J.G. (1987) The role of woody vegetation in preventing ground water pollution by nitrogen from septic tank leachate. Water Research 21:605-614. Measured Total Nitrogen Assimilation & Storage as Net Primary Production of Woody Plants in a Deciduous hardwood forested Wetland. D; F; CP; GW; TN

234. Elder, J.F. (1985) Nitrogen and phosphorus speciation and flux in a large Florida river wetland system. Water Resources Res. 21:724-732. Measurements of Concentration Patterns Along the Channel and in Major Tributaries Were Used to Infer Interactions with Flood Plain. D; F; TN; TP; DPP; DAM; POM

235. Emmett, B.A., J.A. Hudson, P.A. Coward and B. Reynolds (1994) The impact of a riparian wetland on streamwater quality in a recently afforested uplant catchment. J. Hydrol. 162:337-353. Measured for two years fluxes from atmosphere and forested drainage area into and through a small riparian wetland. D; F; H; TN; DPP; TP; Al; DOM; ET; MBal

236. Engler, R.M. and W.H. Patrick Jr. (1974) Nitrate removal from flood water overlying flooded soils and sediments. J. Environ. Qual. 3:409- 413. Floodplain Forest Soil Cores were Incubated with Nitrate and Rates of Nitrate Disappearance Measured. D; F; CP; NIT; Denit-L

237. Entry, J.A., P.K. Donelly and W.H. Emmingham (1994) Microbial mineralization of atrazine and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in riparian pasture and forest soils. Biol. Fertil. Soils 18:89-94. Measured rates of degradation of herbicides in soils and litter of forested and grassed riparian zones. Also measured microbial biomass. D; G; F; HERB

238. Entry, J.A., P.K. Donnelly and W.H. Emmingham (1995) Atrazine and 2,4- D mineralization in relation to microbial biomass in soils of young-, second-, and old-growth riparian forests. Appl. Soil Ecol. 2:77-84. Measured degradation rates of atrazine and 2,4-D in leaf litter and surface soils of riparian forest plots in 20-40, 60-90, and 120-300 year old stands. D; F; HERB

239. Esry, D.H. and D.J. Cairns (1989) Overview of the Lake Jackson restoration project with artificially created wetlands for treatment of urban runoff. Pp. 247-257, In: Wetlands: Concerns and Successes., D.W. Fisk (Ed.). Bethesda, MD: Amer. Water Resources Assoc. Overview and Summary Data on a Constructed Herbaceous Wetland Used for Water Quality Polishing of Urban Storm Runoff. M; D; CP; TSS; DAM; NIT; Flux

240. Ethridge, B.J. and R.K. Olson (1992) Research and information needs related to nonpoint source pollution and wetlands in the watershed: an EPA perspective. Ecol. Engin. 1:149-156. A Management Oriented Review of Riparian Forests and Their Potential Use in Watershed Management. M; R; F

241. Ettema, C.H., R. Lowrance and D.C. Coleman (1999) Riparian soil response to surface nitrogen input: temporal changes in denitrification, labile and microbial C and N pools, and bacterial and fungal respiration. Soil Biol. Biochem. 31:1609-1624. Investigated effects of short-term or chronic N-additions to soil plots near stream and away from the stream on denitrification and respiration rates, and microbial biomass. D, F, GW, CP, 2nd order, POM, NIT, DAM, Denit-L, PTKN

242. Ettema, C.H., R. Lowrance and D.C. Coleman (1999) Riparian soil response to surface nitrogen input: the indicator potential of free-living soil nematode populations. Soil Biol. Biochem. 31:1625-1638. Measured numbers and species composition of nematodes in soil plots enriched once or repeatedly with nitrogen. D, F, CP, 2nd order

243. Ewel, K.C. (1978) Riparian ecosystems: conservation of their unique characteristics. Pp. 56-62, In: Strategies for Protection and Management of Floodplain Wetlands and Other Riparian Ecosystems., R. R. Johnson and J.F. McCormick (Eds.). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Forest Service. An Overall Review of the Ecological Roles of Riparian Zones along Streams. R

244. Fabre, A., G. Pinay and C. Ruffinoni (1996) Seasonal changes in inorganic and organic phosphorus in the soil of a riparian forest. Biogeochem. 35:419-432. Measured changes in the amounts of various soil phosphorus constituents during and between flooding events on the floodplain of the Garonne River. D; F; PPP; PTP; POM; SedTrap

245. Fail Jr., J.L. (1983) Structure, Biomass, Production, and Element Accumulation in Riparian Forests of an Agricultural Watershed. Ph.D. Thesis. Athens, GA: Univ. Georgia.

246. Fail, J.L., B.L. Haines and R.L. Todd (1986) Riparian forest communities and their role in nutrient conservation in an agricultural watershed. Amer. J. Alternative Agriculture II(3):114- 121. Detailed Measurements of Nutrient Assimilation and Storage in Tree Woody Biomass at same Sites Where Nutrient Removal from Agricultural Drainage was Measured. D; F; CP; TN; TP; K; Ca; BioStor

247. Fail, J.L., M.N. Hamzah, B.L. Haines and R.L. Todd (1986) Above and belowground biomass, production, and element accumulation in riparian forests of an agricultural watershed. Pp. 193-224, In: Watershed Research Perspectives, D.L. Correll (Ed.). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Press. Detailed Study of Accumulation of Nutrients in Woody Biomass of Forest Trees in a series of Sites Where Nutrient Removal from Agricultural Drainage Was Also Measured. D; F; CP; TN; TP; K; Ca; BioStor

248. Fellows, C.S., H.M. Valett and C.N. Dahm (2001) Whole-stream metabolism in two montane streams: Contribution of the hyporheic zone. Limnol. Oceanogr. 46(3):523-531. Studied two streams in NM. Used difference between whole stream and benthic respiration to calculate hyporheic respiration. D, HZ, TS

249. Fennessy, M.S., C.C. Brueske and W.J. Mitsch (1994) Sediment deposition patterns in restored freshwater wetlands using sediment traps. Ecol. Eng. 3:409-428. Determined suspended sediment mass balances for 4 constructed wetlands on the flood plain of the Des Plaines River. Determined organic matter and mineral matter. D; H; POM; TSS

250. Fennessy, M.S., J.K. Cronk and W.J. Mitsch (1994) Macrophyte productivity and community development in created freshwater wetlands under experimental hydrological conditions. Ecol. Eng. 3:469-484. Measured plant community development and productivity in artificial riparian wetlands with different hydrologic loading rates. D; H; OF; BioStor

251. Fennessy, M.S. and J.K. Cronk (1997) The effectiveness and restoration potential of riparian ecotones for the management of nonpoint source pollution, particularly nitrate. Critical Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 27(4):285-317. An extended review. R; NIT

252. Fennessy, M. S. and W. J. Mitsch (2001) Effects of hydrology on spatial patterns of soil development in created riparian wetlands. Wetland Ecol. Manage. 9:103-120. Examined patterns of sediment and its composition in four restored wetlands on the floodplain of the Des Plaines River, IL. D, H, K, Mg, Ca, POM, PPP, SedTrap

253. Fernald, A., D. Landers and P.J. Wigington Jr. (2000) Water quality effects of hyporheic processing in a large river. Pp. 167-172, in: Riparian Ecology and Management in Multi-Land Use Watersheds. P.J. Wigington Jr. and R.L. Beschta (Eds.), Amer. Water Resourc. Assoc., Middleburg, VA. Studied changes in chemistry as river water flowed through gravel bars in the Willamette River. D, HZ, DAM, NIT, DPP

254. Fernald, A.G., P.J. Wigington Jr. and D.H. Landers (2001) Transient storage and hyporheic flow along the Willamette River, Oregon: Field measurements and model estimates. Water Resourc. Res. 37(6):1681-1694. Conducted dye tracer studies to quantify hyporheic-channel exchange along a 26 km reach of the river. D, F, 8th Order, HZ, TS

255. Fiebig, D.M. (1992) Fates of dissolved free amino acids in groundwater discharged through stream bed sediments. Hydrobiologia 236:311-319. Used cores to study uptake and measured effects of added amino acids or variations in flow rates. D; HZ; 1st order; DOM

256. Fiebig, D.M. (1997) Microbiological turnover of amino acids immobilized from groundwater discharged through hyporheic sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr. 42:763-768. Measured rate of removal of C-14 labeled amino acids from water perfusing a sediment core and rates of mineralization of the amino acids. D; HZ; DOM

257. Fiebig, D.M. and M.A. Lock (1991) Immobilization of dissolved organic matter from groundwater discharging through the stream bed. Freshwater Biol. 26:45-55. Measured retention of dissolved organic compounds from water perfusing sediment cores. D; HZ; DOM

258. Fiebig, D.M., M.A. Lock and C. Neal (1990) Soil water in the riparian zone as a source of carbon for a headwater stream. J. Hydrol. 116:217-237. Compared concentrations of DOC and free amino acids in soil water and in stream channel. D; F; DOM

259. Fiebig, D.M. and J. Marxsen (1992) Immobilization and mineralization of dissolved free amino acids by stream-bed biofilms. Freshwater Biol. 28:129-140. Measured uptake of labeled amino acids by sediments from several stream habitats. D; DOC

260. Finck, R., C. Marlow and J. Borkowski (2000) Stubble height as a criteria for water quality. Pp. 275-279, in: Riparian Ecology and Management in Multi-Land Use Watersheds. P.J. Wigington Jr. and R.L. Beschta (Eds.), Amer. Water Resourc. Assoc., Middleburg, VA. Measured impacts of grazing to various stem heights on non-point sources to a stream. D, G, OF, NIT, DPP

261. Findlay, S. (1995) Importance of surface - subsurface exchange in stream ecosystems: the hyporheic zones. Limnol. Oceanogr. 40(1):159- 164. A review of what is known about the dynamics of exchange processes between stream channels and hyporheic zones. R; HZ; DOM

262. Findlay, S., J.L. Meyer, and R. Risley (1986) Benthic bacterial biomass and production in two blackwater rivers. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 43:1271-1276. Measured biomass by three techniques and related metabolic activity to particulate organic carbon content of sediments, but not to temperature. D; HZ; POM; 4th order; 6th order

263. Findlay, S., J.M. Quinn, C.W. Hickey, G. Burrell and M. Downes (2001) Effects of land use and riparian flowpath on delivery of dissolved organic carbon to streams. Limnol. Oceanogr. 46(2):345-355. Compared DOC concentrations and characteristics along paths through pasture, native forest, and pine plantations. D, F, G, GW, DOM

264. Findlay, S. and W.V. Sobczak (1996) Variability in removal of dissolved organic carbon in hyporheic sediments. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 15(1):35-41. Measured changes in dissolved organic C as stream water passed through a large gravel bar. D; 3rd order; HZ; DOC

265. Findlay, S., D. Strayer, C. Goumbala and K. Gould (1993) Metabolism of streamwater dissolved organic carbon in the shallow hyporheic zone. Limnol. Oceanogr. 38(7):1493-1499. Study of groundwater dissolved organic carbon metabolism at a depth of 0.5 meter in a point gravel bar. D; HZ; 4th order; DOC

266. Fischer, H., M. Pusch and J. Schwoerbel (1996) Spatial distribution and respiration of bacteria in stream-bed sediments. Arch. Hydrobiol. 137:281-300. Measured bacterial biomass, productivity and respiration and correlated with POM in sediments. D; HZ; POM; 3rd order

267. Fischer, R.A., C.O. Martin and J.C. Fishenich (2000) Improving riparian buffer strips and corridors for water quality and wildlife. Pp. 457-462, in: Riparian Ecology and Management in Multi-Land Use Watersheds. P.J. Wigington Jr. and R.L. Beschta (Eds.), Amer. Water Resourc. Assoc., Middleburg, VA. A management oriented review. R, M

268. Fisher, S.G. (1977) Organic matter processing by a stream-segment ecosystem: Fort River, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Int. Rev. Gesamten Hydrobiol. 62:701-727. A 1700 Meter Segment of Stream Channel on a Mixed Landuse Watershed. Directly Measured Forest Litter Inputs. D; F; 4th order; POM

269. Fisher, S.G., N.B. Grimm, E. Marti, R.M. Holmes and J.B. Jones Jr. (1998) Material spiraling in stream corridors: A telescoping ecosystem model. Ecosyst. 1:19-34. A conceptual model of spiraling along the stream corridor. R, GW, HZ

270. Fisher, S.G. and G.E. Likens (1973) Energy flow in Bear Brook, New Hampshire: an integrative approach to stream ecosystem metabolism. Ecol. Monographs 43:421-439. An Attempt to Determine a Complete Organic Matter Budget for a Completely Forested Watershed, Including Measures of Riparian Litter and Dissolved Organic Matter Inputs to the Stream Channel. D; F; MT; 2nd order; DOM; POM

271. Fisher, T.R., L.F.W. Lesack and L.K. Smith (1989) Input, recycling, and export of N and P on the Amazone floodplain at Lake Calado. Pp. 34-52, In: Phosphorus Cycles in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, H.Tiessen, D. Lopez-Hernandez, and I.H. Salcedo (Eds.). SCOPE, UNEP. Proc. workshop in Maracay, Venezuela. A review of relevant literature. R

272. Fisher, T.R., K.M. Morrissey, P.R. Carlson, L.F. Alves and J.M. Melack (1988) Nitrate and ammonium uptake by plankton in an Amazon River floodplain lake. J. Plankton Res. 10(1): 7-29. Measured rates of uptake of nitrate and ammonium when the lake flooded with nutrient rich river waters. D; DAM; DPP

273. Fisher, T.R. and P.E. Parsley (1979) Amazon lakes: Water storage and nutrient stripping by algae. Limnol. Oceanogr. 24(3):547-553. Studied reduction of concentrations of nitrate and dissolved phosphate in waters after they flowed into floodplain lakes. D; DPP; NIT; DAM; POM

274. Flanagan, D.C., G.R. Foster, W.H. Neibling and J.P. Burt (1989) Simplified equations for filter strip design. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agric. Eng. 32:2001-2007. Simplified Version of CREAMS Model for Predicting Suspended Sediment Retention in Grass Filter Strips. D; G; OF; TSS

275. Flite, O.P. III, R.D. Shannon, R.R. Schnabel and R.R. Parizek (2001) Nitrate removal in a riparian wetland of the Appalachian Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province. J. Environ. Qual. 30(1):254-261. Measured nitrate concentration patterns along a transect of shallow groundwater wells, also studied denitrification potentials in soils of a riparian wetland. D, F, GW, MT, NIT, Denit-L

276. Folster, J. (2000) The near-stream zone is a source of nitrogen in a Swedish forested catchment. J. Environ. Qual. 29:883-893. Studied the sources of and speciation of nitrogen in a stream draining a small forested watershed dominated by spruce. D, F, GW, DOM, DTKN, NIT, DAM

277. Ford, T.E. and R.J. Naiman (1989) Groundwater-surface water relationships in Boreal forest watersheds: Dissolved organic carbon and inorganic nitrient dynamics. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46:41-49. Compared nutrient concentrations in groundwater and stream channel water and concluded that much of the DOC and nitrogen in the groundwater were utilized in the hyporheic zone. D; GW; HZ; DOM; DAM; NIT; DTKN; DTP; DPP

278. Forsberg, B.R., A.H. Devol, J.E. Richey, L.A. Martinelli and R. Dos Santos (1988) Factors controlling nutrient concentrations in Amazon floodplain lakes. Limnol. Oceanogr. 33(1):41-56. Studied the changes in nutrients and TSS in river waters when isolated in floodplain lakes. D; DAM; NIT; DPP; TSS; TN; TP

279. Franklin, E.C., J.D. Gregory and M.D. Smolen (1992) Enhancement of the Effectiveness of Forested Filter Zones by Dispersion of Agricultural Runoff. Report No. UNC-WRRI-92-270. Raleigh, NC: Water Resources Research Inst., 28 pp. Used Level Spreaders to Disperse Storm Overland Flows from Cropland into Forested Riparian Zones. D; F; PT; OF; TSS; TP; DAM; NIT

280. Frasier, G.W., M.J. Trlica, W.C. Leininger, R.A. Pearce and A. Fernald (1998) Runoff from simulated rainfall in 2 montane riparian communities. J. Range Manage. 51:315-322. Studied overland flow generation in grassed plots with a rainfall simulator. D, G, OF, MT

281. Fredriksen, R.L., D.G. Moore and L.A. Norris (1975) The impact of timber harvest, fertilization, and herbicide treatment on streamwater quality in western Oregon and Washington. Pp. 283-313, In: Forest Soils and Forest Land Management, B. Bernier and C.H. Winget (Eds.). Quebec: Laval University Press. Comparisons of Concentrations of Suspended Sediments, Dissolved Nutrients, and Herbicides in Streams Draining Clear Cuts, Partial Cuts and Control Douglas Fir Forests in Oregon. D; F; TSS; HERB; NIT; DAM; DPP; DTKN

282. Friedman, J.M., M.L. Scott and W.M. Lewis Jr. (1995) Restoration of riparian forest using irrigation, artificial disturbance, and natural seedfall. Environ. Manage. 19:547-557. Tested effects on seedling establishment for cottonwood and willow in Colorado. D, M, F

283. Fustec, E., A. Mariotti, X. Grillo and J. Sajus (1991) Nitrate removal by denitrification in alluvial ground water: Role of a former channel. J. Hydrol. 123:337-354. Study of Agricultural Groundwater Rich in Nitrate Moving Through a River Meander before Entering Channel. Natural Abundance N-15 use to Infer Denitrification. Also Field Acetylene Block for Direct Measurement of Denitrification. D; GW; DAM; NIT; DOM; Fe; Denit-F; Flux

284. Gaffney, S.W. and S.M. Ross (1995) Field edge solute processes in fen peats of the Somerset moors. Pp. 199-221, In: Hydrology and Hydrochemistry of British Wetlands, J.M.R. Hughes and A.L. Heathwaite (Eds.). London: Wiley. Applied ammonium nitrate and bromide tracer to field plots and tracked movement in soil water to a drainage ditch. D; NIT; TR

285. Gambrell, R.P., J.W. Gilliam and S.B. Weed (1975) Denitrification in subsoils of the North Carolina coastal plain as affected by soil drainage. J. Environ. Qual. 4:311-316. Study of Groundwater Moving From Agricultural Fields to Stream along a Transect. Measured Nitrate Concentrations, Eh, and Inferred Denitrification. D; CP; GW; NIT; DOM; DAM

286. Gambrell, R.P., J.W. Gilliam and S.B. Weed (1975) Nitrogen losses from soils of the North Carolina coastal plain. J. Environ. Qual. 4:317- 323. Study of Movement of Nitrate From Agricultural Uplands Through Riparian Zone to Stream Channel. Measured Hydrological Budgets Including Overland Flow. Mass Balance for Total N. D; CP; OF; GW; ET; TN; NIT

287. Gehrels, J. and G. Mulamoottil (1989) The transformation and export of phosphorus from wetlands. Hydrol. Proc. 3:365-370. Measured hydrologic budget and flux of dissolved ortho phosphate and total P for one year in a wetland in Ontario receiving drainage from croplands. D; H; GW; OF; TP; DPP; MBal; SedTrap; ET

288. German, E.R. (1989) Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus in an undeveloped wetland area, central Florida. Pp. 139-147, In: Wetlands: Concerns and Successes, D.W. Fisk (Ed.). Bethesda, MD: Amer. Water Resources Assoc. Input/Output Fluxes of Water and Nutrients From Upland Suburban and Agricultural Areas Through a Large Wetland. D; F; G; CP; TN; TP; NIT; DAM

289. German, B.K., K.C. Stone, R.G. Williams, D.W. Watts and J.M. Novak (2001) Using GLEAMS and REMM to estimate nutrient movement from a spray field and through a riparian forest. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agr. Eng. 44:505-512. Measured concentration patterns of nitrogen and phosphorus fractions in the soil profile and groundwater, then compared them to predictions using the models. D, M, G, GW, OF, CP, DAM, DPP, PTKN, NIT, TP

290. Gibert, J., J.A. Stanford, M.-J. Dole-Olivier and J.V. Ward (1994) Basic attributes of groundwater ecosystems and prospects for research. Pp. 7-40, In: Groundwater Ecology, J. Gibert, D.L. Danielopol, and J.A. Stanford (Eds.). Academic Press, New York. A wide-ranging review of the ecological aspects of groundwater ecosystems and their linkage to rivers. R

291. Gilliam, J.W. (1994) Upland wetlands and water quality. Pp. 102-106, In: Altered, Artificial, and Managed Wetlands. Focus: Agriculture and Forestry, J.A. Kusler and C. Lassonde (Eds.). Assoc. State Wetland Mngrs. A Review of Riparian Forest Interception of Nitrate in Shallow Groundwater. R; F; NIT; GW

292. Gilliam, J.W. (1994) Riparian wetlands and water quality. J. Environ. Qual. 23:896-900. A Review of Water Quality Buffering Effects of Riparian Vegetation Zones. R

293. Gilliam, J.W., G.M. Chescheir, R.W. Skaggs and R.G. Broadhead (1988) Effects of pumped agricultural drainage water on wetland water quality. Pp. 275-283, In: The Ecology and Management of Wetlands, D.D. Hook (Ed.). Portland, OR: Timber Press. Study of Nutrient and Sediment Removal in Forested Riparian Zones Subjected to Pumped Agricultural Drainage. D; F; CP; OF; GW; TSS; NIT; TP

294. Gilliam, J.W., R.B. Daniels and J.F. Lutz (1974) Nitrogen content of shallow ground water in the North Carolina coastal plain. J. Environ. Qual. 3:147-151. Study of 60 Groundwater Wells at 6 Sites on the Inner, Mid-, and Outer Coastal Plain of North Carolina. Nitrate Concentrations in Shallow Groundwater were High in the Middle of Crop Fields but low on the Edges Near Streams Draining Fields. True Whether the Riparian Zone was Forested or Cropped. D; CP; GW; NIT; DAM

295. Gilliam, J.W., J.E. Parsons and R.L. Mikkelsen (1997) Nitrogen dynamics and buffer zones. Pp. 54-61, In: Buffer Zones: Their Processes and Potential in Water Protection, N. Haycock, T. Burt, K. Goulding and G. Pinay (Eds.). Harpenden, U.K.: Quest Environmental. A broad review of the effectiveness of grassed and forested riparian buffers in removing nitrate and organic nitrogen. R; OF; GW; TSS; TN; NIT

296. Gilliam, J.W., R.W. Skaggs and C.W. Doty (1986) Controlled agricultural drainage: An alternative to riparian vegetation. Pp. 225- 243, In: Watershed Research Perspectives, D.L. Correll (Ed.). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Press. Study of the Relative Efficiency of Nitrate Removal from Groundwater in Riparian Zones with and without Controlled Drainage Structures in the Channels. D; CP; GW; NIT; TN; TP; DTKN

297. Gilliam, J.W., R.W. Skaggs and S.B. Weed (1979) Drainage control to diminish nitrate loss from agricultural fields. J. Environ. Qual. 8:137-142. Controlled Drainage Structures Were Used to Improve Rates of Nitrate Removal from Cropland Drainage in Waterlogged Soils. Riparian Zone was Cropped. Redox Potentials Were Monitored. D; CP; GW; NIT

298. Girel, J. and G. Pautou (1997) The influence of sedimentation on vegetation structure. Pp. 93-112, In: Buffer Zones: Their Processes and Potential in Water Protection, N. Haycock, T. Burt, K. Goulding and G. Pinay (Eds.). Harpenden, UK: Quest Environmental. A review of the effects of riparian vegetation on sediment trapping and the effects of sediment trapping on riparian vegetation. R; TSS; OF; SedTrap

299. Gold, A.J., P.M. Groffman, K. Addy, D.Q. Kellogg and A.E. Rosenblatt (2000) The role of landscape setting in riparian groundwater nitrate removal. Pp. 113-117, in: Riparian Ecology and Management in Multi-Land Use Watersheds. P.J. Wigington Jr. and R.L. Beschta (Eds.), Amer. Water Resourc. Assoc., Middleburg, VA. A review of past and present research by this group. R, NIT, GW

300. Gold, A.J., P.M. Groffman, K. Addy, D.Q. Kellogg, M. Stolt and A.E. Rosenblatt (2001) Landscape attributes as controls on ground water nitrate removal capacity of riparian zones. J. Am. Water Resourc. Assoc. 37:1457-1464. Tested for correlations between denitrification potentials in soils and geographic features such as presence of hydric soils and surface flow pathways. D, NIT, Denit-L

301. Gold, A.J. and D.Q. Kellogg (1997) Modelling internal processes of riparian buffer zones. Pp. 192-207, In: Buffer Zones: Their Processes and Potential in Water Protection, N. Haycock, T. Burt, K. Goulding and G. Pinay (Eds.). Harpenden, UK: Quest Environmental. A review and discussion of various modeling approaches to hydrology and nutrient dynamics of riparian zones. R; GW; NIT

302. Gold, A.J., P.A. Jacinthe, P.M. Groffman, W.R. Wright and R.H. Puffer (1998) Patchiness in groundwater nitrate removal in a riparian forest. J. Environ. Qual. 27:146-155. D; F; GW; NIT; Denit-L

303. Gove, N.E. and R.T. Edwards (2000) Identifying relationships between longitudinal water quality patterns and land cover: A question of scale. Pp. 517-522, in: Riparian Ecology and Management in Multi-Land Use Watersheds. P.J. Wigington Jr. and R.L. Beschta (Eds.), Amer. Water Resourc. Assoc., Middleburg, VA. Mapped land cover in riparian, nearby and the remaining watershed. Looked for correlations with turbidity in stream reaches. D, F, TSS

304. Green, D.M. (1998) Recreational impacts on erosion and runoff in a central Arizona riparian area. J. Soil Water Conserv. 53(1):38-42. Used a rainfall simulator to study runnoff from plots in a riparian zone impacted by camping. D; F; OF

305. Gregory, S.V., F.J. Swanson, W.A. McKee and K.W. Cummins (1991) An ecosystem perspective of riparian zones. Bioscience 41(8):540-551. An Overall Review of Stream-Riparian Interactions of Diverse Types. R

306. Griffiths, R.P., J.A. Entry, E.R. Ingham and W.H. Emmingham (1997) Chemistry and microbial activity of forest and pasture riparian-zone soils along three Pacific Northwest streams. Plant & Soil 190:169-178. Measured seasonal soil chemistry in grassed and forested sites, also microbial biomass. D, F, G, PTKN, POM, PAM, PPP, Denit-L, BioStor

307. Gril, J.J., B. Real, L. Patty, M. Fagot and I. Perret (1997) Grassed buffer zones to limit concentrations of surface waters by pesticides; research and action in France. Pp. 70-73, In: Buffer Zones: Their Processes and Potential in Water Protection, N. Haycock, T. Burt, K. Goulding and G. Pinay (Eds.). Harpenden, UK: Quest Environmental. A brief review of efforts in France to evaluate the effectiveness of grassed buffers. R; G; OF; HERB; INS

308. Grimm, N.B. and S.G. Fisher (1984) Exchange between interstitial and surface water: implications for stream metabolism and nutrient cycling. Hydrobiol. 111: 219-228. Measured whole system light and dark oxygen budgets, and oxygen budgets and nitrate uptake of surface sediments and cored sediments. D; HZ; NIT

309. Grimm, N.B., H.M. Valett, E.H. Stanley and S.G. Fischer (1991) Contribution of the hyporheic zone to stability of an arid-land stream. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 24:1595-1599. Examined patterns of nitrate concentrations along a reach of a stream and in the intersitial waters of the stream sediments. D; GW; HZ; NIT

310. Grischek, T., K.M. Hiscock, T. Metschies, P.F. Dennis and W. Nestler (1998) Factors affecting denitrification during infiltration of river water into a sand and gravel aquifer in Saxony, Germany. Water Res. 32:450-460. Studied changes in nitrate concentration and N-15 abundance as Elbe River water infiltrated into the flood plain. Also used a laboratory microcosm system to simulate the effects of the flood plain. D, GW, NIT, Denit-F, Denit-L, Infil

311. Groffman, P.M. (1997) Contaminant effects on microbial functions in riparian buffer zones. Pp. 83-92, In: Buffer Zones: Their Processes and Potential in Water Protection, N. Haycock, T. Burt, K. Goulding and G. Pinay (Eds.). Harpenden, UK: Quest Environmental. A review with some new data on denitrification potential and microbial biomass in soils of riparian zones. R; GW; NIT; HERB; Denit-L

312. Groffman, P.M., E.A. Axelrod, J.L. Lemunyon and W.M. Sullivan (1991) Denitrification in grass and forest vegetated filter strips. J. Environ. Qual. 20(3):671-674. Compared denitrification potentials of soils in grassed and forested riparian buffers. D; F; G; Denit-L; NIT; pH; DOM

313. Groffman, P.M., N.J. Boulware, W.C. Zipperer, R.V. Pouyat, L. E. Band and M. F. Colosimo (2002) Soil nitrogen cycle processes in urban riparian zones. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36:4547-4552. Studied four forested riparian zones in the Baltimore, MD region, one of which was not urbanized and served as a control. Focused on urban caused stream channel incision and its effects on nitrification and denitrification. D, F, 1st Order, 2nd Order, PT, NIT, Denit-L, Nitrif, NutCyc

314. Groffman, P.M. and M.K. Crawford (2003) Denitrification potential in urban riparian zones. J. Environ. Qual. 32:1144-1149. Studied eight riparian zones in the Baltimore, MD region, which varied in vegetation and density of urban development. D, F, H, PT, NIT, Denit-L, Nitrif

313. Groffman, P.M., A.J. Gold and K. Addy (2000) Nitrous oxide production in riparian zones and its importance to national emission inventories. Chemosphere � Global Change Sci. 2:291-299. A review of literature on nitrous oxide emissions from riparian zones and a suggested approach to estimating the contribution of these zones to US national emission inventory. R, M

314. Groffman, P.M., A.J. Gold and P.-A. Jacinthe (1998) Nitrous oxide production in riparian zones and groundwater. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 52:179-186. A review and analysis of how this production of nitrous oxide fits into global flux calculations. R, GW, Denit

315. Groffman, P.M., A.J. Gold and R.C. Simmons (1992) Nitrate dynamics in riparian forests: Microbial studies. J. Environ. Qual. 21(4):666-671. Comparison of Nitrate Transport and Loss at Several Sites Which Differed in Degree of Soil Waterlogging and Loading with Nitrate from Uplands. Measured Mineralization Rates, Enzyme Potential for Denitrification and Microbial Biomass Pools of N and P. D; GW; F; NIT; Denit-L; Nitrif; BioStor; NutCyc

316. Groffman, P.M., G. Howard, A.J. Gold and W.M. Nelson (1996) Microbial nitrate processing in shallow groundwater in a riparian forest. J. Environ. Qual. 25:1309-1316. Created microcosms containing 50 g. soil from the groundwater depths at various locations within a riparian forest. Ran acetylene block denitrification tests with and without added glucose. Looked for correlations with microbial biomass, root biomass, soil carbon and nitrogen. NIT; D; F; GW; POM; PTN; BioStor; Denit-L; Nitrif; TS

317. Groffman, P.M., W.H. McDowell, J.C. Myers and J.L. Merriam (2001) Soil microbial biomass and activity in tropical riparian forests. Soil Biol. Biochem. 33:1339-1348. Measured soil microbial biomass and activity in undisturbed forest, disturbed forest, and residential sites for several types of tropical forest in Costa Rica. D, F, G, POM, Denit-L, Nitrif

318. Grubaugh, J.W. and R.V. Anderson (1989) Upper Mississippi River: seasonal and floodplain forest influences on organic matter transport. Hydrobiologia 174:235-244. Used Upstream/Downstream Sampling of Discharge and Organic C Concentrations during high and low Flow Periods for Two Years to Investigate Effects of a Large area of Forested Floodplain on the Upper Mississippi River. D; F; OF; DOC; POC

319. Gurtz, M.E., G.R. Marzolf, K.T. Killingbeck, D.L. Smith and J.V. McArthur (1988) Hydrologic and riparian influences on the import and storage of coarse particulate organic matter in a prairie stream. Can. J. Fish. & Aquatic Sci. 45:655-665. Comparison of Flux of Particulate Organic Matter from Riparian Zones Vegetated with Different Plant Communities into a Stream Channel. D; G; H; F; POM; Flux

320. Hammer, D.A. (1989) Constructed wetlands for treatment of agricultural waste and urban stormwater. Pp. 333-348, In: Wetlands Ecology and Conservation: Emphasis in Pennsylvania, S.K. Majumdar, R.P. Brooks, F.J. Brenner and R.W. Tinner Jr. (Eds.). Philadelphia, PA: Penn. Acad. Sci. General Review of the Use of Natural and Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Renouvation. R

321. Hammer, D.A. (1992) Designing constructed wetlands systems to treat agricultural nonpoint source pollution. Ecol. Engin. 1:49-82. A Review of How Constructed Wetlands are Designed and How They can be Used to Treat Agricultural Runoff as Well as Other Wastewater. R; H; TSS; TN; TP

322. Hamzah, M.N. (1983) Root Biomass, Production and Decomposition in the Riparian Forests of an Agricultural Watershed. Ph. D. Thesis. Athens, GA: Univ. Georgia.

323. Hanson, G.C., P.M. Groffman and A.J. Gold (1994) Symptoms of nitrogen saturation in a riparian wetland. Ecol. Appl. 4(4):750-756. Soil Nitrogen Dynamics were Studied along Riparian Forest Transects with Differing Nitrate Loading. Soil Moisture, Organic Matter, pH, Nitrogen Content, Microbial Biomass, N Mineralization were Measured. Analyzed Vascular Plant Leaf C & N Content. D; F; GW; NIT; Nitrif; NutCyc; Biostor; Flux

324. Hanson, G.C., P.M. Groffman and A.J. Gold (1994) Denitrification in riparian wetlands receiving high and low groundwater nitrate inputs. J. Environ. Qual. 23:917-922. Measured Denitrification Potentials in Soil Cores Along a Gradient of Soil Water Saturation in Sites Receiving or Not Receiving High Nitrate Groundwater Fluxes from Suburban Housing Developments. D; F; GW; Denit-L; NIT

325. Harmon, M.E., J.F. Franklin, F.J. Swanson, P. Sollins, S.V. Gregory, J.D. Lattin, N.H. Anderson and et al. (1986) Ecology of coarse woody debris in temperate ecosystems. Adv. Ecol. Res. 15:133-302. Comprehensive Review of Coarse Woody Debris in Streams with a Section Specifically on Input Rates from Various Forests. R; POM; Flux

326. Harris, G.L. and A. Forster (1997) Pesticide contamination of surface waters-the potential role of buffer zones. Pp. 62-69, In: Buffer Zones: Their Processes and Potential in Water Protection, N. Haycock, T. Burt, K. Goulding and G. Pinay (Eds.). Harpenden, UK: Quest Environmental. A general review of what is known about the potential for trapping water and air-born pesticides within buffer zones. R; G; GW; OF; HERB; INS

327. Harrison, A.D., P. Keller and D. Dimovic (1960) Ecological studies in Olifantsvlei near Johannesburg. Hydrobiologia 15:89-134. Measured Concentrations of Nutrients Enterring and Leaving an Extensive Marsh Which the Streams Flowed Through. D; H; DAM; NIT

328. Hart, B.T., E.M. Ottaway and B.N. Noller (1987) Magela Creek system, northern Australia. II. Material budget for the floodplain. Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 38(6):861-876. A Mass Balance Model of Inputs From Precipitation and Tributary Creeks and Output in the Lower Channel was used to Infer the Channel Interactions with the Floodplain. D; TSS; NIT; DAM; TP; Flux; MBal

329. Hart, D.R. (1995) Parameter estimation and stochastic interpretation of the transient storage model for solute transport in streams. Water Resourc. Res. 31:323-328. A new mathematical approach to modeling hyporheic zone exchanges in tracer studies. D; HZ; TS

330. Harvey, J.W. and K.E. Bencala (1993) The effect of streambed topography on surface-subsurface water exchange in mountain catchments. Water Resour. Res. 29(1):89-98. A hydrological study of the interactions between stream channel water and hyporheic zone water. D; HZ; TS; MT

331. Harvey, J.W. and C.C. Fuller (1998) Effect of enhanced manganese oxidation in the hyporheic zone on basin-scale geochemical mass balance. Water Resourc. Res. 34:623-636. Examined the role of the hyporheic zone in manganese metabolism on various scales. D, HZ, TrM, TS

332. Harvey, J.W. and C.C. Fuller (2000) Effect of enhanced manganese oxidation in the hyporheic zone on basin-scale geochemical mass balance. Water Resourc. Res. 34:623-636.

333. Harvey, J.W. and B.J. Wagner (2000) * Quantifying hydrologic interactions between streams and their subsurface hyporheic zones. Pp. 3-44, In: J.B. Jones and P.J. Mullholland (Eds.), Streams and Ground Waters, Academic Press, New York. HZ

334. Harvey, J.W., B.J. Wagner and K.E. Bencala (1996) Evaluating the reliability of the stream tracer approach to characterize stream-subsurface water exchange. Water Resourc. Res. 32(8):2441-2451. Tested the validity of using tracers to measure hyporheic exchange rates at low and high base flow. D; HZ; TS

335. Hauer, F.R. and R.D. Smith (1998) The hydrogeomorphic approach to functional assessment of riparian wetlands: evaluating impacts and mitigation on river floodplains in the U.S.A. Freshwater Biol. 40:517-530. A review. R

336. Haupt, H.F. and W.J. Kidd Jr. (1965) Good logging practices reduce sedimentation in central Idaho. J. Forestry 63:664-670. Measured Effectiveness of Leaving Forest Buffers of Various Widths on Total Sediment Discharges When Clearcutting Forested Watersheds. D; F; MT; TSS

337. Hayakawa, Y., K. Kanazawa and M. Hojito (2002) Nutrient retention in grassland buffer strip. Pp. 67-76, In: R. Hatano, U. Mander, Y. Hayakawa, V. Kuusemets, Y. Watanabe and K. Kanazawa (eds.), Efficiency of Purification Processes in Riparian Buffer Zones, Their Design and Planning in Agricultural Watersheds, Natl. Agric. Res. Center Hokkaido Region, Kushiro, Japan. Two fields of cropland were treated with normal and double fertilizer levels. Downslope were areas of grassland and of bare soil. A confining layer was found at a depth of 2 M. Groundwater table and nitrate concentrations were measured monthly for two years. D, G, GW, NIT

338. Haycock, N.E. (1991) Riparian Land as Buffer Zones in Agricultural Catchments. Ph.D. Thesis. Oxford, UK: Univ. Oxford.

339. Haycock, N.E. and T.P. Burt (1993) Role of floodplain sediments in reducing the nitrate concentration of subsurface runoff: a case study in the Cotswolds, UK. Hydrol. Process. 7; 287-295. Used Wells to Follow Concentration of Nitrate in Groundwater Flowing Through Grassed Floodplain to Channel. D; G; GW; NIT; Flux

340. Haycock, N.E. and T.P. Burt (1993) The sensitivity of rivers to nitrate leaching: The effectiveness of near-stream land as a nutrient retention zone. Pp. 261-272, In: Landscape Sensitivity, D.S.G. Thomas and R.J. Allison (Eds.). London: Wiley. Measured Nitrate Concentrations in Shallow Groundwater as it Moved Through Grazed Pastureland on a River Floodplain to the Channel. D; G; GW; NIT

341. Haycock, N.E. and A.D. Muscutt (1995) Landscape management strategies for the control of diffuse pollution. Landscape Urban Plan. 31:313- 321. A discussion of the various management aspects of the use of riparian buffers at the watershed scale for improved stream quality. M; GW; OF; NIT

342. Haycock, N.E. and G. Pinay (1993) Groundwater nitrate dynamics in grass and poplar vegetated riparian buffer strips during the winter. J. Environ. Qual. 22:273-278. Comparison of Nitrate Removal Efficiencies Between a Grass and a Poplar Forested Riparian Zone in England. D; G; F; GW; NIT; Flux; MBal

343. Haycock, N.E., G. Pinay and C. Walker (1993) Nitrogen retention in river corridors: European perspective. Ambio; in press. Review of Use of Riparian Vegetation Zones to Control Nitrate Movement from Uplands into Stream Channels. R; GW; NIT

344. Hayes, J.C., B.J. Barfield and R.I. Barnhisel (1979) Filtration of sediment by simulated vegetation II. Unsteady flow with non- homogeneous sediment. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agric. Engin. 22:1063-1067. Continues Development of a Mathematical Model of Sediment Trapping by Grass in Filter Strips. D; G; TSS; SedTrap

345. Hayes, J.C., B.J. Barfield and R.I. Barnhisel (1984) Performance of grass filters under laboratory and field conditions. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agric. Engin. 27:1321-1331. Tested a Sediment Transport Model with Laboratory Experiments Under Complex Topographic Conditions. D; G; OF; TSS

346. He, Q. and D.E. Walling (1997) Spatial variability of the particle size composition of overbank floodplain deposits. Water Air Soil Pollut. 99:71-80. Studied grain size distriubtions in floodplain deposits on three rivers in the UK. D; OF; SedTrap

347. Hearne, J.W. and C. Howard-Williams (1988) Modelling nitrate removal by riparian vegetation in a springfed stream: The influence of land-use practices. Ecol. Model. 42:179-198. Mathematical Model Developed and Tested with Field Data for Nitrate Dynamics Between Stream Channel and Herbaceous Plants on Stream Bank. D; H; NIT; BioMass

348. Hedin, L. (1990) Factors controlling sediment community respiration in a woodland stream ecosystem. Oikos 57:94-105. Measured respiration rates in bottom sediments and found it related to organic matter content of the sediments. D; F; HZ; DOM; POM

349. Hedin, L.O., J.C. von Fischer, N.E. Ostrom, B.P. Kennedy, M.G. Brown and G.P. Robertson (1998) Thermodynamic constraints on nitrogen transformations and other biogeochemical processes at soil-stream interfaces. Ecology 79(2):684-703. Studied groundwater chemistry along riparian transects on a Michigan stream. Added organic compounds in situ to determine effects on nitrate reduction. D; H; 1st order; GW; TS; DAM; DOM; NIT; Denit-F

350. Hefting, M., J. Verhoeven, P. Bienkowski, J.-C. Clement, D. Dowrick, C. Guenat, E. Nin and S. Topa (2002) The role of vegetation and litter in the nitrogen dynamics of riparian buffer zones in Europe. Pp. 45-56 In: R. Hatano, U. Mander, Y. Hayakawa, V. Kuusemets, Y. Watanabe and K. Kanazawa (eds.), Efficiency of Purification Processes in Riparian Buffer Zones, Their Design and Planning in Agricultural Watersheds, Natl. Agric. Res. Center Hokkaido Region, Kushiro, Japan. Measured nitrogen pools and transformation rates in a series of riparian zones along a climatic gradient, both forested and herbaceous. D, F, H, BioStor, NutCyc

351. Hendricks, S.P. (1992) Bacterial dynamics near the groundwater-surface water interface (hyporheic zone) beneath a sandy-bed, third-order stream in northern Michigan. Pp. 27-35, In: J.A. Stanford and J.J. Simons (Eds.), Proc. First International Conf. Ground Water Ecology, Amer. Water Resources Assoc., Bethesda, MD. Measured sediment bacterial populations, respiration, and carbon turnover rates in a riffle/pool sequence. D, HZ, DOM

352. Hendricks, S.P. (1993) Microbial ecology of the hyporheic zone: a perspective integrating hydrology and biology. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 12(1):70-78. A review. R

353. Hendricks, S.P. (1996) Bacterial biomass, activity, and production within the hyporheic zone of a north-temperate stream. Arch. Hydrobiol. 136(4):467-487. Studied microbial communities at depths of 10 and 50 cm, tested response to added DOC. D; HZ; 3rd order; DOM

354. Hendricks, S.P. and D.S. White (1991) Physicochemical patterns within a hyporheic zone of a northern Michigan river, with comments on surface water patterns. Can. J. Fish. Aquatic Sci. 48:1645-1654. Mapped interstitial water temperature and composition with depth along a 10 km reach. D; HZ; F; DOM; DPP; NIT; 3rd order

355. Hendricks, S.P. and D.S. White (1995) Seasonal biogeochemical patterns in surface water, subsurface hyporheic, and riparian ground water in a temperate stream ecosystem. Arch. Hydrobiol. 134:459-490. One year study of a Michigan stream. Used nested mini-piezometers to a depth of 50 cm in the stream bed and a shallow groundwater well 3 meters from the bank to study exchanges and interactions among the channel, riparian zone, and hyporheic zone. D; F; GW; HZ; DOM; DPP; NIT; DAM; 3rd order

356. Hendrickson Jr., O.Q. (1981) Flux of nitrogen and carbon gases in bottomland soils of an agricultural watershed. (Diss. Abstr. 82- 01544), Ph.D. Thesis. Athens, GA: University of Georgia.

357. Henry, K.S., H.M. Valett, J.A. Morrice, C.N. Dahm, G.J. Wroblicky, M.A. Santistevan and M.E. Campana (1994) Ground water-surface water exchange in two headwater streams. Pp. 319-328, In: Proc. Second Internatl. Conf. Ground Water Ecology, J.A. Stanford and H.M. Valett (Eds.), Amer. Water Resources Assoc., Herndon, VA. Directly measured vertical water exchanges at several stream sites. D; HZ; GW

358. Herrick, B.R. (1981) Extractable Soil Pools of Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, and Phosphorus in the Riparian Zone of an Agricultural Watershed. M.S. Thesis. Athens, GA: Univ. Georgia.

359. Hey, D.L., M.A. Cardamone, J.H. Sather and W.J. Mitsch (1989) Restoration of riverine wetlands: the Des Plaines River wetlands demonstration project. Pp. 159-183, In: Ecological Engineering: An Introduction to Ecotechnology, W.J. Mitsch and S.E. Jorgensen (Eds.). New York: Wiley. Summary of Plans and Objectives for a Wetland Restoration Project on the Floodplain of the Des Plaines River. M

360. Hickin, E.J. (1984) Vegetation and river channel dynamics. Canadian Geographer 28(2):111-126. A general review of the effects of riparian vegetation on stream channel morphology and dynamics. R

361. Hill, A.R. (1990) Ground water flow paths in relation to nitrogen chemistry in the near-stream zone. Hydrobiologia 206(1):39-52. Followed Pathways of Groundwater Through Stream Riparian Zone with Tracers, Sampling Along Transects of Nested Piezometers and Ground Water Wells. D; F; 2nd order; NIT; DAM; TS; GW

362. Hill, A.R. (1990) Groundwater cation concentrations in the riparian zone of a forested headwater stream. Hydrol. Proc. 4:121-130. Used Tracers to Follow Pathways and Chemistry of Groundwater Through a Stream Riparian Zone. D; F; GW; 2nd order; TS; Ca; Mg; K

363. Hill, A.R. (1991) A ground water nitrogen budget for a headwater swamp in an area of permanent ground water discharge. Biogeochemistry 14:209-224. Compared Local and Regional Ground Water Inputs and Their N- Content. Also Discharges From the Swamp. Used a Chloride Balance. D; F; 2nd order; GW; TN; DAM; NIT; DTKN

364. Hill, A.R. (1993) Nitrogen dynamics of storm runoff in the riparian zone of a forested watershed. Biogeochemistry. 20:19-44. Estimated Overland Flow With O-18 as a Tracer and Measured Ammonium and Nitrate in Rain, Throughfall, and Stream. D; F; OF; 2nd order; DAM; NIT

365. Hill, A.R. (1993) Base Cation Chemistry of Storm Runoff in a Forested Headwater Wetland. Water Resources Res. 29(8):2663-2673. Followed Fluxes of Major Cations Through a Forested Riparian Swamp During Storm Events. D; F; 2nd order; OF; Ca; Mg; K; Na

366. Hill, A.R. (1996) Nitrate removal in stream riparian zones. J. Environ. Qual. 25:743-755. A very comprehensive review of the fate of nitrate in groundwater entering riparian zones. R; F; G; GW; NIT

367. Hill, A.R. (1997) The potential role of in-stream and hyporheic environments as buffer zones. Pp. 115-127, In: Buffer Zones: Their Processes and Potential in Water Protection, N. Haycock, T. Burt, KGoulding and G. Pinay (Eds.). Harpenden, UK: Quest Environmental. A review of nutrient processing in stream channels and hyporheic zones. R; HZ; NIT; DPP

368. Hill, A.R. and K.J. Devito (1997) Hydrologic-chemical interactions in headwater forest wetlands. Pp. 213-230, In: Northern Forested Wetlands: Ecology and Management, C.C. Trettin, M.F. Jurgensen, D.F. Grigal, M.R. Gale and J.K. Jeglum (Eds.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC/Lewis Publ. A review synthesizing a series of previous papers on three forested swamps in Ontario. R; F; DAM; NIT; DTKN; TN; TP; DPP

369. Hill, A.R., K.J. Devito, S. Campagnolo and K. Sanmugadas (2000) Subsurface denitrification in a forest riparian zone: Interactions between hydrology and supplies of nitrate and organic carbon. Biogeochemistry 51:193-223. Measured concentrations of nitrate and DOC along a plume of nitrate and manipulated conditions in piezometers by injecting acetylene, glucose and or nitrate. D, F, GW, DOM, NIT, TS, Denit-F

370. Hill, A.R., C.F. Labadia and K. Sanmugadas (1998) Hyporheic zone hydrology and nitrogen dynamics in relation to the streambed topography of a N-rich stream. Biogeochemstry 42:285-310. Studied a 3rd order stream in Ontario and measured exchanges of water and nutrients between the channel and the sediments. D, F, 3rd order, HZ, TS, DAM, NIT

371. Hill, A.R. and D.J. Lymburner (1998) Hyporheic zone chemistry and stream-subsurface exchange in two groundwater-fed streams. Can. J. Fish. Aquatic Sci. 55(2):495-506. Measured exchange rates and depths between channel waters and interstitial waters. Used chloride tracer and examined nitrate/ammonium retention with and without added nutrient. D; F; 2nd order; 3rd order; HZ; DAM; NIT; TS; Denit-F

372. Hill, A.R. and M. Shackleton (1989) Soil N mineralization and nitrification in relation to nitrogen solution chemistry in a small forested watershed. Biogeochemistry 8(2):167-184. On a Completely Forested Watershed, Compared Soil Nitrification Rates, Groundwater Nitrate Concentrations for Upland and Riparian Forest Communities. D; F; GW; 2nd order; NIT; Nitrif; DAM; BioStor

373. Hill, A.R. and J.M. Waddington (1993) Analysis of storm run-off sources using oxygen-18 in a headwater swamp. Hydrol. Processes 7:305-316. Used a Tracer to Determine Source of Overland Storm Flows in a Forested Swamp. D; F; 2nd order; OF; TS

374. Hill, A.R. and J. Warwick (1987) Ammonium transformations in springwater within the riparian zone of a small woodland stream. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 44(11):1948-1956. Spring water was Experimentaly Enriched with Dissolved Ammonium, Then Allowed to Flow Through a Stream Riparian Forest into the Channel. Rates of Ammonification and Nitrification were Measured. D; F; 2nd order; NIT; DAM; Nitrif

375. Hillbricht-Ilkowska, A. (1993) Temperate freshwater ecotones: Problem with seasonal instability. Pp. 17-34, In: Wetlands and Ecotones, B. Gopal, A. Hillbricht-Ilkowska and R.G. Wetzel (Eds.). New Delhi: National Institute of Ecology. A review containing some conceptualizations of riparian zones. R

376. Hillbricht-Ilkowska, A. (1995) Managing ecotones for nutrients and water. Ecology International 22:73-93. A general review of ecotones including riparian ecotones. R

377. Hinkle, S.R., J.H. Duff, F.J. Triska, A. Laenen, E.B. Gates, K.E. Bencala, D.A. Wentz and S.R. Silva (2001) Linking hyporheic flow and nitrogen cycling near the Willamette River � a large river in Oregon, USA. J. Hydrol. 244:157-180. Used isotopic tracers and chloride and nitrate concentrations along with discharges and pressure gradients to determine volumes and directions of exchange between the channel and hyporheic zone. Also measured potential denitrification. D, F, GW, HZ, TS, 9th Order, NIT, Denit-L, Flux, MBal

378. Hoffmann, C.C., M. Mbai, G. Blicher-Mathiesen and C. Paludan (In Press) Studies of hydrological and biogeochemical processes in a freshwater wetland, 19 pp. All forms of dissolved nitrogen were followed in shallow groundwater as it moved accross a fen and into a stream channel. Mass balances were calculated. D; GW; H; NIT; DAM; DTKN; DPP; MBal; Fe; pH

379. Holland, M.M., D.F. Whigham and B. Gopal (1990) The characteristics of wetland ecotones. Pp. 171-198, In: The Ecology and Management of Aquatic-Terrestrial Ecotones, R.J. Naiman and H. DeCamps (Eds.). Paris: UNESCO. A General Review of the Ecology of Upland/Wetland Riparian Zones. R

380. Holmes, R.M., S.G. Fisher and N.B. Grimm (1994) Parafluvial nitrogen dynamics in a desert stream ecosystem. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 13(4):468-478. Measured changes in dissolved inorganic nitrogen as stream waters and shallow groundwaters interacted along the bank of a desert stream. D; GW; HZ; TS; NIT; DAM; Nitrif

381. Holmes, R.M., S.G. Fisher and N.B. Grimm (1994) Nitrogen dynamics along prafluvial flowpaths: importance to the stream ecosystem. Pp. 47-56, In: Proc. Second Internatl. Conf. Groundwater Ecology, J.A. Stanford and H.M. Valett (Eds.). Bethesda, MD: Amer. Water Resources Assoc. Measured nitrate concentrations in inflowing and outflowing waters of gravel bars in Sycamore Creek, Arizona. D; NIT; Nitrif

382. Hopmans, P., D.W. Flinn and P.W. Farrell (1987) Nutrient dynamics of forested catchments in southeastern Australia and changes in water quality and nutrient exports following clearing. Forest Ecol. Manage. 20:209-231. Three forested watersheds in Australia were studied for six years. Inputs of wet deposition and outputs at V-notch weirs (weekly samples) were measured for four years, then one watershed was cleared and burned except for a 30 meter buffer zone. All three watersheds were in native Eucalypt forest, but the cleared one was replanted in Pinus radiata. D; F; TSS; pH; Na; K; Ca; Mg; MBal

383. Howard-Williams, C. (1991) Dynamic processes in New Zealand land-water ecotones. New Zealand J. Ecol. 15:87-98. A General Review of New Zealand Studies of Stream Riparian Ecotones Including Nutrient and Sediment Interactions. R

384. Howard-Williams, C., J. Davies and S. Pickmere (1982) The dynamics of growth, the effects of changing area and nitrate uptake by watercress Nasturtium Officinale R. Br. in a New Zealand stream. J. Appl. Ecol. 19:589-601. Detailed Study of Nitrogen Assimilation and Storage by Herbaceous Vegetation on Stream Bank. D; H; 2nd order; NIT; BioStor

385. Howard-Williams, C. and M.T. Downes (1984) Nutrient removal by streambank vegetation. Pp. 409-422, In: Land Treatment of Wastes. Water & Soil Misc. Publ. 70, R.J. Wilcock (Ed.). Nitrate Removal by Streambank Herbaceous Vegetation. D; H; 2nd order; NIT; DAM; DTKN

386. Howard-Williams, C., S. Pickmere and J. Davies (1986) Nutrient retention and processing in New Zealand streams: the influence of riparian vegetation. New Zealand Agricultural Science 20:110-115. A general review of the nutrient processing functions of riparian zones. R; NIT

387. Hubbard, R.K. and R.R. Lowrance (1994) Spatial and temporal patterns of solute transport through a riparian forest. Pp. 403-411, In: Riparian Ecosystems in the Humid U.S., Functions, Values and Management. Wash., D.C.: Natl. Assoc. Conserv. Districts. Followed Movement of Nitrate and Bromide Applied to the Soil Surface Upslope from a Riparian Forest. D; F; GW; CP; TS; NIT

388. Hubbard, R.K. and R.R. Lowrance (1994) Riparian forest buffer system research at the Coastal Plain experiment station, Tifton, GA. Water Air Soil Pollut. 77:409-432. A review with some current, new data. R; D; F; GW; OF; NIT; Denit-F

389. Hubbard, R.K. and R.R. Lowrance (1996) Solute transport and filtering through a riparian forest. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agric. Engin. 39(2):477-488. Applied nitrate and bromide tracer to the edge of a riparian forest and tracked movement for several years. D; F; GW; OF; TS; CP; NIT

390. Hubbard, R.K. and R. Lowrance (1997) Assessment of forest management effects on nitrate removal by riparian buffer systems. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agric. Engin. 40(2):383-391. Studied effects of clear-cutting and selective logging on nutrient functions of a riparian forest in GA. D; F; 2nd order; GW; CP; NIT; DAM

391. Hubbard, R.K., G.L. Newton, J.G. Davis, R. Lowrance, G. Vellidis and C.R. Dove (1998) Nitrogen assimilation by riparian buffer systems receiving swine lagoon wastewater. Trans. Am. Soc. Agr. Engin. 41:1295-1304. Drainage from an irrigated pasture was tracked through riparian areas of grass and grass plus forest. D, G, F, CP, GW, OF, NIT, DAM, TKN

392. Hubbard, R.K., J.M. Ruter, G.L. Newton and J.G. Davis (1999) Nutrient uptake and growth response of six wetland/riparian plant species receiving swine lagoon effluent. Trans. Am. Soc. Agr. Engin. 42:1331-1341. Measured the growth and biomass/nutrient content increase of various wetland plants in a riparian zone subjected to high nutrient loading. D, CP, TKN

393. Hubbard, R.K., G. Vellidis, R. Lowrance, J.G. Davis and G.L. Newton (1995) Using riparian buffers to treat animal waste. Pp. 127-134, In: Animal Waste and the Land Water Interface, K. Steele (Ed.). New York: Lewis. Hardwood Deciduous Forest was Replanted in a Streamside Riparian Zone. Then animal waste from a sewage lagoon was applied upslope to examine effects of the riparian zone on water quality of both overland flows and shallow groundwater. D; F; OF; GW; CP; NIT; DAM; TN; DPP; DTP

394. Huggenberger, P., E. Hoehn, R. Beschta and W. Woessner (1998) Abiotic aspects of channels and floodplains in riparian ecology. Freshwater Biol. 40:407-425. A wide-ranging review. R

395. Hupp, C.R. and D.E. Bazemore (1993) Temporal and spatial patterns of wetland sedimentation, West Tennessee. J. Hydrology 141:179-196. Used Tree Cores and Depth of Burial of Original Tree Roots to Measure Long-Term Sedimentation. Short-Term Sedimentation was Measured Over Clay Pads. D; F; SedTrap

396. Hupp, C.R. and E.E. Morris (1990) A dendrogeomorphic approach to measurement of sedimentation in a forested wetland, Black Swamp, Arkansas. Wetlands 10:107-124. Measured Sedimentation Rates for a Forested Floodplain. D; F; CP; TSS; SedTrap

397. Hupp, C.R., M.D. Woodside and T.M. Yanosky (1993) Sediment and trace element trapping in a forested wetland, Chickahominy River, Virginia. Wetlands 13(2):95-104. Measured Sediment Depositon Rates in a Forested Flood Plain and the Trace Element Composition of the Deposited Sediments. D; F; CP; TrM; TSS; SedTrap; BioStor

398. Hussey, M.R., Q.D. Skinner, J.C. Adams and A.J. Harvey (1985) Denitrification and bacterial numbers in riparian soil of a Wyoming mountain watershed. J. Range Management 38:492-496. Soils at Three Shallow Depths Along Transects from Stream Channel to Uplands were Analyzed for Numbers of Denitrifying Bacteria and Potential Rates of Denitrification. D; Denit-L

399. Inamdar, S.P. (1996) Investigation of Hydrologic and Sediment Transport Processes on Riparian Hillslopes. Ph. D. Thesis. Blacksburg, VA, Virginia Polytech. Inst. & State U. Developed a physically-based continuous simulation model of hydrology and sediment transport in forested and herbaceous riparian buffers. D; TSS; OF

400. Inamdar, S.P. and T.A. Dillaha (2000) Relationships between drainage area, slope length, and slope gradient for riparian slopes in Virginia. Trans. Am. Soc. Agr. Eng. 43(4):861-866. Tested methods of estimating overland storm flows and concentrated flows into riparian zones from digital elevation data in the Ridge & Valley area of VA. D, OF, MT

401. Inamdar, S.P., R.R. Lowrance, L.S. Altier, R.G. Williams and R.K. Hubbard (1999) Riparian ecosystem management model (REMM):II. Testing of the water quality and nutrient cycling component for a Coastal Plain riparian system. Trans. Am. Soc. Agr. Eng. 42:1691-1707.

402. Inamdar, S.P., M.J. Michell and J.J. McDonnell (2000) Topographic and riparian controls on hydrologic and biogeochemical response of forested catchments. Pp. 137-142, in: Riparian Ecology and Management in Multi-Land Use Watersheds. P.J. Wigington Jr. and R.L. Beschta (Eds.), Amer. Water Resourc. Assoc., Middleburg, VA. Modeled hydrology and nitrogen discharges from Archer Creek using variable source areas. D, F, MT, DTKN, NIT

403. Inamdar, S.P., S. Mostaghimi, P.W. McClellan and K. M. Brannan (2001) BMP impacts on sediment and nutrient yields from an agricultural watershed in the Coastal Plain region. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agr. Engin. 44:1191-1200. Examined data from a long-term study of a 1463 ha watershed in Virginia prior to and after implementation of in-field BMPs and installation of filter strips. D, M, G, 3rd order, CP, DAM, TSS, NIT, DKN, TKN, DPP, DTP, PPP, TP

404. Inamdar, S.P., J.M. Sheridan, R.G. Williams, D.D. Bosch, R.R. Lowrance, L.S. Altier and D.L. Thomas (1999) Riparian ecosystem management model (REMM): I. Testing of the hydrologic component for a Coastal Plain riparian system. Trans. Am. Soc. Agr. Eng. 42:1679-1689.

405. Ingendahl, D., E. Ter Haseborg, M. Meier, O. van der Most, H. Steele and D. Werner (2002) Linking hyporheic community respiration and inorganic nitrogen transformations in the river Lahn (Germany). Arch Hydrobiol. 155 (1):99-120. Studied respiration and nitrification in bottom sediments. Carried out nitrate and ammonium enrichment experiments. D, DAM, HZ, NIT, POM, Nitrif

406. Ishida, T. and K. Nakamura (2002) Runoff on grassland slopes with riparian forest in a volcanic ash-covered area of Eastern Hokkaido. Pp. 298-303, In: R. Hatano, U. Mander, Y. Hayakawa, V. Kuusemets, Y. Watanabe and K. Kanazawa (eds.), Efficiency of Purification Processes in Riparian Buffer Zones, Their Design and Planning in Agricultural Watersheds, Natl. Agric. Res. Center Hokkaido Region, Kushiro, Japan. Studied the hydrology of an area with upland grass pastures and lowland riparian forests with high infiltration rates. D, F, OF, GW

407. Iversen, T.M., J. Thorup and J. Skriver (1982) Inputs and transformation of allochthonous particulate organic matter in a headwater stream. Holarct. Ecol. 5:10-19. Estimated Inputs of Forest Litter to Stream on a Completely Forested Watershed in Denmark. Does Not Describe How Inputs were Measured. D; F; 1st order; POM

408. Jacinthe, P.A., P.M. Groffman, A.J. Gold and A. Mosier (1998) Patchiness in microbial nitrogen transformations in groundwater in a riparian forest. J. Environ. Qual. 27:156-164. Used large soil cores to conduct laboratory studies of nitrogen cycling and flux under various experimental conditions. D; F; GW; NIT; DAM; DOM; POM; Denit-L; Nitrif

409. Jacks, G., A. Joelsson and S. Fleischer (1994) Nitrogen retention in forest wetlands. Ambio 23(6):358-362. A two and a half year study of six forested watersheds in Sweden which drained into forested bog riparian wetlands. Inputs to the bogs from the atmosphere and the uplantds were measured along with outputs from the bogs. D; F; NIT; TN; MBal

410. Jacobs, T.C. and J.W. Gilliam (1983) Nitrate Loss From Agricultural Drainage Waters: Implications for Nonpoint Source Control. Raleigh, NC: Univ. North Carolina, 208 pp. Study of Two Coastal Plain Agricultural Watersheds. Followed Groundwater Nitrogen Through Riparian Forests. Measured Eh and Riparian Plant Biomass and Nutrient Reservoirs. D; F; CP; GW; NIT; DAM; Flux; BioStor

411. Jacobs, T.C. and J.W. Gilliam (1985) Riparian losses of nitrate from agricultural drainage waters. J. Environ. Qual. 14:472-478. Used Data From Groundwater Well Transects and Eh Probes with a Hydrological Model to Estimate Nitrate Mass Balances for Groundwater Moving from Croplands to Stream Channels Through Riparian Forests. D; F; CP; GW; NIT; MBal

412. James, B.R., B.B. Bagley and P.H. Gallagher (1990) Riparian zone vegetation effects on nitrate concentrations in shallow groundwater. Pp. 605-611, In: New Perspectives in the Chesapeake System: A Research and Management Partnership. Ches. Res. Consort. Publ. No. 137, J.H. Mihursky and A. Chaney (Eds.). Solomons, MD: Ches. Res. Consort. Measured Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater Under Leguminous, and Nonleguminous Forested Riparian Zones, also Under Forests Experimentally Clear Cut. D; F; G; GW; NIT

413. Jansson, M., R. Andersson, H. Berggren and L. Leonardson (1994) Wetlands and lakes as nitrogen traps. Ambio 23:320-325. A general review of the functioning of wetlands as nitrogen traps. R; TN; NIT

414. Johnson, S.L. and A.P. Covich (1997) Scales of observation of riparian forests and distributions of suspended detritus in a prairie river. Freshwater Biol. 37:163-176.

415. Johnston, C.A. (1991) Sediment and nutrient retention by freshwater wetlands: Effects on surface water quality. Crit. Rev. Environ. Control 21(5-6):491-565. An Overall Review of the Water Quality Modifying Functions of Freshwater Wetlands. R

416. Johnston, C.A. (1993) Material fluxes across wetland ecotones in northern landscapes. Ecol. Appl. 3(3):424-440. Spatial Distribution and Accumulation Rates of Nutrients Within a Forested Wetland Along the Course of a Stream. D; F; 2nd order; TN; TP; TSS; NIT; Flux

417. Johnston, C.A., G.D. Beubenzer, G.B. Lee, F.W. Madison and J.R. McHenry (1984) Nutrient trapping by sediment deposition in a seasonally flooded lakeside wetland. J. Environ. Qual. 13:283-290. Study of History and Rate of Sediment Trapping by a Small Streamside Forested Wetland. Cs 137, nitrogen and phosphorus content of soils measured. D; F; 2nd order; SedTrap; TP; TN

418. Johnston, C.A., S.D. Bridgham and J.P. Schubauer-Berigan (2001) Nutrient dynamics in relation to geomorphology of riverine wetlands. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 65(2):557-577. A comparative studly among several sites. D, H, DAM, NIT, pH, DPP, TSS, TN, TP, SedTrap

419. Johnston, C.A., N.E. Detenbeck and G.J. Niemi (1990) The cumulative effect of wetlands on stream water quality and quantity. A landscape approach. Biogeochemistry 10:105-141. Principal Components Analysis of Nutrient Discharges from 33 Watersheds was Used to Correlate Wetlands with Various Nutrient Parameters. D; TSS; NIT; DAM; TP; DTP; DTKN; DPP

420. Johnston, C.A., G.B. Lee and F.W. Madison (1984) The stratigraphy and composition of a lakeside wetland. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48:347-354. Soil History of a Forested Wetland Along a Small Stream with an Agricultural Watershed. D; F; 2nd order; SedTrap; TP; TN

421. Johnston, C.A., J.P. Schubauer-Berigan and S.D. Bridgham (1997) The potential role of riverine wetlands as buffer zones. Pp. 155-170, In: Buffer Zones: Their Processes and Potential in Water Protection, N. Haycock, T. Burt, K. Goulding and G. Pinay (Eds.). Harpenden, UK: Quest Environmental. A very broad review of freshwater riverine wetlands and their role in nutrient trapping and cycling. R; SedTrap; TP; TN

422. Jones Jr., J.B. (1995) Factors controlling hyporheic respiration in a desert stream. Freshwater Biol. 34:91-99. Studied respiration of sediments from cores. Related to particle size distribution and DOC. D; DOM; HZ

423. Jones Jr., J.B., S.G. Fisher and N.B. Grimm (1995) Vertical hydrological exchange and ecosystem metabolism in a Sonoran Desert stream. Ecology 76:942-952. Examined sediment respiration and relation to sources of organic carbon seasonally. D; HZ; DOM; POM; GW

424. Jones Jr., J.B., S.G. Fisher and N.B. Grimm (1995) Nitrification in the hyporheic zone of a desert stream ecosystem. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 14(2):249-258. Measured respiration and nitrification rates in various hyporheic areas where downwelling or upwelling occur. D; HZ; NIT; Nitrif; DAM; DOC; POC; DTKN; DPP

425. Jones Jr., J.B. and R.M. Holmes (1996) Surface-subsurface interactions in stream ecosystems. Trends Ecol. Evol. 11:239-242. A short review. R

426. Jones Jr., J.B., R.M. Holmes, S.G. Fisher and N.B. Grimm (1994) Chemoautotrophic production and respiration in the hyporheic zone of a Sonoran Desert stream. Pp. 329-338, In: Proc. Second Internatl. Conf. Groundwater Ecology, J.A. Stanford and H.M. Valett (Eds.). Bethesda, MD: Amer. Water Resources Assoc. Measured bacterial metabolic rates in riparian soils of various settings at Sycamore Creek, Arizona. Compared areas of flood plain bank with sand/gravel bars. D; GW; Nitrif; Denit-L; POM; DOM; DAM; Fe; pH

427. Jordan, T.E., D.L. Correll, W.T. Peterjohn and D.E. Weller (1986) Nutrient flux in a landscape: the Rhode River watershed and receiving waters. Pp. 57-76, In: Watershed Research Perspectives, D.L. Correll (Ed.). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Press. An Overview and Landscape Level Analysis of Nutrient Flux in a Coastal Plain Watershed Including the Effects of Riparian Forests on Agricultural Drainage. R; F; NIT; TN; TP; TSS; MBal

428. Jordan, T.E., D.L. Correll and D.E. Weller (1993) Nutrient interception by a riparian forest receiving inputs from adjacent cropland. J. Environ. Qual. 22(3):467-473. Followed Surface and Groundwater Moving From Cropland Through a Floodplain on a 3rd Order Stream. Measured Eh, all forms of Nitrogen, Chloride, and Dissolved Organic Matter. Used Bromide Tracer in Groundwater. D; F; CP; TS; TSS; NIT; TN; MBal

429. Jordan, T.E., D.E. Weller and D.L. Correll (1998) Denitrification in surface soils of a riparian forest: Effects of water, nitrate and sucrose additions. Soil Biol. Biochem. 30(7):833-843. Riparian soils were manipulated with water, nitrate, and or organic matter. Large flow-through chambers were used to measure N2O flux with and without acetylene. D; F; 1st order; GW; CP; NIT; DOM; Denit-F

430. Kadlec, R.H. and J.A. Kadlec (1978) Wetlands and water quality. Pp. 436- 456, In: Wetland Functions and Values: The State of Our Understanding, P.E. Greeson, J.R. Clark and J.E. Clark (Eds.). Minneapolis, MN: Amer. Water Resources Assoc. A General Review of How Wetlands Interact with Flooding Waters and Change Their Water Quality. R

431. Kanazawa, K. and Y. Hayakawa (2002) Denitrification in grassland buffer strip. Pp. 133-139 In: R. Hatano, U. Mander, Y. Hayakawa, V. Kuusemets, Y. Watanabe and K. Kanazawa (eds.), Efficiency of Purification Processes in Riparian Buffer Zones, Their Design and Planning in Agricultural Watersheds, Natl. Agric. Res. Center Hokkaido Region, Kushiro, Japan. Denitrification potential was measured in soil depth profiles, also temperature dependence of denitrification potential. D, G, GW, NIT, Denit-L

432. Kao, D.T.Y. and B.J. Barfield (1978) Predictions of flow hydraulics of vegetated channels. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agric. Eng. 21(3):489-494. Model of Overland Flow Through Simulated Grass Buffer. D; G; OF

433. Kaplan, L.A. and J.D. Newbold (1993) Biogeochemistry of dissolved organic carbon entering streams. Pp. 139-166, In: Aquatic Microbiology, An Ecological Approach, T.E. Ford (Ed.). Boston: Blackwell. A broad review of the dynamics of dissolved organic carbon in stream ecosystems. Covers sources and sinks on watershed, in the riparian zone, and hyporheic zone. R; GW; HZ; DOM

434. Karr, J.R. and I.J. Schlosser (1978) Water Resources and the Land-Water Interface. Science 201:229-234. A Review of the Effects of Forested Stream Riparian Zones on Sediment Transport and Deposition, Nutrient Exchange, and Stream Habitat Factors. R

435. Kauffman, J.B., R.L. Case, D. Lytjen, N. Otting and D.L. Cummings (1995) Ecological approaches to riparian restoration in northeast Oregon. Restoration & Manage. Notes 13:12-15. A discussion and review of various approaches to riparian restoration in the Pacific northwest. R, M

436. Kauffman, J.B. and W.C. Kreuger (1984) Livestock impacts on riparian ecosystems and streamside management implications � A review. J. Range Manage. 37:430-438. A general review of various impacts of livestock and game animals on riparian zones. R

437. Kaushik, N.K., J.B. Robinson, P. Sain, H.R. Whiteley and W. Stammers (1975) A quantitative study of nitrogen loss from water of a small spring-fed stream. Pp. 110-117, In: Proc. 10th Canadian Symp. Water Pollution Research in Canada, T.C. Hutchinson (Ed.). Toronto: Univ. Toronto. Small entirely spring fed stream. Measured vertical and lateral leaf litter inputs and flux of dissolved nitrogen within 3 reaches. Excavated above and below ground plant biomass. D; F; 1st order; POM; DTKN; NIT; Denit-L; BioStor

438. Keim, R.F. and S.H. Schoenholtz (1999) Functions and effectiveness of silvicultural streamside management zones in loessial bluff forests. Forest Ecol. Manage. 118:197-209. Twelve forested first-order watersheds in MS were subjected to a range harvest from controls to clear cuts and effects on channel morphology and water quality were monitored for three years. D, F, 1st Order, TSS, pH

439. Kemp, G.P., W.H. Conner and J.W. Day Jr. (1985) Effects of flooding on decompositon and nutrient cycling in a Louisiana swamp forest. Wetlands 5:35-51. Laboratory and Field Mesocosm Experiments on Nutrient Trapping from Floodwaters in a Floodplain Harwood Forest. D; F; CP; TSS; TP; TN; DPP; PPP

440. Kemp, G.P. and J.W. Day Jr. (1984) Nutrient dynamics in a Louisiana swamp receiving agricultural runoff. Pp. 286-293, In: Cypress Swamps, K.C. Ewel and H.T. Odum (Eds.). Gainsville, FL: University Presses of Florida. Nutrient Dynamics of a Forested Swamp Were Inferred From Water Quality and Hydrologic Data. D; F; CP; NIT; DAM; DTKN; DPP; ET

441. Kemp, M.J. and W.K. Dodds (2001) Statial and temporal patterns of nitrogen concentrations in pristine and agriculturally-influenced prairie streams. Biogeochem. 53:125-141. Measured channel and groundwater dissolved nitrogen concentrations in several reaches of several streams. Some had riparian forest in the lower reaches and some did not. D, F, GW, NIT, DAM, DTKN

442. Kesner, B.T. and V. Meentemeyer (1989) A regional analysis of total nitrogen in an agricultural landscape. Landscape Ecology 2(3):151- 163. Landscape Level GIS and Modeling Analysis of a Subwatershed of the Little River Watershed. Nitrogen Annual Mass Balances Including the Role of Riparian Forests. D; TN; MBal; CP

443. Kibby, H.V. (1978) Effects of wetlands on water quality. Pp. 289-298, In: Strategies for Protection and Management of Floodplain Wetlands and Other Riparian Ecosystems, R.R. Johnson and J.R. McCormick (Eds.). Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service. A General Review of Wetland Effects on Water Quality. R

444. Killingbeck, K.T. (1984) Direct measurement of allochthonous litter accumulation in a tall grass prairie stream. Southwest. Nat. 29:357- 358. Measured Total Litter Inputs to Stream Channel. D; F; POM

445. Kim, B.K.A., A.P. Jackman and F.J. Triska (1992) Modeling biotic uptake by periphyton and transient hyporrheic storage of nitrate in a natural stream. Water Resourc. Res. 28(10):2743-2752. Coupled two models and tested with nitrate injections. D; HZ; NIT

446. Kimmins, J.P. and M.C. Feller (1976) Effect of clearcutting and broadcast slashburning on nutrient budgets, streamwater chemistry, and productivity in Western Canada. Pp. 186-197, In: XVI IUFRO World Congress Proc., Div. I., (Ed.). Oslo, Norway. Study of Three Completely Forested Watersheds. Two Were Clearcut and on One of Those the Slash was Burned. D; F; MT; GW; OF; NIT; K; Ca

447. King, J.M., J.A. Day, B.R. Davies and M.-P. Henshall-Howard (1987) Particulate ogranic matter in a mountain stream in the south-western Cape, South Africa. Hydrobiologia 154:165-187. Measured Vertical and Horizontal Litter Inputs to Channels and Their Caloric and Nitrogen Contents. D; F; B; 2nd order; 3rd order; POM; PON

448. Kitchens Jr., W.M., J.M. Dean, L.H. Stevenson and J.H. Cooper (1975) The Santee Swamp as a nutrient sink. Pp. 349-366, In: Mineral Cycling in Southeastern Ecosystems, F.G. Howell, J.B. Gentry and M.H. Smith (Eds.). Aiken, GA: Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Measured Water Quality Parameters of Inflow and Outflow Waters for a Large Forested FloodPlain System. D; F; CP; TSS; TP; DPP; NIT; DAM

449. Klarer, D.M. and D.F. Millie (1989) Amelioration of storm-water quality by a freshwater estuary. Arch. Hydrobiol. 116:375-389. Study of Storm Event Discharges from an Agricultural Watershed Through a Wetland. Sediment, Nutrient, and Metals Removal were Measured. D; F; TSS; 2nd order; NIT; TrM; DPP; DAM

450. Kleiss, B.A., E.E. Morris, J.F. Nix and J.W. Barko (1989) Modification of riverine water quality by an adjacent bottomland hardwood wetland. Pp. 429-438, In: Wetlands: Concerns and Successes, D.W. Fisk (Ed.). Bethesda, MD: Amer. Water Resources Assoc. A River-Segment Mass Balance Study. Measured Nutrient and Sediment Effects of Extensive Floodplain Forests. D; F; TSS; TN; TP; NIT; POM; DOM

451. Klopatek, J.M. (1978) Nutrient dynamics of freshwater riverine marshes and the role of emergent macrophytes. Pp. 195-216, In: Freshwater Wetlands, R.E. Good, D.F. Whigham and R.L. Simpson (Eds.). New York: Academic Press. Measured Nutrient Concentrations in the Inflow and Outflow Waters of a Riverside Marsh. D; H; TN; TP; NIT; DAM; DPP

452. Kloppel, H., W. Kordel and B. Stein (1997) Herbicide transport by surface runoff and herbicide retention in a filter strip � Rainfall and runoff simulation studies. Chemosphere 35:129-141. Studied transport of isoproturon, dichloroprop-p, and terbuthylazine in overland storm flows in a filter strip of a wheat/rye hybrid. Most reduction in herbicide transport was due to infiltration. D, G, OF, HERB, Infil

453. Klotz, R.L. (1985) Factors controlling phosphorus limitation in stream sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr. 30:543-553. Measured sediment alkaline phosphatase, dissolved phosphate, and phosphorus sorption isotherms for four streams in NY, two forested, two agricultural. D; F; MT; DPP; PPP

454. Knauer, N. and U. Mander (1989) Studies on the filtration effect of differently vegetated buffer strips along inland waters in Schleswig- Holstein. 1. Information: Filtration of nitrogen and phosphorus. Zeit. fur Kulturtechnik und Landentwicklung. 30:365-376. Measured Effectiveness of Various Vegetated Riparian Zones in Removing Nutrients from Agricultural Discharges. D; F; G; TN; TP; NIT; DAM; DPP

455. Knauer, N. and U. Mander (1990) Studies on the filtration effect of differently vegetated buffer strips along inland waters in Schleswig- Holstein. 2. Information: Filtration of heavy metals. Zeit. fur Kulturtechnik und Landentwicklung. 31:52-57. Measured Efficiency of Removal of Heavy Metals from Agricultural Drainage Waters Moving Through Either Alder Stands or Grass. D; F; G; TrM

456. Komar, S.C. and J.A. Magner (1996) Nitrate in groundwater and water sources used by riparian trees in an agricultural watershed: A chemical and isotopic investigation in southern Minnesota. Water Resources Res. 32:1039-1050. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen were used to study the retention of nitrate along transects from croplands to the Cobb River and to a small tributary in Minnesota and to determine the source of water for riparian trees. D, G, F, GW, HZ, NIT, Denit-F

457. Konohira, E., M. Yoh, J. Kubota, K. Yagi and H. Akiyama (2001) Effects of riparian denitrification on stream nitrate � evidence from isotopic analysis and extreme nitrate leaching during rainfall. Water Air Soil Pollut. 130:667-672. Measured nitrate concentrations in soil water, shallow ground water, and stream water during baseflow and storm events for a small forested basin in Japan. Also measured natural abundance N-15 in the nitrate samples. D, F, 1st order, GW, OF, NIT, Denit-F

458. Kovacic, D.A., L.L. Osborne and B.C. Dickson (1991) Buffer strips and nonpoint pollution. Illinois Nat. Hist. Reports, Vol. 304. A very brief summary of research on the effectiveness of buffer strips in Illinois to alleviate nonpoint source pollution from croplands. R

459. Kuenzler, E.J. (1989) Value of forested wetlands as filters for sediments and nutrients. Pp. 85-96, In: Forested Wetlands of the Southern United States. Southeastern Experiment Station, D. Hook and R. Lea (Eds.). Orlando, Fl: USDA, Forest Service. General Review of the Water Quality Filtering Affects of Riparian Forests. R; F

460. Kuenzler, E.J., P.J. Mulholland, L.A. Ruley and R.P. Sniffen (1977) Water Quality in North Carolina Coastal Plain Streams and Effects of Channelization. Raleigh, NC: Univ. North Carolina, 160 pp. Study of Nutrients and General Water Quality in Unchannelized Streams and 4 Highly Channelized Streams Draining Watersheds that were all Approx. two-thirds Forested with Floodplain Forests, and one-third agricultural. Differences in Water Quality were Attributed to the lack of Interaction with FloodPlain Forests in the Channelized Streams. D; F; CP; TP; DPP; PPP; TN; NIT

461. Kuenzler, E.J., P.J. Mulholland, L.A. Yarbro and L.A. Smock (1980) Distribution and Budgets of Carbon, Phosphorus, Iron, and Manganese in a Flood Plain Swamp Ecosystem. Raleigh, NC: Univ. North Carolina, 234 pp. Complete Organic Carbon and Phosphorus Budgets for a Large Floodplain Forest. D; F; CP; POC; DOC; PTP; DTP; MBal

462. Kuusemets, V., K. Lohmus and U. Mander (2002) Nitrogen balance in riparian grey alder forest in Estonia. Pp. 57-66, In: R. Hatano, U. Mander, Y. Hayakawa, V. Kuusemets, Y. Watanabe and K. Kanazawa (eds.), Efficiency of Purification Processes in Riparian Buffer Zones, Their Design and Planning in Agricultural Watersheds, Natl. Agric. Res. Center Hokkaido Region, Kushiro, Japan. Studied nutrient fluxes and transformations in flows from croplands through multi-zoned riparian buffers consisting of alternating alders and grass. D, F, G, GW, OF, DAM, DOM, DPP, DTKN, DTP, NIT, BioStor, Denit-L, Flux, Mbal, NutCyc

463. Kuusemets, V. and U. Mander (1999) Ecotechnological measures to control mutrient losses from catchments. Water Sci. Technol. 40:195-202. An update of an on-going experiment on the Porijogi River Watershed in Estonia. Measured changes in dissolved nutrients as shallow ground water moved through various riparian plant communities. D, F, G, H, GW, DAM, DPP, DTKN, DTP, NIT

464. Kuusements, V. and U. Mander (2002) Nutrient flows and management of a small watershed. Landscape Ecol. 17(suppl. 1):59-68. A study of the nutrient losses from various subwatersheds and a theoretical calculation of the retention of potential restored riparian buffers. D, M

465. Kuusemets, V., U. Mander, K. Lohmus and M. Ivask (2001) Nitrogen and phosphorus variation in shallow groundwater and assimilation in plants in complex riparian buffer zones. Water Sci. Technol. 44(11-12):615-622. An update of an on-going experiment on the Porijogi River Watershed in Estonia. Measured changes in dissolved nutrients as shallow ground water moved through wet meadows and grey alders. D, F, G, GW, BioStor, DTKN, NIT, DTP

466. Kussmaul, H. and D. Muhlhausen (1979) Hydrologische und hydrochemische untersuchungen zur uferfiltration, Teil III: Veranderungen der wasserbeschaffenheit durch uferfiltration und trinkwasseraufbereitung. Gwf-wasser/Abwasser. 120:320-329. Measured Changes in Concentrations of Water Quality Parameters as Channel Water Percolated Through a Stream Bank to Pumping Stations. D; GW; DOM; DPP; NIT; TrM; INS; Ca

467. LaBaugh, J.W. (1986) Wetland ecosystem studies from a hydrologic perspective. Water Resources Bull. 22(1):1-10. Review of Wetland Studies with Special Attention to the Adequacy of Hyrological Measurements. R

468. Labroue, L. and G. Pinay (1986) Epuration naturelle des nitrates des eaux souterraines: possibilites d'application au reamenagement des lacs de gravieres. Annls. Limnol. 22(1):83-88. Measured Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater Flowing into a Gravel-Pit Lake in Floodplain of Garrone River. Conducted Laboratory Denitrification Measurements with Acetylene Block. D; F; GW; NIT; Denit-L

469. Laenen, A. and K.E. Bencala (2001) Transient storage assessments of dye-tracer injections in rivers of the Willamette Basin, Oregon. J. Am. Water Resourc. Assoc. 37(2):367-377. Used a model and studies of fluorescent dye transport and water discharge to examine channel-hyporheic exchange rates. D, F, GW, HZ, TS

470. Lambou, V.W. (1985) Aquatic organic carbon and nutrient fluxes, water quality, and aquatic productivity in the Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. Pp. 180-186, In: Riparian Ecosystems and their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Uses, R.R. Johnson, C.D. Ziebell, D.R. Patton and P.F. Ffolliott (Eds.). Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service. Analyses of Nutrient Concentrations and Volumes of Flow at Various Points Along the Atchafalaya River Where Much of the Flow is Through Bottomland Hardwood Forests. D; F; TN; TP; POM; DOM; NIT; Flux

471. Laszlo, F. (1989) Qualitatsprobleme bei der Gewinnung von uferfiltriertem Grundwasser in Ungarn. Acta Hydrochim. Hydrobiol. 17:453-463. Measured Change in Water Compositon as it Moved from River Channel Through Bank Soils to Pumping Stations. D; DOM; DAM; NIT; DPP; TrM; GW

472. Lee, D., T.A. Dillaha and J.H. Sherrard (1989) Modeling phosphorus transport in grass buffer strips. J. Environ. Eng. 115:409-427. New Event-Based Model of Total Phosphorus Removal in Grass Buffer Strips. D; G; OF; TSS; TP

473. Lee, K.-H., T.M. Isenhart, R.C. Schultz and S.K. Mickelson (1999) Nutrient and sediment removal by switchgrass and cool-season grass filter strips in central Iowa, USA. Agrofor. Syst. 44:121-132. Tested 3 and 6 meter wide strips with rainfall simulation. Slope was 3%. D, G, OF, DPP, NIT, TN, TSS, Infil

474. Lee, K.-H., T.M. Isenhart, R.C. Schultz and S.M. Mickelson (2000) Multispecies riparian buffers trap sediment and nutrients during rainfall simulations. J. Environ. Qual. 29:1200-1205. Simulated rain storms on field plots in Iowa and measured overland flow volumes and composition leaving plots, and leaving buffers. D, G, F, OF, TPP, TP, NIT, TKN, TSS, Infil

475. Lenz, P.H., J.M. Melack, B. Robertson and E.A. Hardy (1986) Ammonium and phosphate regeneration by the zooplankton of an Amazon floodplain lake. Freshwater Biol. 16:821-830. Measured rates of release resulting from grazing. D; DAM; DPP

476. Likens, G.E., F.H. Bormann and N.M. Johnson (1969) Nitrification: Importance to nutrient losses from a cutover forested ecosystem. Science 163:1205-1206. Forested Watershed Completely Clear Cut and Herbicide Treated to Prevent Regrowth. D; F; 1st order; MT; GW; NIT; Nitrif; MBAL

477. Lim, T.T., D.R. Edwards, S.R. Workman, B.T. Larson and L. Dunn (1998) Vegetated filter strip removal of cattle manure constituents in runoff. Trans. Am. Soc. Agr. Eng. 41(5):1375-1381. Studied attenuation of the concentrations of pollutants in runoff from plots at 0, 6.1, 12.2 and 18.3 meters into a filter strip with rainfall simulation. D, G, OF, TKN, TP, DPP, TSS

478. Lindau, C.W., R.D. Delaune and G.L. Jones (1988) Fate of added nitrate and ammonium-nitrogen entering a Louisiana gulf coast swamp forest. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 60(3):386-390. Experimentally Enriched Floodwaters in Chambers Over Soil in Bottomland Hardwood Forests of Barataria Basin with Nitrogen. Used N-15 Nitrate and Ammonium to Measure Rates and Products of Nitrification/Denitrification in Areas Known to Remove High Levels of Nitrogen from Floodwaters. D; F; CP; Denit-F; TN; NIT; DAM

479. Line, D.E., J.A. Arnold, D.L. Osmond, S.W. Coffey, J.A. Gale, J. Spooner and G.D. Jennings (1993) Nonpoint sources. Water Environ. Res. 65(4):558-571. A General Review of Recent Publications Including Nutrient, Sediment, and Pesticide Studies. R

480. Liquori, M. (2000) Riparian buffer structure and functional dynamics: considerations for riparian design. Pp. 411-416, in: Riparian Ecology and Management in Multi-Land Use Watersheds. P.J. Wigington Jr. and R.L. Beschta (Eds.), Amer. Water Resourc. Assoc., Middleburg, VA. A review of what is known about riparian design requirements with an emphasis on plant successional dynamics. R, F

481. Livingston, E.H. (1989) Use of wetlands for urban stormwater management. Pp. 253-262, In: Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment, D.A. Hammer (Ed.). Chelsea, MI: Lewis. A General Review Specifically of Attempts to Treat Urban Stormwater with Wetlands. R

483. Livingston, W.H. and R.O. Hegg (1981) Terraced pasture for disposal of dairy yard runoff. Amer. Soc. Agric. Engin. Publ. 2-81. Pp. 270-273, In: Proc. 4th Internatl. Livestock Waste Symp, (Ed.). St. Joseph, MI: Amer. Soc. Agric. Engin. Measured Effectiveness of a Grassed Buffer for Removing Sediment and Nutrients from Livestock Wastewaters. Measured Input/Output Volumes. D; G; OF; TN; TSS; PPP; NIT; MBal

484. Lock, M.A. (1993) Attached microbial communities in rivers. Pp. 113-138, In: Aquatic Microbiolgy; An Ecological Approach, T.E. Ford (Ed.). Blackwell, Cambridge, MA. An in-depth review. R

485. Lockaby, B.G., R.G. Clawson, K. Flynn, R. Rummer, S. Meadows, B. Stokes and J. Stanturf (1997) Influence of harvesting on biogeochemical exchange in sheetflow and soil processes in a eutrophic floodplain forest. For. Ecol. Manage. 90(2-3):187-194. Compared water quality effects in forested floodplains in Georgia of undisturbed controls, total clearcuts, and 90% basal area removal. Used automated water samplers above and below the sites. D; CP; F; OF; TSS; NIT; DPP; Ca; DOM; TP; TN; DAM; K; Mg

486. Lockaby, B.G., R.H. Jones, R.G. Clawson, J.S. Meadows, J.A. Stanturf and F.C. Thornton (1997) Influences of harvesting on functions of floodplain forests associated with low-order, blackwater streams. For. Ecol. Manage. 90(2-3):217-224. Compared floodplain forest sites where timber was harvested by helicopter, skidder removal, or undisturbed control. Used automated water samplers on the floodplain above and below study sites as well as one meter deep groundwater wells. D; F; OF; Denit-L; CP; SedTrap; TSS

487. Lockaby, B.G., K.L. McNabb and J.E. Hairston (1994) Changes in groundwater nitrate levels across a land-use drainage continuum. Pp. 412-421, In: Riparian Ecosystems in the Humid U.S., Functions, Values and Management, (Ed.). Wash., D.C.: Natl. Assoc. Conserv. Districts. Monitored Nitrate and Chloride Concentrations in Groundwater Moving from Cropland into a Grass/Forest Riparian Buffer in Alabama. D; CP; GW; NIT

488. Lockaby, B.G., F.C. Thornton, R.H. Jones and R.G. Clawson (1994) Ecological responses of an oligotrophic floodplain forest to harvesting. J. Environ. Qual. 23:901-906. Measured Effects of Logging Floodplain Forests of Low-Order Streams on Surface Water Suspended Sediments, Nitrate, Phosphate, and BOD in the Floodplain. Also Measured Potential Denitrification Rates in Soil Cores. D; F; CP; NIT; DPP; TSS; Denit-L

489. Lohmus, K., V. Kuusemets, M. Ivask, S. Teiter, J. Augustin and U. Mander (2002) Budgets of nitrogen fluxes in riparian grey alder forests. Arch. Hydrobiol. Suppl. 141 (3-4):321-332. Studied two transects in Estonia including storage in soil and biomass. Measured concentrations in shallow ground water. D, F, H, GW, DTN, BioStor

490. Lowrance, R.R. (1981) Nutrient Cycling in Agricultural Ecosystems: Movement of Water-Borne Nutrients in a Riparian Forest. Ph.D. Thesis. Athens, GA: Univ. Georgia.

491. Lowrance, R. (1989) Riparian zone effects on water quality. Pp. 149-151, In: Proc. 1989 Georgia Water Resources Conf. Institute of Natural Resources, K.J. Hatcher (Ed.). Athens, GA:Univ. Georgia. A Brief Review. R

492. Lowrance, R. (1992) Groundwater nitrate and denitrification in a Coastal Plain riparian forest. J. Environ. Qual. 21:401-405. Measured Seasonal Vertical Profiles of Denitrification Potential in Soils along a Transect from Cropland Through a Riparian Forest to a Stream Channel. D; F; CP; Denit-L; NIT

493. Lowrance, R. (1997) The potential role of riparian forests as buffers zones. Pp. 128-113, In: Buffer Zones: Their Processes and Potential in Water Protection, N. Haycock, T. Burt, K. Goulding and G. Pinay (Eds.). Harpenden, UK: Quest Environmental. A brief review of the use of riparian forests for stream water quality protection. R; M; SedTrap; NIT; DPP

494. Lowrance, R. (1998) Riparian forest ecosystems as filters for nonpoint-source pollution. Pp. 113-141 in: M.L. Pace and P.M. Groffman (eds.), Successes, Limitations, and Frontiers in Ecosystem Science, Springer, New York. R, F

495. Lowrance, R., L.S. Altier, J.D. Newbold, R.R. Schnabel, P.M. Groffman, J.M. Denver, D.L. Correll, J.W. Gilliam, J.L. Robinson, R.B. Brinsfield, K.W. Staver, L. Lucas and A.H. Todd (1995) Water Quality Functions of Riparian Forest Buffer Systems in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Annapolis, MD: U.S. E.P.A., 67 pp. A literature review including stream habitat effects. Generalizations and management recommendations are made with respect to different physiographic regions of Chesapeake Bay watershed. R; M

496. Lowrance, R., L.S. Altier, J.D. Newbold, R.R. Schnabel, P.M. Groffman, J.M. Denver, D.L. Correll, J.W. Gilliam, J.L. Robinson, R.B. Brinsfield, W. Lucas and A.H. Todd (1997) Water quality functions of riparian forest buffers in Chesapeake Bay watersheds. Environ. Manage. 21(5):687-712. A wide-ranging review. R

497. Lowrance, R., L.S. Altier, R.G. Williams, S.P. Inamdar, D.D. Bosch, R.K. Hubbard and D.L. Thomas (2000) REMM: The riparian ecosystem management model. J. Soil & Water Conserv. 55:27-36. A review. R

498. Lowrance, R., S. Dabney and R. Schultz (2002) Improving water and soil quality with conservation buffers. J. Soil & Water Conserv. 57:36A-43A. A review. R

499. Lowrance, R., R. Leonard and J. Sheridan (1985) Managing riparian ecosystems to control nonpoint pollution. J. Soil & Water Conserv. 40:87-97. A Review Synthesizing the Overall Landscape Level Effects of Riparian Forests on the Little River Watershed and the Functions of Riparian Vegetation in General. R; F; CP

500. Lowrance, R., S. McIntyre and C. Lance (1988) Erosion and deposition in a field/forest system estimated using Cesium-137 activity. J. Soil & Water Conserv. 43(2):195-199. Estimated Sediment Trapping in a Riparian Forest from Overland Stormflows Originating from Croplands. Used Cs-137 Technique. D; F; CP; TSS; TS; SedTrap

501. Lowrance, R.R. and H.B. Pionke (1989) Transformations and movement of nitrate in aquifer systems. Pp. 373-391, In: Nitrogen Management and Ground Water Protection, R.F. Follett (Ed.). New York: Elsevier. Broad Review of Nitrate Dynamics in Various Types of Aquifer Including Shallow Uncontained Aquifers in Riparian Zones. R; GW; NIT

502. Lowrance, R., J.K. Sharpe and J.M. Sheridan (1986) Long-term sediment deposition in the riparian zone of a coastal plain watershed. J. Soil & Water Conserv. 41:266-271. Long-Term Sediment Trapping from Overland Storm Flows Originating in Croplands and Crossing Riparian Forests were Estimated by Soil Horizon Measurements and by Sediment Delivery Ratio Estimates. D; F; CP; SedTrap

503. Lowrance, R. and A. Shirmohammadi (1985) REM: A model for riparian ecosystem management in agricultural watersheds. Pp. 237-240, In: Riparian Ecosystems and Their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Uses, R.R. Johnson, C.D. Ziebell, D.R. Patton and P.F. Ffolliott (Eds.). Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service. Structure of a Simulation Model for Agricultural Watershed Discharges That Explicitly Includes Riparian Forests. D; F

504. Lowrance, R.R., R.L. Todd and L.E. Asmussen (1983) Waterborne nutrient budgets for the riparian zone of an agricultural watershed. Agriculture Ecosyst. Environ. 10:371-384. Nutrient Removal of a Riparian Forest was Calculated by Estimating Groundwater and Surface flows from the Watershed at a Weir as Slow and Fast Flow. Nutrient Concentrations in Rain, Groundwater Entering the Forest from Agricultural Uplands and Streamwater were Measured. D; F; CP; GW; TN; TP; Ca; Mg

505. Lowrance, R.R., R.L. Todd and L.E. Asmussen (1984) Nutrient cycling in an agricultural watershed. I. Phreatic movement. J. Environ. Qual. 13:22-27. Concentrations of Nutrients were Traced as Shallow Ground Water Moved from Agricultural Fields Through a Riparian Forest to a Stream Channel. D; F; CP; GW; NIT; Ca; Mg; K

506. Lowrance, R.R., R.L. Todd and L.O. Asmussen (1984) Nutrient cycling in an agricultural watershed. II. Stream flow and artificial drainage. J. Environ. Qual. 13:27-32. A Paired Watershed Approach was used in Which One had Extensive Riparian Forest, the Other Did Not. Differences in Stream Nutrient Discharges were Attributed to the Effects of Riparian Forest. D; F; CP; GW; NIT; DAM; DTKN

507. Lowrance, R., R.L. Todd, J. Fail Jr., O. Hendrickson Jr., R. Leonard and L. Asmussen (1984) Riparian forests as nutrient filters in agricultural watersheds. Bioscience 34:374-377. An Overall Synthesis of Nutrient Mass Balance Study of Watershed N of the Little River Watershed, an Agricultural/Riparian Forest System. D; F; CP; GW; TN; NIT; TP; MBal

508. Lowrance, R. and G. Vellidis (1995) A conceptual model for assessing ecological risk to water quality function of bottomland hardwood forests. Environ. Manage. 19:239-258. A risk assessment model at the regional scale. M, F

509. Lowrance, R., G. Vellidis and R.K. Hubbard (1995) Denitrification in a restored riparian forest wetland. J. Environ. Qual. 24(5):808-815. A stream riparian zone was reforested with hardwoods along the bank and pine in the next zone away from the stream. Nitrate, ammonium, and DTKN were measured in shallow groundwater as it moved from uplands where liquid manure was applied through the riparian zone to the stream. Denitrification was monitored in the soil for two years. F; G; GW; D; CP; DAM; NIT; DTKN; Denit-F

510. Lowrance, R., G. Vellidis, R.D. Wauchope, P. Gay and D.D. Bosch (1997) Herbicide transport in a managed riparian forest buffer system. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agric. Engin. 40(4):1047-1057. Measured transport of two herbicides from a field into riparian forest controls, clear-cuts, and selectively logged forests. D; F; OF; GW; HERB

511. Lowrance, R., R.G. Williams, S.P. Inamdar, D.D. Bosch and J.M. Sheridan (2001) Evaluation of Coastal Plain conservation buffers using the riparian ecosystem model. J. Amer. Water Resources Assoc. 37:1445-1455. REEM was used to simulate the effectiveness of 14 different riparian buffer/load scenarios. D, M, G, F, GW, OF, CP, TN, NIT, TAM, TP, DTP, TSS

512. Lynch, J.A. and E.S. Corbett (1990) Evaluation of best management practices for controlling nonpoint pollution from silvicultural operations. Water Resources Bull. 26:41-52. Comparisons of long- term effects of Clearcutting with and without forest buffers along streams. D; F; MT; TSS; NIT; Ca; Mg; K

513. Lynch, J.A., E.S. Corbett and K. Mussallem (1985) Best management practices for controlling nonpoint-source pollution on forested watersheds. J. Soil Water Cons. 40:164-167. Comparisons of Forested Controls and Clearcuts With and Without Forested Stream Buffers. D; F; MT; TSS; NIT; Ca; K; Mg

514. Lyons, J.B., J.H. Gorres and J.A. Amador (1998) Spatial and temporal variability of phosphorus retention in a riparian forest soil. J. Environ. Qual. 27(4):895-903. Determined equilibrium phosphorus concentrations for a large number of soil samples in spring and fall within a riparian forest in Rhode Island. D; F; PPP

515. Lyons, J., S.W. Trimble and L.K. Paine (2000) Grass versus trees: managing riparian areas to benefit streams of central North America. J. Amer. Water Resources Assoc. 36:919-930. A review of the differing effects of grass and of forested buffers. R

516. Maag, M., M. Malinovsky and S.M. Nielsen (1997) Kinetics and temperature dependence of potential denitrification in riparian soils. J. Environ. Qual. 26(1):215-223. Studied potential denitrification rates in riparian meadows and reed swamps as a function of depth in the soil and temperature in Denmark. Very organic rich soils. D; H; G; NIT; POM; DOM; TN; Denit-L

517. Magana, A.E.M. (2001) Litter input from riparian vegetation to streams: a case study of the Njoro River, Kenya. Hydrobiologia 458:141-149. Measured inputs of leaves, fruits, wood and plant fragments vertically and horizontally at open canopy and closed canopy sites for six months. D, F, POM

518. Magette, W.L., R.B. Brinsfield, R.E. Palmer and J.D. Wood (1989) Nutrient and sediment removal by vegetated filter strips. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agric. Eng. 32(2):663-667. Experiments with Plots and Rainfall Simulator. D; G; TSS; TN; TP; Flux

519. Malard, F., K. Tockner, M.-J. Dole-Olivier and J.V. Ward (2002) A landscape perspective of surface-subsurface hydrological exchanges in river corridors. Freshwater Biol. 47:621-640. An extended review including hydrology, chemical and faunal interactions. R

520. Manci, K.M. (1989) Riparian Ecosystem Creation and Restoration: A Literature Summary. U.S. Dept. Interior, Fish & Wildlife Service Res. & Development, Wash. DC. Biological Report 89(20), 59 pp. A wide ranging review. R

521. Mander, U. (1991) Eco-Engineering methods to control nutrient losses from agricultural watersheds. Pp. 53-64, In: Proc. European IALE Seminar on Practical Landscape Ecology, Suppl., J. Brandt (Ed.). Roskilde, Denmark: Roskilde University. A Review of the Use of Grass and Forest Buffer Strips in Estonia to Control Non-Point Source Pollution. R; G; F

522. Mander, U. (1995) Riparian buffer zones and buffer strips on stream banks: dimensioning and efficiencey assessment from catchments in Estonia. Pp. 45-64, In: Restoration of Stream Ecosystems, an integrated catchment approach. IWRB Publ. 37, M. Eiseltova and J. Biggs (Eds.). Gloucester, UK: Internatl. Waterfowl Wetlands Res. Three case studies in Estonia of the potential environmental effects of restoration of riparian forests. Methods for calculation of needed buffer widths. M; F

523. Mander, U. (2002) Riparian buffer zones as elements of ecological networks. Pp. 160-173 In: R. Hatano, U. Mander, Y. Hayakawa, V. Kuusemets, Y. Watanabe and K. Kanazawa (eds.), Efficiency of Purification Processes in Riparian Buffer Zones, Their Design and Planning in Agricultural Watersheds, Natl. Agric. Res. Center Hokkaido Region, Kushiro, Japan. A discussion of how riparian zones fit into an overall ecological network and the use of GIS in determining optimum siting of these zones. R, M

524. Mander, U., V. Kuusemets and M. Ivask (1995) Nutrient dynamics of riparian ecotones: a case study from the Porijogi River catchment, Estonia. Landscape Urban Plan. 31:333-348. Studied transects from uplands to streams and measured groundwater nitrogen and phosphorus fractions and accumulations in plant biomass. D; F; H; NIT; DAM; TN; TP; DPP; DTP; BioStor

525. Mander, U., V. Kuusemets, K. Lohmus and T. Mauring (1997) Efficiency and dimensioning of riparian buffer zones in agricultural catchments. Ecol. Engin. 8:299-324. An analysis of various literature values to relate nutrient trapping efficiency to nutrient loading rates and forest stand age. D; R; F; TN; TP

526. Mander, U., K. Lohmus, V. Kuusemets and M. Ivask (1997) The potential role of wet meadows and grey alder forests as buffer zones. Pp. 147- 154, In: Buffer Zones: Their Processes and Potential in Water Protection, N. Haycock, T. Burt, K. Goulding and G. Pinay (Eds.). Harpenden, UK: Quest Environmental. Summary of transect studies in wet meadows and riparian forests in Estonia. D; G; F; OF; GW; DAM; NIT; TN; DPP; TP; Denit-L

527. Mander, U. and T. Mauring (1994) Nitrogen and phosphorus retention in natural ecosystems. Pp. 77-94, In: Functional Appraisal of Agricultural Landscape in Europe. EUROMAB and INTECOL Seminar 1922, L. Ryszkowski and S. Balazy (Eds.). Poznan: Res. Center Agricult. Forest Envir. A broad review of the nitrogen and phosphorus retention capacities of various receiving waters and wetlands including riparian buffers. R; TN; TP

528. Mander, U.E., M.O. Metsur and M.E. Kulvik (1989) Storungen des Stoffkreislaufs, des Energieflusses und des Bios als Kriterien fur die Bestimmung der Belastung der Landschaft. Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen 133(4):233-244. Comparisons of the Effectiveness of Grass and Forest Filter Strips in Removing Nutrients from Agricultural Drainage. D; G; F; TN; TP; TSS

529. Mann, K.H., R.H. Britton, A. Kowalczewski, T.J. Lack, C.P. Mathews and I. McDonald (1970) Productivity and energy flow at all trophic levels in the River Thames, England. Pp. 579-596, In: Productivity Problems in Freshwaters. IBP/UNESCO Symp., Z. Kajak and A. Hilbricht (Eds.). Poland: Razimierz Dolny. Measured Litter Inputs to Channel from Riparian Trees. D; F; POM

530. Marmonier, P., D. Fontvielle, J. Gibert and V. Vanek (1995) Distribution of dissolved organic carbon and bacteria at the interface between the Rhone River and its alluvial aquifer. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 14:382-392. Measured POC, DOC, bacterial numbers, and enzymic activity in first meter of sediments. D; HZ; POM; DOM

531. Marquez, C.O., C.A. Cambardella, T.M. Isenhart and R.C. Schultz (1999) Assessing soil quality in a riparian buffer by testing organic matter fractions in central Iowa, USA. Agroforestry Syst. 44:133-140. Examined total and particulate organic matter in various parts of a riparian buffer that was restored 7 years prior to the study. D, F, G, POM

532. Marti, E., S.G. Fisher, J.D. Schade and N.B. Grimm (2000) * Flood frequency, arid land streams and their riparian zones. Pp. 111-136, In: J.B. Jones and P.J. Mulholland (Eds.), Streams and Ground Waters, Academic Press, San Diego.

533. Martin, C.W., D.S. Noel and C.A. Federer (1984) Effects of forest clearcutting in New England on stream chemistry. J. Environ. Qual. 13(2):204-210. Wide Ranging Comparison of 56 New England Forested Watersheds. Six Were Entirely Clear-Cut, 32 Partially Clear-Cut, and 18 Controls were not cut at all. No Herbicides were used to Prevent Regrowth. D; F; MT; NIT; DAM; Ca; Mg; Flux

534. Martin, C.W., D.S. Noel and C.A. Federer (1985) Clearcutting and the biogeochemistry of streamwater in New England. J. For. 83(11):686- 689. Analysis of Results of Study by Martin, et al. (1984) and Review of Literature. R; F; MT

535. Martin, C.W. and R.S. Pierce (1980) Clearcutting patterns effect nitrate and calcium in streams of New Hampshire. J. Forestry 78:268- 272. A study of the effects of clearcutting, partial cuts, and leaving riparian buffers on forested watersheds. D; F; NIT; Ca

536. Martin, D. and J. Chambers (2002) Restoration of riparian meadows degraded by livestock grazing: above- and belowground responses. Plant Ecol. 163:77-91. Studied several sites in Nevada. Used nitrogen fertilization, aeration, and revegetation techniques to examine the potential for restoration of these meadows. D, G, H

537. Martin, E.H. (1988) Effectiveness of an urban runoff detention pond- wetlands system. J. Environ. Engin. ASCE. 114:810-827. Overland Flows from a Highway/Suburban Watershed were Passed Through a Detention Pond and a Cypress Wetland. Focus was on Nutrient and Metals Removal. D; F; CP; TSS; TrM; TP; TN; Flux

538. Martin, T.L., N.K. Kaushik, J.T. Trevors and H.R. Whiteley (1999) Review: Denitrification in temperate climate riparian zones. Water Air Soil Poll. 111:171-186. A review of what is known about biological denitrification in Riparian Zones. R

539. Matheson, F.E., M.L. Nguyen, A.B. Cooper, T.P. Burt and D.C. Bull (2002) Fate of 15N-nitrate in unplanted, planted and harvested riparian wetland soil microcosms. Ecol. Engin. 19:249-264. Measured rates of biological uptake, denitrification and ammonification. D, H, DAM, NIT, Denit-F

540. Mattraw, H.C. and J.F. Elder (1984) Nutrient and Detritus Transport in the Appalachicola River, Florida. Water-supply paper 2196-C: U.S. Geological Survey, 62 pp. An Overall Study of Nutrient Flux in the Whole System with an Emphasis on Floodplain Forest Interactions. A Hydrologic Budget and Nutrient/Detritus Flux Analysis were Used to Infer the Interactions of the Main Channels with the Floodplain Forests. D; F; POM; DOM; TN; TP; DTN; DTP

541. Mauclaire, L., P. Marmonier and J. Gibert (1998) Sampling water and sediment in interstitial habitats: a comparison of coring and pumping techniques. Arch. Hydrobiol. 142(1):111-123. Tested various methods of sampling sediments. D; DOM; NIT

542. McArthur, B.H. (1989) The use of isolated wetlands in Florida for stormwater treatment. Pp. 185-193, In: Wetlands: Concerns and Successes, D.W. Fiske (Ed.). Bethesda, MD: Amer. Water Resources Assoc. Potential of Wetlands for Treatment of Urban Storm Runoff with Data from a Case Study. M; D; CP; TSS; TrM; TN; TP; Flux

543. McClain, M.E. and J.E. Richey (1996) Regional-scale linkages of terrestrial and lotic ecosystems in the Amazon basin: a conceptual model for organic matter. Arch. Hydrobiol. Suppl. 113(1/4):111-125. A review of sources of organic matter and categorization of 4 classes of sources from outside the river channel. R; F; GW; OF; DOM; POM

544. McClain, M.E., J.E. Richey and T.P. Pimentel (1994) Groundwater nitrogen dynamics at the terrestrial-lotic interface of a small catchment in the central Amazon Basin. Biogeochem. 27:113-127. Studied groundwater transects from upland forest through a riparian forest to a small tributary of the Amazon. Ten month study. NIT; DAM; DTKN; D; F; Fe; GW

545. McColl, R.H.S. (1978) Chemical runoff from pasture: the influence of fertiliser and riparian zones. N. Z. Jl. Mar. Freshwater Res. 12(4):371-380. Study of three Nested Watersheds before and after Much of the Land was Converted from Abandoned Scrub to Fertilized Pastures. A Small Headwaters Watershed was Completely Converted, the Others Retained Scrub and Wetland Riparian Zones. Decreases in Nutrient Concentrations along the Higher Order Streams were used to Infer Riparian Vegetation effects. D; TP; DPP; DAM; NIT; Ca; Mg; K

546. McDowell, W.H. (2001) Hurricanes, people, and riparian zones: controls on nutrient losses from forested Caribbean watersheds. For. Ecol. Manage. 154:443-451. A review of nutrient dynamics of forested and developed Caribbean watersheds. R, GW, NIT, TP, K, BioStor

547. McDowell, W.H., W.B. Bowden and C.E. Asbury (1992) Riparian nitrogen dynamics in two geomorphologically distinct tropical rain forest watersheds:subsurface solute patterns. Biogeochemistry 18(2):53-75. Transects of Groundwater Wells were used to Compare Nitrogen Concentration Patterns from Uplands to Stream Channel in Two Completely Forested Watersheds in Puerto Rico. D; F; GW; NIT; DAM; DTKN

548. McDowell, W.H. and S.G. Fisher (1976) Autumnal processing of dissolved organic matter in a small woodland stream ecosystem. Ecology 57:561- 567. Direct Measurements of Vertical and Lateral Inputs of Litter to Stream Channel from a Completely Forested Watershed. D; F; POM; 2nd order

549. McDowell, W.H., C.P. McSwiney and W.B. Bowden (1996) Effects of hurricance disturbance on groundwater chemistry and riparian function in a tropical rain forest. Biotropica 28:577-584. Examined the effects of a hurricane over a period of several years at two sites in Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico on shallow groundwater nutrient content. Wells were observed upslope and near the stream channels. D, F, GW, MT, DAM, NIT, DTKN, K, Mg, Ca, Na

550. McIntyre, S.C. and J.W. Naney (1991) Sediment deposition in a forested inland wetland with a steep-farmed watershed. J. Soil Water Cons. 46(1):64-66. Measured Long-term Sediment Trapping by a Forested Riparian Zone Receiving Storm Floodwaters from a Stream Channel. D; F; TSS

551. McMahon, P.B. and J.K. Bohlke (1996) Denitrification and mixing in a stream-aquifer system: Effects on nitrate loading to surface water. J. Hydrol. 186:105-128.

552. Meals, D.W. (2001) Water Quality response to riparian restoration in an agricultural watershed in Vermont, USA. Water Sci. Technol. 43(5):175-182. Two approx. 1000 ha watersheds were studied beginning in 1994. One was subjected to stream fencing, riparian zone restoration in 1997. Discharge of water (continuous) and flow proportional sampling for water quality fluxes. D, TP, TKN, TSS

553. Melack, J.M. and T.R. Fisher (1988) Denitrification and nitrogen fixation in an Amazon floodplain lake. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 23:2232-2236. Studied the role of the floodplains in N-cycling. D; NIT; Denit-L; NutCyc

554. Melack, J.M. and T.R. Fisher (1990) Comparative limnology of tropical floodplain lakes with an emphasis on the central Amazon. Acta Limnol. Brasil 3:1-48. A detailed review of research on Lake Calado on the Amazon River floodplain. R

555. Mengis, M., S.L. Schiff, M. Harris, M.C. English, R. Aravena, R.J. Elgood and A. MacLean (1999) Multiple geochemical and isotopic approaches for assessing ground water NO3 elimination in a riparian zone. Ground Water 37:448-457. Studied nitrate to chloride ratios, natural isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen, and N-15 recycling in a grassed buffer below cropland in Ontario. D, G, GW, TS, NIT, Denit-F, 1st Order

556. Mertes, L.A.K. (1994) Rates of flood-plain sedimentation on the central Amazon River. Geology 22:171-174. Used data on TSS patterns, remote sensing, and models to estimate locations and rates of sediment deposition on the floodplain. D; TSS; SedTrap

557. Mertes, L.A.K., D.L. Daniel, J.M. Melack, B.Nelson, L.A. Martinelli and B.R. Forsberg (1995) Spatial patterns of hydrology, geomorphology, and vegetation on the floodplain of the Amazon River in Brazil from a remote sensing perspective. Geomorphology 13:215-232. Used spatial statistics to analyze flow patterns and vegetative cover on the floodplain. D

558. Merot, P. and P. Durand (1997) Modelling the interaction between buffer zones and the catchment. Pp. 208-217, In: Buffer Zones: Their Processes and Potential in Water Protection, N. Haycock, T. Burt, K. Goulding and G. Pinay (Eds.). Harpenden, UK: Quest Environmental. A review of models appropriate to applications in riparian zones. R

559. Mersie, W., C. A. Seybold, C. MacNamee and J. Huang (1999) Effectiveness of switchgrass filter strips in removing dissolved atrazine and metolachlor from runoff. J. Envir. Qual. 28:816-821.

560. Messina, M.G., S.H. Schoenholtz, M.W. Lowe, Z. Wang, D.K. Gunter and A. J. Londo (1997) Initial responses of woody vegetation, water quality, and soils to harvesting intensity in a Texas bottomland hardwood ecosystem. For. Ecol. Manage. 90(2-3):201-215. Compared effects on water quality in first order streams and groundwater of clearcutting, 50% basal area removal, and control sites. Undisturbed 20 m wide buffers were left in all cases. Also monitored 2 m deep groundwater wells. D; F; CP; 1st order; DAM; NIT; DPP; pH

561. Meyer, J.L. (1988) Benthic bacterial biomass and production in a blackwater river. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 23:1832-1838. Measured microbial biomass in sediments and correlated with organic matter content. D; HZ; POM; 6th order

562. Meyer, J.L. and G.E. Likens (1979) Transport and transformations of phosphorus in a forest stream ecosystem. Ecology 60:1255-1269. A Complete Phosphorus Budget for a Forested Watershed Including Litter Inputs. D; F; MT; 3rd order; POM; PTP

563. Meyer, L.D., S.M. Dabney and W.C. Harmon (1995) Sediment-trapping effectiveness of stiff-grass hedges. Trans. Am. Soc. Agr. Engin. 38(3):809-815. Conducted flume experiments on sediment trapping by several grass hedges. D, G, OF, TSS, SedTrap

564. Mikkelsen, R.L. and J.W. Gilliam (1995) Animal waste managment and edge of field losses. Pp. 57-68, In: Animal Waste and the Land-Water Interface, K. Steele (Ed.). New York: Lewis. A general review of riparian zone and filter strip effects on water quality of agricultural field discharges. R

565. Minshall, G.W. (1978) Autotrophy in stream ecosystems. Bioscience 28:767-771. A Review and Report of New Data Including Litter Inputs to Stream Channels. R; D; H; POM

566. Misra, A.K., J.L. Baker, S.K. Mickelson and H. Shang (1996) Contributing area and concentration effects on herbicide removal by vegetative buffer strips. Trans. Am. Soc. Agr. Eng. 39:2105-2111. Studied retention of atrazine, metolachlor, and cyanazine in grass buffer strips in Iowa. Used rainfall simulator and measured volumes and concentrations in and out of the strips. D, G, OF, TS, HERB, Infil, MBal

567. Mitsch, W.J. (1978) Interactions between a riparian swamp and a river in southern Illinois. Pp. 63-72, In: Strategies for Protection and Management of Floodplain Wetlands and Other Riparian Ecosystems, R. R. Johnson and J.F. McCormick (Eds.). Washington, DC: USDA, Forest Service. Interactions of Floodwaters and Sediment/Nutrients Between Channel and a Floodplain Cypress Wetland. D; F; TP; DPP; NIT; DAM; DTKN; SedTrap

568. Mitsch, W.J. (1988) Ecological engineering and ecotechnology with wetlands applications of systems approaches. Pp. 565-580, In: Advances in Environmental Modelling, A. Marani (Ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier. A Brief Review with Discriptions of Several New Wetland Studies. R

569. Mitsch, W.J. (1992) Landscape design and the role of created, restored, and natural riparian wetlands in controlling nonpoint source pollution. Ecol. Engin. 1:27-47. A Review of Results from Several Studies of Riparian Wetlands Including Reconstructed. R

570. Mitsch, W.J. (1994) The nonpoint source pollution control function of natural and constructed riparian wetlands. Pp. 351-361, In: Global Wetlands: Old World and New, W.J. Mitsch (Ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier. A general review of the role of natural and constructed riparian wetlands in trapping sediments and phosphorus. R; TSS; TP; SedTrap

571. Mitsch, W.J., J.K. Cronk, X. Wu, R.W. Nairn and D.L. Hey (1995) Phosphorus retention in constructed freshwater riparian marshes. Ecol. Appl. 5(3):830-845. Input/output budgets and water column concentration patterns for total phosphorus and dissolved phosphate over a 3-year period in four constructed wetlands on the floodplain of the Des Plaines River in Illinois. Loading rates with river water were controlled experimentally with some marshes getting higher rates. D; H; TP; DPP; BioStor; SedTrap

572. Mitsch, W.J., C.L. Dorge and J.R. Wiemhoff (1979) Ecosystem dynamics and a phosphorus budget of an alluvial cypress swamp in southern Illinois. Ecology 60:1116-1124. Hydrological and Phosphorus Budgets were Measured for a Cypress Floodplain Forest and its Exchanges with the River Channel. A Model of an Ecological Type Resulted. D; F; TSS; TP; DPP; SedTrap

573. Mitsch, W.J., C.L. Dorge and J.R. Wiemmhoff (1977) Forested Wetlands for Water Resource Management in Southern Illinois. Research Report Number 132. Urbana, IL: Univ. Illinois Water Resour. Cen., 275 pp. An Overall Hydrologic and Phosphorus Budget was Measured and Modeled for a Floodplain Hardwood Forest. D; F; TSS; TP; DPP; DTP; ET; NIT

574. Mitsch, W.J. and B.C. Reeder (1991) Modelling nutrient retention of a freshwater coastal wetland: estimating the roles of primary productivity, sedimentation, resuspension and hydrology. Ecol. Modell. 54:151-187. Simulation Model of Phosphorus Retention and Cycling in a Wetland Receiving Agricultural Drainage. D; H; TP; DTP; DPP; PPP; Flux; SedTrap

575. Mitsch, W.J. and B.C. Reeder (1992) Nutrient and hydrologic budgets of a Great Lakes coastal freshwater wetland during a drought year. Wetlands Ecol. Manage. 1(4):211-222. Hydrologic and Phosphorus Input-Output Budgets for a Riparian Herbaceous Wetland Receiving Agricultural Discharges. D; H; TSS; TP; DTP; DPP; MBal; SedTrap

576. Mitsch, W.J., B.C. Reeder and D.M. Klarer (1989) The role of wetlands in the control of nutrients with a case study of western Lake Erie. Pp. 129-159, In: Ecological Engineering: an Introduction to Ecotechnology, W.J. Mitsch and S.E. Jorgensen (Eds.). New York: Wiley. Review of Riverine Riparian Wetlands and Their Nutrient and Sediment Interactions. R

577. Mitsch, W.J. and W.G. Rust (1984) Tree growth responses to flooding in a bottomland forest in northeastern Illinois. Forest Science 30:499- 510. A 60 Year Data Set on Frequency and Duration of Flooding in a Floodplain Forest were Compared with Tree Growth Rates from Tree Cores. D; F; BioStor

578. Molinas, A., G.T. Auble, C.A. Segelquist and L.S. Ischinger (1988) Assessment of the Role of Bottomland Hardwoods in Sediment and Erosion Control. Rep. Num. NERC-88/11. Natl. Ecol. Res. Center. Ft. Collins, CO: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Serv., 116 pp. A Model of Sediment Generation, Transport, and Deposition was used to Predict the Effects of Increasing the Amount of Bottomland Hardwood Forest Along Channels of the Yazoo River. M; TSS; F

579. Mookherji, S. and G.W. McCarty (2000) Dissolved gas analysis for assessing nitrate fate in riparian wetland. Pp. 125-130, in: Riparian Ecology and Management in Multi-Land Use Watersheds. P.J. Wigington Jr. and R.L. Beschta (Eds.), Amer. Water Resourc. Assoc., Middleburg, VA. Measured nitrate concentrations and dissolved N2/Ar ratios in shallow groundwater. D, GW, PT, NIT, Denit-F, 1st Order

580. Moorby, H. and H.F. Cook (1992) The use of fertiliser free grass strips to protect dyke water from nitrate pollution. Aspects of Applied Biology 30:231-234. Sampled soil water and groundwater in two crop fields and in adjacent grassed and cropped riparian buffers. D; G; GW; NIT

581. Moorman, T.B., A. Reungsang and R. Kanwar (2000) Transport and fate of atrazine in midwestern riparian buffer strips. Pp. 131-136, in: Riparian Ecology and Management in Multi-Land Use Watersheds. P.J. Wigington Jr. and R.L. Beschta (Eds.), Amer. Water Resourc. Assoc., Middleburg, VA. Studied transport and fate of atrazine in soil columns from cropland and switchgrass buffer strips on Bear Creek, IO. D, G, TS, HERB

582. Morrice, J.A., H.M. Valett, C.N. Dahm and M.E. Campana (1997) Alluvial characteristics, groundwater-surface water exchange and hydrological retention in headwater streams. Hydrol. Proc. 11:253-267. Measured stream water-groundwater exchange rates in three streams on a seasonal basis. D; HZ; TS; GW

583. Mulholland, P.J. (1992) Regulation of nutrient concentration in a temperate forest stream: Roles of upland, riparian, and instream processes. Limnol. Oceanogr. 37(7):1512-1526. Nutrient Dynamics of Completely Forested Small Watershed. Included Nutrient Interactions Between Channel and Riparian Shallow Groundwater. D; F; MT; 1st order; DAM; NIT; DPP; DTP

584. Mulholland, P.J. and D.L. DeAngelis (2000) * Surface-subsurface exchange and nutrient spiraling. Pp. 149-166, In: J.B. Jones and P.J. Mulholland (Eds.), Streams and Ground Waters, Academic Press, San Diego.

585. Mulholland, P.J. and W.R. Hill (1997) Seasonal pattersn in the stream water nutrient and dissolved organic carbon concentrations: Separating catchment flow path and in-stream effects. Water Resourc. Res. 33:1297-1306.

586. Mulholland, P.J., E.R. Marzolf and J.R. Webster (1997) Evidence that hyporheic zones increase heterotrophic metabolism and phosphorus uptake in forest streams. Limnol. Oceanogr. 42(3):443-451. Compared two streams for whole system metabolism, transient storage, and phosphorus cycling. D; HZ; F; TS; MT; 1st order; 2nd order; NIT; DPP; DAM; POM

587. Munn, N.L. and J.L. Meyer (1990) Habitat-specific solute retention in two small streams: An intersite comparison. Ecology 71:2069-2082. Conducted short-term enrichments of two streams in North Carolina and Oregon and measured efficiency of uptake into sediments of N, P, and Ca. D; F; Nit; DPP; Ca; DOM

588. Munoz-Carpena, R., J.E. Parsons and J.W. Gilliam (1993) Numerical approach to the overland flow process in vegetative filter strips. Trans. Am. Soc. Agr. Eng. 36:761-770. A mathematical model of the velocity of overland flow and proportion of infiltration in buffers under various conditions. D, G, OF, Infil

589. Munoz-Carpena, R., J.E. Parsons and J.W. Gilliam (1999) Modeling hydrology and sediment transport in vegetative filter strips. J. Hydrol. 214:111-129. A model was developed that incorporated overland flow, infiltration and grass retention of sediments. It was tested on 27 hydrologic events and 9 events for sediment transport. D, G, OF, PT, TSS, Infil, SedTrap

590. Muscutt, A.D., G.L. Harris, S.W. Bailey and D.B. Davies (1993) Buffer zones to improve water quality: A review of their potential use in UK agriculture. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 45(1-2):59-77. A General Review of the Use of Vegetated Buffer Zones to Trap Nutrients and Pesticides in Agricultural Drainage Waters. R

591. Naegeli, M.W., U. Hartmann, E.I. Meyer and U. Uehlinger (1995) POM-dynamics and community respiration in the sediments of a floodprone prealpine river (Necker, Switzerland). Arch. Hyrobiol. 133(3):339-347. Measured sediment respiration and POC content. D; HZ; POM

592. Naegeli, M.W. and U. Uehlinger (1997) Contribution of the hyporheic zone to ecosystme metabolism in a prealpine gravel-bed river. J. N. Am. Bethol. Soc. 16(4):794-804. Measured hyporheic zone respiration and compared with epilithic and whole system respiration. D; HZ; 6th order

593. Naiman, R.J., R.E. Bilby and P.A. Bisson (2000) Riparian ecology and management in the Pacific coastal rain forest. BioScience 50:996-1011. A wide-ranging review. R

594. Naiman, R.J. and H. Decamps (1997) The ecology of interfaces: Riparian zones. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 28:621-658. A broad multi-disciplinary review of riparian zone ecology. R

595. Naiman, R.J., H. Decamps, J. Pastor and C.A. Johnston (1988) The potential importance of boundaries to fluvial ecosystems. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 7(4):289-306. Review of a Wide Range of Studies of River Boundaries. R

596. Naiman, R.J., H. Decamps and M. Pollock (1993) The role of riparian corridors in maintaining regional biodiversity. Ecol. Appl. 3(2):209- 212. Review of Riverine Riparian Corridors and Their Ecology. R

597. Naimo, T.J., J.B. Layzer and A.C. Miller (1988) Benthic community metabolism in two northern Mississippi streams. J. Freshwater Ecol. 4(4):503-515. Measured primary production and respiration in gravel bars and related to physical/chemical parameters. D; HZ; 4th order; 7th order; TKN; NIT; pH; DPP

598. Nakamura, F. (2002) Ecological functions of riparian zones � Presentation of required buffer width in Japan. Pp. 205-214 In: R. Hatano, U. Mander, Y. Hayakawa, V. Kuusemets, Y. Watanabe and K. Kanazawa (eds.), Efficiency of Purification Processes in Riparian Buffer Zones, Their Design and Planning in Agricultural Watersheds, Natl. Agric. Res. Center Hokkaido Region, Kushiro, Japan. A review of both habitat and water quality functions of riparian buffers. R

599. Nakamura, K. and I. Tetsuya (2002) Impact of the forest buffer zone on the water quality of dairy farmland in a cold region. Pp. 35-44 In: R. Hatano, U. Mander, Y. Hayakawa, V. Kuusemets, Y. Watanabe and K. Kanazawa (eds.), Efficiency of Purification Processes in Riparian Buffer Zones, Their Design and Planning in Agricultural Watersheds, Natl. Agric. Res. Center Hokkaido Region, Kushiro, Japan. Measured water quality in streams draining areas with and without partial riparian forest buffers both in the growing season and in winter. D, F, GW, OF, DPP, DTKN, DAM, NIT, PAM, PTKN, PPP, TSS

600. Nakao, M. and B. Sohngen (2000) The effect of site quality on the costs of reducing soil erosion with riparian buffers. J. Soil Water Conserv. 55:231-237. Compares costs of various riparian buffers with other conservation methods. D, TSS

601. Narumalani, S., Y. Zhou and J.R. Jensen (1997) Application of remote sensing and geographic information systems to the delineation and analysis of riparian buffer zones. Aquatic Bot. 58:393-409. Applied these techniques to a part of the Iowa River basin. D, M

602. Neary, D.G., A.J. Pierce, C.L. O'Loughlin and L.K. Rowe (1978) Management impacts on nutrient fluxes in beech-podocarp-hardwood forests. New Zealand J. Ecol. 1:19-26. Measured Nutrient Discharges When a Forested Watershed was Clearcut and The Slash Burned. D; F; MT; DTN; DTP; DAM; K; Ca

603. Nelson, W.M., A.J. Gold and P.M. Groffman (1995) Spatial and temporal variation in groundwater nitrate removal in a riparian forest. J. Environ. Qual. 24(4):691-699. Added nitrate and bromide continuously for a year to groundwater. Followed nitrate to bromide ratios in time and space to determine nitrate removal rates in different soil conditions. D; F; NIT; TS; GW

604. Nichols, D.J., T.C. Daniel, D.R. Edwards, P.A. Jr. Moore and D.H. Pote (1998) Use of grass filter strips to reduce 17B �estradiol in runoff from fescue-applied poultry litter. J. Soil Water Conserv. 53(1):74-77. Measured fluxes of estrogen from fields through various widths of grass filter strips. D; G; OF; Flux

605. Nieswand, G.H., R.M. Hordon, T.B. Shelton, B.B. Chavooshian and S. Blarr (1990) Buffer strips to protect water supply reservoirs: a model and recommendations. Water Resources Bull. 26(6):959-966. A 5- Zone Model for Buffer Strips to Protect Receiving Water Quality was Applied to a New Jersey Watershed. No Verification was Done. M; OF

606. Niswonger, R.G. and J.L. Rupp (2000) Monte Carlo analysis of streambed seepage rates. Pp. 161-166, in: Riparian Ecology and Management in Multi-Land Use Watersheds. P.J. Wigington Jr. and R.L. Beschta (Eds.), Amer. Water Resourc. Assoc., Middleburg, VA. Modeled groundwater exchange in the stream bed of Trout Creek, NV. D, GW, HZ

607. Nixon, S.W. and V. Lee (1986) Wetlands and Water Quality: A regional review of recent research in the United States on the Role of Freshwater and Saltwater Wetlands as Sources, Sinks, and Transformers of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Various Heavy Metals. Washington, D.C.: US Army Corps Engin. Rep. Y-86-2, 229 pp. A Major Review of Wetlands and Their Relationships to Water Quality Throughout the United States. R

608. Norris, V. (1993) The use of buffer zones to protect water quality: A review. Water Resources Manage. 7:257-272. A management-oriented review of roles played by buffer zones. R; M

609. Novak, J.M., P.G. Hunt, K.C. Stone, D.W. Watts and M.H. Johnson (2002) Riparian zone impact on phosphorus movement to a Coastal Plain black water stream. J. Soil Water Conserv. 57:127-133. Studied the dynamics of phosphorus moving from an overloaded spray field in North Carolina into a grass buffer, then a forest buffer and to a stream. Measured soil phosphorus fractions, dissolved phosphate in shallow groundwater along transects for seven years. D, G, F, 1st order, GW, CP, DPP, PTP

610. Nunez-Delgado, A., E. Lopez-Periago and F. Diaz-Fierros (1997) Effectiveness of buffer strips for attenuation of ammonium and nitrate levels in runoff from pasture amended with cattle slurry or inorganic fertiliser. Pp. 134-139, In: Buffer Zones: Their Processes and Potential in Water Protection, N. Haycock, T. Burt, K. Goulding and G. Pinay (Eds.). Harpenden, UK: Quest Environmental. Used a rainfall simulator to measure fluxes of nutrient from pasture treated with slurry or inorganic fertilizer various distances into a grass buffer strip. D, G, OF, PAM, NIT, MBal

611. Nunez-Delgado, A., E. Lopez-Periago, F. Quiroga-Lago and F. D.-F. Viqueira (2001) Surface runoff pollution by cattle slurry and inorganic fertilizer spreading: chemical oxygen demand, ortho-phosphates, and electrical conductivity levels for different buffer strip lengths. Water Science & Technology 44:173-180. Sampled surface flows 2, 4, 6, and 8 meters into a grass buffer strip. Used a rainfall simulator on areas subjected to slurry and areas fertilized with inorganics. D, G, OF, PPP, POM

612. Nutter, W.L. and J.W. Gaskin (1989) Role of streamside management zones in controlling discharges to wetlands. Pp. 81-84, In: Forested Wetlands of the Southern United States, D. Hook and R. Lea (Eds.). Orlando, FL: USDA Forest Service, SE Exp. Sta. Brief General Review of Water Quality Effects of Riparian Zones. R

613. Odum, E.P. (1978) Ecological importance of the riparian zone. Pp. 2-4, In: Strategies for Protection and Management of Floodplain Wetlands and Other Riparian Ecosystems, R.R. Johnson and J.F. McCormick (Eds.). Wash. D.C.: USDA Forest Service. Conceptual Review of Riparian Zones. R

614. Okamura, T. and A. Yoshii (2002) Development of the eco-mixed seeding method as a natural forest restoration technology. Pp. 174-184 In: R. Hatano, U. Mander, Y. Hayakawa, V. Kuusemets, Y. Watanabe and K. Kanazawa (eds.), Efficiency of Purification Processes in Riparian Buffer Zones, Their Design and Planning in Agricultural Watersheds, Natl. Agric. Res. Center Hokkaido Region, Kushiro, Japan. Description of riparian forest restoration program involving citizen gathering of tree seeds, growing small seedlings, and dispersing the seeds and seedlings in riparian zones. Some results are also given. D, M, F

615. Olson, P.L. and R.C. Wissmar (2000) Thermal definition of subsurface flow sources within a Cascadian riparian landscape. Pp. 155-160, in: Riparian Ecology and Management in Multi-Land Use Watersheds. P.J. Wigington Jr. and R.L. Beschta (Eds.), Amer. Water Resourc. Assoc., Middleburg, VA. Studied interactions between groundwater and stream water in Constant Creek, WA. D, GW, HZ

616. Omernik, J.M., A.R. Abernathy and L.M. Male (1981) Stream nutrient levels and proximity of agricultural and forest land to streams: some relationships. J. Soil and Water Conservation 36(4):227-231. Statistical Analysis of Correlation of Nutrient Concentrations in 175 Streams with the Adjacency of Forest and Croplands to the Stream Channel. Found some Correlations but Most Were Low. D; F; TP; DPP; TN; DAM; NIT

617. O'Neill, G.J. and A.M. Gordon (1994) The nitrogen filtering capability of carolina poplar in an artificial riparian zone. J. Environ. Qual. 23:1218-1223. Riparian mesocosms with and without poplar saplings were dosed with nitrate-laden groundwater. Nitrate flux and the incorporation of nitrogen into above and belowground biomass of poplar were measured. D; F; NIT; PTKN; BioStor; MBal; GW

618. Osborne, L.L. and D.A. Kovacic (1993) Riparian vegetated buffer strips in water quality restoration and stream management. Freshwater Biol. 29:243-258. Studied Ground Water Nitrate and Phosphorus Concentrations as the Water Moved from Row Crops Through Grass or Forested Buffers or Croped Buffers. Also Total Phosphorus in Overland Flows Through Rye Grass or Oat Buffers. D; GW; G; F; NIT; DTP; OF; TP

619. Otto, C. (1975) Energetic relationships of the larval population of Potamophylax cingulatus (Trichoptera) in a south Swedish stream. Oikos 26:159-169. Measured Litter Inputs from Riparian Trees in a Pastureland Watershed. D; F; 1st order; POM

620. Overcash, M.R., S.C. Bingham and P.W. Westerman (1981) Predicting runoff pollutant reduction in buffer zones adjacent to land treatment sites. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agric. Engin. 24(2):430-435. Mathematical Model for Grass Buffers Used to Trap Nutrients from Agricultural Waste Waters. D; M; G

621. Paludan, C. and G. Blicher-Mathiesen (1996) Losses of inorganic carbon and nitrous oxide from a temperate freshwater wetland in relation to nitrate loading. Biogeochemistry 35:305-326. Measured concentration patterns of nitrate and sulphate in groundwaters moving from upland crops through a riparian zone into a stream. Also, measured emission rates of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. D, H, GW, NIT, pH, Denit-F

622. Parsons, J.E., R.B. Daniels, J.W. Gilliam and T.A. Dillaha (1991) The effect of vegetation filter strips on sediment and nutrient removal from agricultural runoff. Pp. 324-332, In: Proc. Environmentally Sound Agriculture, A.B. Butcher (Ed.). Gainesville, FL: Univ. Florida, SSI IFAS. Comparative Study of Grassed Filter Strips in Coastal Plain and Piedmont, for Nutrient and Sediment Removal from Cropland Storm Runoff. D; G; CP; PT; OF; TSS; TKN; TP

623. Parsons, J.E., R.B. Daniels, J.W. Gilliam and T.A. Dillaha (1994) Reduction in Sediment and Chemical Load in Agricultural Field Runoff by Vegetative Filter Strips. Report No. UNC-WRRI-94-286, Raleigh, NC: Water Resources Res. Institute, 45 pp. Compositional changes in Overland Flows were Measured as the Water Moved Through Grassed Buffer Strips and Forested Buffers in Both the Coastal Plain and the Piedmont. D; CP; PT; G; OF; TSS; PPP; PTKN; PTP; F; BioStor

624. Parsons, J.E., J.W. Gilliam, R. Munoz-Carpena, R.B. Daniels and T.A. Dillaha (1994) Nutrient and sediment removal by grass and riparian buffers. Pp. 147-154, In: Proc. Second Environ. Sound Agriculture Conf., Orlando, FL, (Ed.). Comparisons of grass and forest riparian buffers in the Coastal Plain and the Piedmont Physiographic Provinces of the US. D; OF; G; F; TSS; NIT; PTKN; PAM; TP; DPP

625. Paterson, J.J., J.H. Jones, F.J. Olsen and G.C. McCoy (1980) Dairy liquid waste distribution in an overland flow vegetative-soil filter system. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agric. Engin. 23:973-977. Measured Effectiveness of a Grassed Riparian Zone for Removing Nutrients in Dairy Waste Waters. Tested Overland Flows and Groundwater. D; G; DOM; DAM; NIT; DPP; TSS; Ca

626. Paterson, K.G. and J.L. Schnoor (1992) Fate of alachlor and atrazine in a riparian zone field site. Water Environ. Res. 64(3):274-283. Studied Effectiveness of Poplar Stands, Bare Soil, or Corn Buffers at Retention of Atrazine and Alachlor. D; HERB; F

627. Paterson, K.G. and J.L. Schnoor (1993) Vegetative alteration of nitrate fate in unsaturated zone. J. Environ. Eng. 119(5):986-993. Applied Nitrate to Bare, Corn, and Poplar Tree Plots. Measured Nitrate Concentrations in Soil Water at Depths to 135 cm. D; F; G; NIT

628. Patty, L., B. Real and J.J. Gril (1997) The use of grassed buffer strips to remove pesticides, nitrate and soluble phosphorus compounds from runoff water. Pesticide Sci. 49:243-251. Studied effectiveness of buffers of 6, 12, and 18 meters for isoproturon, deflufenican, lindane, atrazine, nitrate, and dissolved phosphorus. D, G, OF, DTP, NIT, HERB, Infil

629. Pavel, E.W., R.B. Reneau Jr., D.F. Berry, E.P. Smith and S. Mostaghimi (1996) Denitrification potential of nontidal riparian wetland soils in the Virginia Coastal Plain. Water Res. 30:2798-2804. Measured denitrification in soil cores in the presence of acetylene. D, F, CP, GW, NIT, POM, Denit-L

630. Pearce, R.A., G.W. Frasier, W.C. Leininger and M.J. Trlica (1998) Sediment movement and filtration in riparian vegetation. Pp. 167-177, In: Rangeland Mangement and Water Resources. D.F. Potts, (Ed.), American Water Resources Assoc., Reno, NV. Studied movement of TSS in grassed plots both in the laboratory and the field. D, G, OF, MT, TSS, SedTrap

631. Pearce, R.A., G.W. Frasier, M.J. Trlica, W.C. Leininger, J.D. Stednick and J.L. Smith (1998) Sediment filtration in a montane riparian zone under simulated rainfall. J. Range Manage. 51:309-314. Measured transport of TSS through grassed and sedge plots, using a rainfall simulator. D, G, OF, MT, TSS, SedTrap

632. Pearce, R.A., M.J. Trlica, W.C. Leininger, D.E. Mergen and G. Frasier (1998) Sediment movement through riparian vegetation under simulated rainfall and overland flow. J. Range Manage. 51:301-308. Measured transport of TSS through riparian plots using a rainfall simulator. D, G, OF, MT, TSS, SedTrap

633. Pearce, R.A., M.J. Trlica, W.C. Leininger, J.L. Smith and G.W. Frasier (1997) Efficiency of grass buffer strips and vegetation height on sediment filtration in laboratory rainfall simulations. J. Environ. Qual. 26:139-144. Measured TSS transport through laboratory plots of grass with a simulated rainfall. D, G, OF, MT, TSS, SedTrap

634. Perison, D., J. Phelps, C. Pavel and R. Kellison (1997) The effects of timber harvest in a South Carolina blackwater bottomland. For. Ecol. Manage. 90(2-3):171-185. Compared effects of helicopter clear-cut, vs rubber-tired skidder clear-cut, vs undisturbed controls on groundwater quality (1.22 m depth) and soil water at 20 cm depth. D; F; CP; OF; DAM; DOM; NIT; DPP; SedTrap

635. Perrochet, P. and A. Musy (1992) A simple formula to calculate the width of hydrological buffer zones between drained agricultural plots and nature reserve areas. Irrigation and Drainage Systems. 6:69-81. Methods for calculation of width of buffer needed to keep contaminated groundwater from flowing from croplands into wetlands. M; GW

636. Perry, C.D., G. Vellidis, R. Lowrance and D.L. Thomas (1999) Watershed scale water quality impacts of riparian forest management. J. Water Resources Planning Manage. 125:117-125. A GIS-based analysis of the riparian forests on the Little River watershed, GA, USA. Examined mean widths, fragmentation, and projected water quality effects of further removals. M, F, CP

637. Peterjohn, W.T. (1982) Nutrient Transformations in three single-landuse watersheds. M.S. Thesis. Oxford, OH: Miami University.

638. Peterjohn, W.T. and D.L. Correll (1984) Nutrient dynamics in an agricultural watershed: Observations on the role of a riparian forest. Ecology. 65(5):1466-1475. Overall Study of Groundwater and Overland Flows From Croplands Through a Riparian Forest. Mass Balances for Sediments, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Parameters. Storage of N and P in Woody Biomass. D; F; CP; GW; OF; MBAl; BioStor; TN

639. Peterjohn, W.T. and D.L. Correll (1986) The effect of riparian forest on the volume and chemical composition of base-flow in an agricultural watershed. Pp. 244-262, In: Watershed Research Perspectives, D.L. Correll (Ed.). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Press. Complete Hydrologic Budget for Cropland/Riparian Forest Watershed. Also Mass Balances for Nitrogen over a Two Year Period. D; F; CP; GW; ET; NIT; MBal; BioStor

640. Petersen Jr., R.C., L.B. Madsen, M.A. Wilzbach, C.H.D. Magadza, A. Paarlberg, A. Kullberg and K.W. Cummins (1987) Stream management: emerging global similarities. Ambio 16:166-179. A General Review of Problems Related to Management of Streams and Their Riparian Zones. R

641. Petersen, R.C., L.B.M. Petersen and J. Lacoursiere (1992) A building block model for stream restoration. Pp. 293-309, In: River Conservation and Management, P.J. Boon, P. Calow and G.E. Petts (Eds.). Chichester: John Wiley. Review and Management Recommendations for Restoration of Riparian Buffer Zones on Streams. M; R

642. Peterson, D.L. and G.L. Rolfe (1982) Seasonal variation in nutrients of floodplain and upland forest soils of Central Illinois. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 46:1310-1315. Compared Nutrient Composition of Upland and Floodplain Forest Soils. D; F; PPP; Ca; Mg; K

643. Peverly, J.H. (1982) Stream transport of nutrients through a wetland. J. Environ. Qual. 11:38-43. Upstream-Downstream Comparison of Nutrient Concentrations, Especially Dissolved Nutrients, for a Stream that Flows into and out of a Large Wetland Managed for Wildlife. D; F; TN; TP; DOM; DPP; NIT

644. Phillips, J.D. (1989) Nonpoint source pollution control effectiveness of riparian forests along a coastal plain river. J. Hydrol. 110:221- 237. A Model Utilizing Hydrologic and Soil Parameters to Predict the Effectiveness of Riparian Forests to Remove Nitrate for a Large Watershed. D; M; F; CP; NIT

645. Phillips, J.D. (1989) Fluvial sediment storage in wetlands. Water Resourc. Bull. 25:867-873. Review of Sediment Trapping by Wetlands Within Watersheds. R; SedTrap

646. Phillips, J.D. (1989) An evaluation of the factors determining the effectiveness of water quality buffer zones. J. Hydrol. 107:133-145. Developed two theoretical models of riparian zone function, one based on overland flow velocity, the other on Darcy�s Law. M, OF, CP

647. Pierce, R.S., C.W. Martin, C.C. Reeves, G.E. Likens and F.H. Bormann (1972) Nutrient loss from clearcutting in New Hampshire. Pp. 285-295, In: Watersheds in Transition. Proc. Series Num. 14, S.C. Scallany, P.G. McLaughlin and W.D. Striffler (Eds.). Urbana, IL: Amer. Water Resources Assoc. Study of a Research Complete Clear-Cut of a Completely Forested Watershed, Where all biomass was left in Place and Regrowth was Allowed. Nutrient Discharges were Followed During Recovery. Data were also Collected from 70 other Clear-Cuts in the Same Region. D; F; MT; NIT; Ca; Mg; DOC

648. Pinay, G. (1986) Relations sol-nappe dans les bois reverains de la Garonne: Etude de la denitrification. Ph. D. Thesis. Toulouse: Univ. P. Sabatier, pp. 196 pp.

649. Pinay, G., V.J. Black, A.M. Planty-Tabacchi, B. Gumiero and H. Decamps (2000) * Geomorphic control of denitrification in large river floodplain soils. Biogeochemistry 50:163-182.

650. Pinay, G. and H. Decamps (1988) The role of riparian woods in regulating nitrogen fluxes between the alluvial aquifer and surface water: A conceptual model. Regulated rivers: Research and Management 2:507-516. Measured Changes in Nitrate Concentrations in Shallow Ground Water as it Moved from Agricultural Uplands Through Various Forested Riparian Zones. D; F; GW; NIT

651. Pinay, G., H. Decamps, C. Arles and M. Lacassin-Seres (1989) Topographic influence on carbon and nitrogen dynamics in riverine woods. Arch. Hydrobiol. 114(3):401-414. Sampled Soils of Riparian Forests at 4 Depths and Correlated Waterlogging with Nitrogen and Organic Carbon Parameters. Measured Eh. D; F; POM; NIT; PTKN; PAM

652. Pinay, G., H. Decamps, E. Chauvet and E. Fustec (1990) Functions of ecotones in fluvial systems. Pp. 141-169, In: The Ecology and Management of Aquatic-Terrestrial Ecotones. Man and the Biosphere Series, R.J. Naiman and H. Decamps (Eds.). Paris: UNESCO. A General Review of the Functional Ecology of Riverine Riparian Zones. R

653. Pinay, G., A. Fabre, P.h. Vervier and F. Gazelle (1992) Control of C, N, P distribution in soils of riparian forests. Landscape Ecol. 6(3):121-132. Three Riparian Willow Stands were Sampled for Soil Nutrients and Nitrogen Mineralization and Denitrification. The Results were Correlated with Geomorphic Features. D; F; 7th order; Denit-L; TP; TN; POM; PAM

654. Pinay, G., N.E. Haycock, C. Ruffinoni and R.M. Holmes (1994) The role of denitrification in nitrogen removal in river corridors. Pp. 107-116, In: Global Wetlands: Old World and New, W.J. Mitsch (Ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier. A wide-ranging review with some new data on denitrification in riparian forests and gravel bars. R; D; NIT; Denit

655. Pinay, G. and L. Labroue (1986) Une station d'epuration naturelle des nitrates transportes par les nappes alluviales: l'aulnaie glutineuse. C. R. Acad. Sc. Paris 302(III):629-632. Sampled Groundwater along Transects of Wells Through an Alder Riparian Forest. Measured Nitrate Concentration Pattern and Denitrification Potential. D; F; GW; NIT; Denit-L

656. Pinay, G. and R.J. Naiman (1991) Short-term hydrologic variations and nitrogen dynamics in beaver created meadows. Arch. Hydrobiol. 123(2):187-205. Correlated Water Logging Conditions with Eh, and Soil Water Nutrient Concentrations. D; H; NIT; DOM; DAM

657. Pinay, G., L. Roques and A. Fabre (1993) Spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification in a riparian forest. J. Appl. Ecol. 30(4):581- 591. Four Transects Through Riparian Forests. Measured Nitrate Concentrations, Denitrification Potentials, Used NaCl as a Tracer. D; F; GW; 4th order; Denit-L; NIT; Fe; Mn

658. Pinay, G., C. Ruffinoni and A. Fabre (1995) Nitrogen cycling in two riparian forest soils under different geomorphic conditions. Biogeochemistry 30:9-29. Nitrogen processes were compared at two types of floodplain situations on the Garonne River in SW France. The sites differed in soil texture. This historic difference was reflected in their abilities currently to trap suspended sediments and to process nitrogen and organic matter. D; F; Nitrif; SedTrap; Biostor; Denit-F; Denit-L; PAM; POM; PTKN

659. Pinay, G., C. Ruffinoni, S. Wondzell and F. Gazelle (1998) Change in groundwater nitrate concentration in a large river floodplain: denitrification, uptake, or mixing? J. N. Amer. Benthol. Soc. 17(2):179-189. Mapped nitrate concentrations in groundwaters of the flood plain of the Garonne River and related to flow paths. D; GW; NIT; F; 7th order; TS

660. Pinay, G. and S. Sabater (2002) Role of riparian zones in regulating nitrogen diffuse pollutions capacities and limits. Pp. 226-236 In: R. Hatano, U. Mander, Y. Hayakawa, V. Kuusemets, Y. Watanabe and K. Kanazawa (eds.), Efficiency of Purification Processes in Riparian Buffer Zones, Their Design and Planning in Agricultural Watersheds, Natl. Agric. Res. Center Hokkaido Region, Kushiro, Japan. A review of riverine riparian zones and their nitrogen dynamics. R

661. Pionke, H.B. and R.R. Lowrance (1991) Fate of nitrate in subsurface drainage waters. Pp. 237-257, In: Managing Nitrogen for Groundwater Quality and Farm Profitability, (Ed.). Madison, WI: Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. A Broad Review of Nitrate Dynamics in Shallow and Deep Ground Water. Includes Sections on Effects of Riparian Zones. R; GW

662. Pozo, J., E. Gonalez, J.R. Diez, J. Molinero and A. Elosegui (1997) Inputs of particulate organic matter to streams with different riparian vegetation. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 16:602-611. Measured both vertical and horizonatal litter inputs to streams in Spain in natural mixed deciduous forest and in Eucalyptus plantations. Also measured nitrogen and phosphorus content of the litter inputs. D, F, 1st order, POM

663. Prato, T. and H. Shi (1990) A comparison of erosion and water pollution control strategies for an agricultural watershed. Water Resources Res. 26:199-205. A Management Oriented Modeling Exercise in Which BMPs on Cropland Fields were Compared to Riparian Vegetation Strategies for Controlling Sediment Yields to a Watershed Stream Channel. M; TSS; TN; DTP; SedTrap

664. Pringle, C.M. and F.J. Triska (1991) Effects of geothermal groundwater on nutrient dynamics of a lowland Costa Rican stream. Ecology 72:951- 965. Groundwater was Sampled with Transects of Wells from Stream Channels Through Riparian Zones in Tropical Forested Watersheds. D; F; GW; DPP; NIT

665. Pritchard, T.W., J.G. Lee and B.A. Engel (1993) Reducing agricultural sediment: An economic analysis of filter strips versus micro- targeting. Wat. Sci. Tech. 28(3-5):561-568. A management modelling exercise to estimate the cost of reducing sediment loadings from a small watershed managed either with riparian vegetative filter strips or by removing the most vulnerable areas from crop production. M; TSS

666. Pulliam, W.M. (1993) Carbon dioxide and methane exports from a southeastern floodplain swamp. Ecol. Monogr. 63:29-53. Measured releases from floodplain of the Ogeechee River and the effects of temperature and sources of organic carbon. D; F; HZ; CP; DOM; POM; Flux

667. Pulliam, W.M. and J.L. Meyer (1992) Methane emissions from floodplain swamps of the Ogeechee River: long-term patterns and effects of climate change. Biogeochem. 15:151-174. Measured methane emissions, constructed statistical models, then used simulation models to predict effects of climate change. D; CP

668. Pusch, M. (1996) The metabolism of organic matter in the hyporheic zone of a mountain stream, and its spatial distribution. Hydrobiologia 323:107-118. Measured the distribution of respiration rates in stream sediments. D; HZ; F; 3rd order; POM

669. Pusch, M., D. Fiebig, I. Brettar, H. Eisenmann, B.K. Ellis, L.A. Kaplan, M.A. Lock, M.W. Naegeli and W. Traunspurger (1998) The role of micro-organisms in the ecological connectivity of running waters. Freshwater Biol. 40:453-495. A broad, in-depth review of the microbial ecology of riparian zones and hyporheic zones. R; HZ

670. Pusch, M. and J. Schwoerbel (1994) Community respiration in hyporheic sediments of a mountain stream (Steina, Black Forest). Int. Rev. Ges. Hydrobiol. 79:461-471. Measured hyporheic zone and epilithic microbial biomass and respiration and compared with POC and composition of POC. D; HZ; 3rd order; POM

671. Qui, Z. and T. Prato (1998) Economic evaluation of riparian buffers in an agricultural watershed. J. Amer. Water Resourc. Assoc. 34:877-890.

672. Quinn, J., A. Taylor, W. Boyce and T. Fenton (2000) Riparian zone classification improves management of stream water quality and aquatic ecosystems. Pp. 451-455, in: Riparian Ecology and Management in Multi-Land Use Watersheds. P.J. Wigington Jr. and R.L. Beschta (Eds.), Amer. Water Resourc. Assoc., Middleburg, VA. Developed a stream reach classification system for two streams in New Zealand based on function. M

673. Qureshi, M.E. and S.R. Harrison (2001) A decision support process to compare riparian revegetation options in Scheu Creek catchment in North Queensland. J. Environ. Manage. 62:101-112. Describes a process for selecting among methods and gaining stakeholder acceptance. M

674. Raedeke, K. (ed.) (1987) Streamside Management: Riparian Wildlife and Forestry Interactions. Seattle: Institute of Forest Resources.

675. Reed, S.C. (1990) Wetland systems. Pp. 211-260, In: Natural Systems for Wastewater Treatment. Manual of Practices. FD-16, (Ed.). Alexandria, VA: Water Pollut. Contr. Fed. Detailed Operational Manual for Planning and Operation of Natural and Constructed Wetland Systems for Water Quality Treatment. M

676. Reungsang, A., T.B. Moorman and R.S. Kanwar (2001) Transport and fate of atrazine in midwestern riparian buffer strips. J. Am. Water Resources Assoc. 37:1681-1692. Compared infiltration rates into soils of various aged switchgrass buffer strips and cropland, measured degradation rates and populations of degrading bacteria in the soils. D, G, HERB

677. Rhode, W.A., L.E. Asmussen, E.W. Hauser, R.D. Wauchope and H.D. Allison (1980) Trifluralin movement in runoff from a small agricultural watershed. J. Environ. Qual. 9:37-42. Measured Flux of Trifluralin in Overland Storm Flows From Soybean Fields Through a Grassed Waterway. D; G; OF; CP; HERB

678. Richardson, C.J. (1985) Mechanisms controlling phosphorus retention capacity in freshwater wetlands. Science 228:1424-1427. An Array of Wetland Soils were Studied with Respect to Their Phosphorus Binding Capacity. Capacity may be Predicted Solely from Extractable Aluminum Content of the Soil. D; DTP; DPP

679. Richardson, C.J. (1989) Freshwater Wetlands: Transformers, Filters, or Sinks? Pp. 25-46, In: Freshwater Wetlands and Wildlife, R.R. Sharitz and J.W. Gibbons (Eds.). Oak Ridge: US Dept. Energy. A General Review of Water Quality Interactions of a Wide Range of Freshwater Wetlands. R

680. Richey, J.E., A.H. Devol, S.C. Wofsy, R. Victoria and M.N.G. Riberio (1988) Biogenic gases and the oxidation and reduction of carbon in the Amazon River and floodplain waters. Limnol. Oceanogr. 33:551-561. Measured concentrations of dissolved methane, carbon dixoide, and nitrous oxide in the river channel and over the floodplain and inferred rates of carbon metabolism on the floodplain. D; F; DOM

681. Riddell-Black, D., G. Alker, C.P. Mainstone, S.R. Smith and D. Butler (1997) Economically viable buffer zones - the case for short rotation forest plantations. Pp. 228-225, In: Buffer Zones: Their Processes and Potential in Water Protection, N. Haycock, T. Burt, K. Goulding and G. Pinay (Eds.). Harpenden, UK: Quest Environmental. Data and analyses of the potential of willows in short-term rotations for use in buffer zones. D; TN; TP; BioStor

682. Riekerk, H. (1983) Impacts of silviculture on flatwoods runoff, water quality, and nutrient budgets. Water Resources Bull. 19:73-79. Comparative study of the water quality effects of clearcutting on flat forest lands in Florida. D; F; TSS; CP; pH; DAM; NIT; TN; Ca; K; TP; Mg; DPP

683. Risser, P.G. (1990) The ecological importance of land-water ecotones. Pp. 7-21, In: The Ecology and Management of Aquatic-Terrestrial Ecotones. Man and the Biosphere Series, R.J. Naiman and H. DeCamps (Eds.). Paris: UNESCO. Overall Review of Ecology of Riparian Ecotones. R

684. Robertson, W.D., J.A. Cherry and E.A. Sudicky (1991) Ground-water contamination from two small septic systems on sand aquifers. Ground Water 29:82-92. A detailed study of a septic system plume in a sand aquifer in Ontario. The nutrients in the plume were attenuated as they approached a stream through a riparian zone. D; G; GW; NIT; pH; DPP; DOM; TS

685. Robinson, C.A., M. Ghaffarzadeh and R.M. Cruse (1996) Vegetative filter strip effects on sediment concentration in cropland runoff. J. Soil Water Conserv. 51(3):227-230. Measured reductions in sediment load of overland flows from croplands of 7 and 12 % slope as water moved through grassed filter strips. D; G; OF; TSS

686. Robles-Diaz-De-Leon, L.F. and P. Kangas (1999) Evaluation of potential gross income from non-timber products in a model riparian forest for the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Agrofor. Syst. 44:215-225. A discussion of the potential economic aspects of forest products in riparian zones. M

687. Rosen, K., J.-A. Aronson and H.M. Eriksson (1996) Effects of clear- cutting on streamwater quality in forest catchments in central Sweden. Forest Ecol. Manage. 83:237-244. Two small watersheds were partially clear-cut (50% and 95%) and then compared for eight years with a control. Measured water discharge, and sampled streams every 14 days for chemistry. Vegetation was coniferous and the 50% clear- cut left most of the riparian forest. D; F; NIT; DAM; K; DTKN; pH; Ca; Mg; Na

688. Rosenblatt, A.E., A.J. Gold, M.H. Stolt, P.M. Groffman and D.Q. Kellogg (2001) Identifying riparian sinks for watershed nitrate using soil surveys. J. Environ. Qual. 30:1596-1604. Used digital soil survey data sets to test 100 randomly selected riparian sites in Rhode Island for predicted denitrification activity. Each site was field surveyed for soil and vegetation characteristics. M, F, 1st order, 2nd order

689. Sanchez-Perez, J.M., M. Tremolieres, A. Schnitzler and R. Carbiener (1991) Evolution de la qualite physico-chimique des eaux de la frange superficielle de la nappe phreatique en fonction du cycle saisonnier et des stades de succession des forets alluviales rhenanes (Querco- Ulmetum minoris Issl. 24). Acta Ecologica 12(5):581-601. Studies of Changes in Water Quality as Waters Move onto the Flood Plain of the Rhine and Infiltrate into Riparian Forests. D; F; GW; HZ; NIT; DAM; DPP; K

690. Sanchez-Perez, J.M., M. Tremolieries and R. Carbiener (1991) A site of natural purification for phosphates and nitrates carried by the Rhine flood waters: the alluvial ash-elm forest. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Serie III. 312:395-402. Measured Concentrations of Nitrate and Phosphate in Floodwaters and along Forested Riparian Zone Infiltration Pathways. D; F; GW; NIT; DPP

691. Sanchez-Perez, J.M., M. Tremolieries, A. Schnitzler, B. Badre and R. Carbiener (1993) Nutrient content in alluvial soils submitted to flooding in the Rhine alluvial deciduous forest. Acta Oecologica14:371-387. Measured the nutrient content of soils in sites of differing flood frequency and vegetational succession. D, F, OF, K, Mg, Ca, NIT, PAM, POM, PTKN, PPP

692. Sanderson, M.A., R.M. Jones, M.J. McFarland, J. Stroup, R.L. Reed and J.P. Muir (2001) Nutrient movement and removal in a switchgrass biomass-filter strip system treated with dairy manure. J. Environ. Qual. 30(1):210-216. Measured changes in concentrations of nutrients as overland flows moved through the buffer strip. Also changes in soil and soil water composition. D, G, OF, DPP, NIT

693. Schellinger, G.R. and J.C. Clausen (1992) Vegetative filter treatment of dairy barnyard runoff in cold regions. J. Environ. Qual. 21:40-45. Measured Nutrient, Coliform, and Sediment Transport from a Retention Pond via a Level-Lip Spreader Through a Grassed Buffer. Measured TN and TP in harvested aboveground grass cuttings. Measured both surface and groundwater discharges. D; G; OF; GW; TSS; TP; TKN; DTP

694. Schindler, J.E. and D.P. Krabbenhoft (1998) The hyporheic zone as a source of dissolved organic carbon and carbon gases to a temperate forested stream. Biogeochemistry 43:157-174. Collected pore-water samples from a streambed in northern Wisconsin at discrete small intervals and measured concentration patterns for DOC, CO2, CH4, and pH. Also measured molecular weight distributions of DOC. D, F, 1st order, HZ, DOM, pH

695. Schipper, L.A., A.B. Cooper and W.J. Dyck (1991) Mitigating non-point source nitrate pollution by riparian zone denitrification. Pp. 401- 413, In: Nitrate Contamination: Exposure, Consequence and Control. NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Nebraska, Sept. 1990, I. Bogardi and R.D. Kuzelka (Eds.). New York: Springer. Review of Studies of Denitrification in New Zealand Agricultural Riparian Zones. R; NIT; Denit-L

696. Schipper, L.A., A.B. Cooper, C.G. Harfoot and W.J. Dyck (1993) Regulators of denitrification in an organic riparian soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 25:925-933. Measured Denitrification Potentials in Riparian Soils Downslope from Sewage Spray-Irrigated Forest. Examined Controls by Moisture Content, Temperature, Organic Matter. D; GW; NIT; Denit-L

697. Schipper, L.A., A.B. Cooper, C.G. Harfoot and W.J. Dyck (1994) An inverse relationship between nitrate and ammonium in an organic riparian soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 26(6):799-800. Measured Relationship in Riparian Soil Among Organic Matter, Denitrification Potential, and Dissimilatory Reduction of Nitrate to Ammonium. D; GW; NIT; Denit-L

698. Schipper, L.A., C.G. Harfoot, P.N. McFarlane and A.B. Cooper (1994) Anaerobic decomposition and denitrification during plant decomposition in an organic soil. J. Environ. Qual. 23:923-928. Measured Denitrification Potential, Methanogenesis, and Carbon Dioxide Production Rates from Soil Cores with and without Amendments with Various Natural Organic Matter Sources. D; F; NIT; Denit-L

699. Schipper, L. and M. Vojvodic-Vukovic (1998) Nitrate removal from groundwater using a denitrification wall amended with sawdust: Field trial. J. Environ. Qual. 27:664-668. Studied denitrification in a trench backfilled with a mixture of soil and sawdust. D, GW, NIT, Denit-L

700. Schipper, L. and M. Vojvodic-Vukovic (2000) Nitrate removal from groundwater and denitrification rates in a porous treatment wall amended with sawdust. Ecol. Engin. 14:269-278. Measured denitrification rates in a trench backfilled with a mixture of soil and sawdust. D, GW, NIT, Denit-L

701. Schlosser, I.J. and J.R. Karr (1981) Riparian vegetation and channel morphology impact on spatial patterns of water quality in agricultural watersheds. Environ. Management 5:233-243. Two Agricultural Watersheds with Variable Riparian Vegetation along Tributary and Main Channel Reaches were Compared for Yields of Total Suspended Solids and Total Particulate Phosphorus. Results were Compared with Model Predictions. D; TSS; PTP

702. Schlosser, I.J. and J.R. Karr (1981) Water quality in agricultural watersheds: impact of riparian vegetation during baseflow. Water Resources Bulletin 17:233-240. Monitored Phosphorus and Suspended Sediments During Baseflow at Various Locations on Six Agricultural Watersheds. Compared Water Quality of Reaches With and Without Riparian Forest. D; F; TSS; TP; DPP

703. Schmitt, T.J., M.G. Dosskey and K.D. Hoagland (1999) Filter strip performance and processes for different vegetation, widths, and contaminants. J. Envir. Qual. 28:1479-1489. Measured reductions in concentrations of a large number of pollutants as overland flows moved through various filter strips, some with young trees, some with crops, some with grass. D, G, H, OF, TSS, TN, NIT, TP, DPP, DTP, Herb, DAM, TS

704. Schnabel, R.R. (1986) Nitrate concentrations in a small stream as affected by chemical and hydrologic interactions in the riparian zone. Pp. 263-282, In: Watershed Research Perspectives, D.L. Correll (Ed.). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Press. Measured Potential Denitrification in Soils of a Riparian Forest Receiving Groundwater from Agricultural Fields. D; F; GW; MT; 1st order; Denit-L; NIT

705. Schnabel, R.R., L.F. Cornish, W.L. Stout and J.A. Shaffer (1996) Denitrification in a grassed and a wooded, Valley and Ridge, riparian ecotone. J. Environ. Qual. 25:1230-1235. Measured denitrification rates as a function of distance from stream in forested and grassed riparian zones. D, F, G, GW, MT, NIT, Denit-L

706. Schnabel, R.R., W.J. Gburek and W.L. Stout (1994) Evaluating riparian zone control on nitrogen entry into northeast streams. Pp. 432-445, In: Riparian Ecosystems in the Humid U.S., Functions, Values and Management, (Ed.). Wash., D.C.: Natl. Assoc. Conserv. Districts. Review of Factors Which are Important in Determining the Effectiveness of Riparian Buffers in a Landscape. R; GW; NIT

707. Schnabel, R.R., J.A. Shaffer, W.L. Stout and L.F. Cornish (1997) Denitrification distributions in four valley and ridge riparian ecosystems. Environ. Manage. 21(2):283-290. Studied denitrification rates in soil cores from sites in PA. D; G; F; Denit-L; NIT; POM

708. Schnabel, R.R. and W.L. Stout (1994) Denitrification loss from two Pennsylvania floodplain soils. J. Environ. Qual. 23:344-348. Measured Plant Uptake, Denitrification Potential, and Nitrous Oxide Concentrations in Soil Water of Grassed Riparian Plots Fertilized Heavily with Mineral Nitrogen. D; G; GW; MT; NIT; Denit-L; BioStor

709. Schultz, R., J. Colletti, C. Mize, A. Skadberg, M. Christian, W. Simpkins, M. Thompson and B. Menzel (1991) Sustainable tree-shrub- grass buffer strips along midwestern-waterways. Pp. 312-326, In: Proc. 2nd Conference on Agroforestry in North America, H.E.G. Garrett (Ed.). Columbia, MO.: Univ. Missouri. Established Grassed and Forested Riparian Experimental Zones and Instituted Studies of Nutrient Flux From Agricultural Areas. D; M; F; G; GW; OF; TN; TP

710. Schultz, R.C., J.P. Colletti and R.R. Faltonson (1995) Agroforestry opportunities for the United States of America. Agroforestry Systems 31:117-132. R

711. Schultz, R.C., J.P. Colletti, R.B. Hall and C.W. Mizel (1989) Uses of short-rotation woody crops in agroforestry: An Iowa perspective. Pp. 88-99, In: First Conference on Agroforestry in North America, Proceedings, P. Williams (Ed.). Guelph, Canada: University of Guelph. A Concepts Paper Including the Potential Benefits from Reestablishing Riparian Forest Buffers in Iowa. Describes the Design of the Risdal Buffer Strip Project. M; F

712. Schultz, R.C., J.P. Colletti, W.W. Simpkins, C.W. Mize and M.L. Thompson (1994) Developing a multispecies riparian buffer strip agroforestry system. Pp. 203-225, In: Riparian Ecosystems in the Humid U.S., Functions, Values and Management, (Ed.). Wash. D.C.: Natl. Assoc. Conserv. Districts. Measured Changes in Nitrate and Atrazine Concentrations as Groundwater from Croplands Moved Through a Reconstructed, Three-Tiered Riparian Buffer in Iowa. D; F; GW; NIT; HERB; BioStor; B; G

713. Schultz, R.C., J.P. Colletti, T.M. Isenhart, W.W. Simpkins, C.W. Mize and M.L. Thompson (1995) Design and placement of a multi-species riparian buffer strip system. Agro-Fores. Syst. 29:201-226. A detailed description of a riparian buffer restoration project in Iowa and some data on effectiveness. R; D; F; G; GW; OF; HERB; NIT

714. Schwer, C.B. and J.C. Clausen (1989) Vegetative filter treatment of dairy milkhouse wastewater. J. Environ. Qual. 18:446-451. Measured Nutrient Mass Balances Including Both Surface and Subsurface Outputs. D; G; TSS; MBal; TP; TN; PPP; DAM

715. Scott, D.F. and W. Lesch (1996) The effects of riparian clearing and clearfelling of an indigenous forest on streamflow, stormflow and water quality. S. Afr. For. J. 175:1-14. The riparian forest of a small South African watershed was clear-cut and kept free of vegetation for two years, then the whole forested upland was clear- cut. Compared discharges and water quality with a forested control. Used V-notch weirs for hydrology and sampled streams for chemistry weekly. D; F; TSS; NIT; DPP; K; TP; Na; Ca; Mg; DAM; DTKN

716. Sedell, J.R., F.J. Triska, J.D. Hall, N.H. Anderson and J.H. Lyford (1974) Sources and fates of organic inputs in coniferous forest streams. Pp. 57-69, In: Integrated Research in the Coniferous Forest Biome. Conif. For. Biome, Ecosyst. Anal. Stud, US/IBP, Bull. No. 5., R.H. Waring and R.L. Edmonds (Eds.). Seattle: Univ. Washington. Measured Vertical and Lateral Litter Fluxes into Channels of Two Forested Watersheds. D; F; MT; POM

717. Seitzinger, S.P. (1994) Linkages between organic matter mineralization and denitrification in eight riparian wetlands. Biogeochemistry 25(1):19-39. Compared Eight Primarily Forested Wetlands in NJ and PA for Denitrification Rates with Ambient and Elevated Nitrate Concentrations. D; F; CP; NIT; Denit-L

718. Shepard, J.P. (1994) Effects of forest management on surface water quality in wetland forests. Wetlands 14(1):18-26. A broad review of the effects of management within riparian forests on water quality downstream. R; F

719. Sheridan, J.M., R. Lowrance and D.D. Bosch (1999) Management effects on runoff and sediment transport in riparian forest buffers. Trans. Am. Soc. Agr. Engin. 42:55-64. Examined effects of forest management within riparian buffers. D, F, CP, OF, TSS, SedTrap

720. Sidle, R.C. (1986) Seasonal patterns of allochthonous debris in three riparian zones of a coastal Alaska drainage. Pp. 283-304, In: Watershed Research Perspectives, D.L. Correll (Ed.). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Press. Measured Litter Nutrient Inputs to Stream Channel in Three Reaches of a Completely Forested Watershed in Alaska. D; F; 1st order; 2nd order; POM; PTP; PTN

721. Sievers, D.M., G.B. Garner and E.E. Picket (1975) A lagoon-grass terrace system to treat swine waste. Pp. 542-543 & 548, In: Proc. 3rd Internatl. Livestock Waste Symp. Amer. Soc. Agric. Engin. Publication PROC 275, (Ed.). St. Joseph, MI: Amer. Soc. Agric. Engin. Use of Grassed Riparian Waterway to Remove Nutrients and Sediments. Did Not Examine Groundwater Quality. D; G; OF; TN; TP; TSS; POM; DOM

722. Silvan, N., K. Regina, V. Kitunen, H. Vasander and J. Laine (2002) Gaseous nitrogen loss from a restored peatland buffer zone. Soil Biol. Biochem. 34:721-728. Studied a restored (rewetted) tall-sedge pine fen in Finland for 3 years. Measured nitrous oxide fluxes with and without acetylene addition and with various manipulations such as addition of nitrate. D, F, H, GW, NIT, Denit-F

723. Simmons, R.C. (1990) Nitrate Attenuation in the Shallow Groundwater of Riparian Forests. M.S. Thesis. : Univ. Rhode Island.

724. Simmons, R.C., A.J. Gold and P.M. Groffman (1992) Nitrate dynamics in riparian forests: Groundwater studies. J. Environ. Qual. 21(4):659- 665. Several Sites were Manipulated by Adding Nitrate and Bromide Tracer, then Following Changes in the Ratio Downslope. D; F; GW; TS; NIT

725. Sliva, L. and D.D. Williams (2001) Buffer zone versus whole catchment approaches to studying land use impact on river water quality. Water Res. 35:3462-3472. Studied three watersheds and a series of subwatersheds in Ontario. Compared correlations between overall land use/basin characteristics and water quality discharges with the 100 m buffer zone characteristics and water quality. D, F, DAM, DPP, NIT, TrM, TSS

726. Sloan, A.J., J.W. Gilliam, J.E. Parsons, R.L. Mikkelsen and R.C. Riley (1999) Groundwater nitrate depletion in a swine lagoon effluent-irrigated pasture and adjacent riparian zone. J. Soil & Water Conser. 54:651-656. Measured nitrate attenuation as shallow groundwater was transported from irrigated pasture through a forested riparian zone and into a stream. D, F, GW, CP, NIT, TS

727. Smart, R.P., C. Soulsby, M.S. Cresser, A.J. Wade, J. Townend, M.F. Billett and S. Langan (2001) Riparian zone influence on stream water chemistry at different spatial scales: a GIS-based modelling approach, an example for the Dee, NE Scotland. Sci. Total Environ. 280:173-193. Spatial catchment data sets for the Dee River were collated. The parent material and geochemistry of the riparian zone plus riparian land use could be used to predict stream water alkalinity and acid neutralizing capacity. D, Ca

728. Smith, C.M. (1989) Riparian pasture retirement effects on sediment, phosphorus and nitrogen in channellised surface run-off from pastures. N. Z. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 23:139-146. Concentrations of Sediments and Nutrients were Compared in Overland Storm Flows Through Riparian Zones of Completely Pastured Watersheds and Pastured Watersheds in Which Livestock were Removed from the Riparian Zone. D; OF; H; TSS; TP; TN; NIT; G

729. Smith, C.M. (1992) Riparian afforestation effects on water yields and water quality in pasture catchments. J. Environ. Qual. 21:237-245. Hydrologic Data from two Pasture Watersheds were Compared for Nine Years Prior and Nine Years Subsequent to Afforestation of Riparian Zones with Pine. Two Years of Sediment and Nutrient Discharge Data were also Taken for These and Other Pasture Watersheds. D; F; 1st order; TSS; DTP; DTKN; NIT

730. Snyder, N.J., S. Mostaghimi, D.F. Berry, R.B. Reneau, S. Hong, P.W. McClellan and E.P. Smith (1998) * Impacts of riparian forest buffers on agricultural nonpoint sources pollution. J. Amer. Water Resources Assoc. 34:385-395.

731. Sontheimer, H. (1980) Experience with river bank filtration along the Rhine River. J. Amer. Water Works Assoc. 72:386-390. Summary of Long-Term Data on Effectiveness of Treating Rhine River Waters by Percolation Through Riparian Forests. D; F; TrM; Fe; DPP; DOM

732. Sparovek, G., S.B.L. Ranieri, A. Gassner, I.C. De Maria, E. Schnug, R.F. dos Santos and A. Joubert (2001) A conceptual framework for the definition of the optimal width of riparian forests. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 1782:1-7. Puts forward a method for use of GIS and readily available data, plus a water quality target to calculate riparian forest widths along a waterway. Needs a previously developed method for estimating water quality improvement versus riparian distance such as a model. M, F

733. Spink, A., R.E. Sparks, M. Van Oorschot and J.T.A. Verhoeven (1998) Nutrient dynamics of large river floodplains. Regulated Rivers: Res. & Manage. 14:203-216. A range of North American and European rivers were studied to determine the factors responsible for richness and productivity. D, TN, TP, PAM, PPP, POM, Denit-L

734. Spomer, R.G., R.L. Mahurin and R.F. Piest (1986) Erosion, deposition, and sediment yield from Dry Creek Basin, Nebraska. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agric. Engin. 29:489-493. Permanent Elevation Markers Placed in the Floodplain 30 Years Before were Used to Measure Sediment Trapping. D; SedTrap

735. Spruill, T.B. (2000) Statistical evaluation of effects of riparian buffers on nitrate and ground water quality. J. Environ. Qual. 29(5):1523-1538. A large number of sites on various parts of the stream network were selected based upon the presence or absence of riparian forest upstream of the site. During baseflow groundwater was sampled from the middle of the stream channel and its chemistry was compared to that of channel water. D, F, GW, CP, Ca, DAM, DOM, DPP, DTKN, Fe, Mg, Na, NIT, pH

736. Spruill, T.B. and D.R. Galeone (2000) Effectiveness of riparian buffers in reducing nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in ground water. Pp. 119-124, in: Riparian Ecology and Management in Multi-Land Use Watersheds. P.J. Wigington Jr. and R.L. Beschta (Eds.), Amer. Water Resourc. Assoc., Middleburg, VA. Compared groundwater nitrate concentrations in stream reaches with and without forested buffers in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina. Also examined nitrate concentration patterns along flow paths in different hydrogeologic settings. D, F, GW, CP, DAM, DOM, DPP, DTKN, Fe, Mn, Na, NIT, pH, Ca

737. Srivastava, P., D.R. Edwards, T.C. Daniel, P.A. Moore Jr. and T.A. Costello (1996) Performance of vegetative filter strips with varying pollutant source and filter strip lengths. Trans. Am. Soc. Agr. Engin. 39(6):2231-2239. Measured changes in concentration of pollutants as overland flows generated with a rainfall simulator moved through strips. D, G, OF, TKN, PAM, NIT, TP, DPP, TOM, TSS

738. Staddon, W.J., M.A. Locke and R.M. Zablotowicz (2001) Microbiological characteristics of a vegetative buffer strip soil and degradation and sorption of metolachlor. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 65:1136-1142. Studied the organic matter content, microbial population, various indexes of microbial activity and ability to bind and degrade an herbicide in surface soils from a buffer and bare uplands in Mississippi. D, H, OF, POM, HERB

739. Stanford, J.A. (1998) Rivers in the landscape: introduction to the special issue on riparian and groundwater ecology. Freshwater Biol. 40:402-406. R

740. Stanford, J.A. and J.V. Ward (1988) The hyporheic habitat of river ecosystems. Nature 335:64-66. Shallow Groundwater Wells in Riparian Zone were Used to Sample for biota and Nutrients. D; GW; DOM; DTP; NIT; HZ

741. Stanford, J. and J.V. Ward (1993) An ecosystem perspective of alluvial rivers: connectivity and the hyorheic corridor. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 12:48-60. A general ecological review. R

742. Stanford, J.A., J.V. Ward and B.K. Ellis (1994) Ecology of the alluvial aquifers of the Flathead River, Montana. Pp. 367-390, In: Groundwater Ecology. J. Gibert, D.L. Danielopol, and J.A. Stanford (Eds.). Academic Press, New York. A review of past work with some new data. R; D; HZ; GW; NIT

743. Stanley, E.H. and A.J. Boulton (1993) Hydrology and the distribution of hyporheos: perspectives from a mesic river and a desert stream. J. N. Am. Bethol. Soc. 12(1):79-83. A review and discussion of two rivers and how their hydrology interacts with their hyporheic zones. R; HZ

744. Stanley, E.H. and A.J. Boulton (1995) Hyporheic processes during flooding and drying in a Sonoran Desert stream. Archiv fur Hydrobiologie 134:1-26. Measured DO, and nutrients along transects through bottom sediments and bank sediments. D; HZ; NIT; DPP; DAM

745. Stanley, E.H. and H.M. Valett (1992) Interactions between drying and the hyporheic zone of a desert stream. Pp. 234-249, In: Climate Change and Freshwater Ecosystems, P. Firth and S.G. Fisher (Eds.). New York: Springer. Measured respiration potentials, DO, and dissolved nutrients along transects from stream channel sections into hyporheic zones. D; HZ; NIT; DPP

746. Starr, J.L., A.M. Sadeghi, T.B. Parkin and J.J. Meisinger (1996) A tracer test to determine the fate of nitrate in shallow groundwater. J. Environ. Qual. 25:917-923. Measured nitrate disappearance rates around an injection well. D; G; GW; NIT; TS; Denit-F; DOM

747. Staver, K.W. and R.B. Brinsfield (1990) Groundwater discharge patterns in Maryland coastal plain agricultural systems. Pp. 593-603, In: New Perspectives in the Chesapeake System: A Research and Managment Partnership. Ches. Res. Consort. Publ. No. 137, J.H. Mihursky and A. Chaney (Eds.). Solomons, MD: Ches. Res. Consort. Measured Volumes and Nitrate Content of Shallow Groundwater Moving From Cropland Through a Riparian Shoreline and into a Tidal River. D; CP; GW; NIT; Flux

748. Staver, K.W. and R.B. Brinsfield (1991) Monitoring agrochemical transport into shallow unconfined aquifers. Pp. 264-278, In: Groundwater Residue Sampling Design. ACS Symp. Series 465, R.G. Nash and A.R. Leslie (Eds.). Washington, DC: Amer. Chem. Soc. Measured Volume and Nitrate Content of Shallow Groundwater Moving from Agricultural Fields Through a Riparian Zone and into a Tidal River. D; CP; GW; NIT; Flux

749. Staver, K.W. and R.B. Brinsfield (1993) Coupling of Agricultural Watersheds and Coastal Waters: Role of Groundwater Nutrient Inputs: Univ. Maryland Agr. Exper. Sta. Measured Volume and Nitrate Content of Groundwater Moving from Agricultural Fields Through a Riparian Zone of Grass/Forest and into a Tidal River. D; CP; F; G; GW; NIT

750. Staver, K.W. and R.B. Brinsfield (1994) Groundwater/estuarine interactions in a coastal plain riparian agroecosystem. Pp. 256-276, In: Riparian Ecosystems in the Humid U.S., Functions, Values and Management, (Ed.). Wash.,D.C.: Natl. Assoc. Conserv. Districts. Measured Volume and Nitrate Contents of Groundwater Moving from a Cropland Area into a Tidal River in Maryland. D; CP; GW; NIT; Flux

751. Stein, E.D. (2000) Watershed scale analysis and management of cumulative impacts. Pp. 475-480, in: Riparian Ecology and Management in Multi-Land Use Watersheds. P.J. Wigington Jr. and R.L. Beschta (Eds.), Amer. Water Resourc. Assoc., Middleburg, VA. Used GIS to assess cumulative impacts on riparian zone of wide spread watershed development. M

752. Stewart, B.A. and B.R. Davies (1990) Allochthonous inputs and retention in a small mountain stream, South Africa. Hydrobiologia 202:135-146. Measured Vertical Litter Inputs to a Small Stream Channel. D; F; 1st order; POM

753. Stone, K.C., B.K. Gerwig, R.G. Williams, D.W. Watts and J.M. Novak (2001) Using GLEAMS and REMM to estimate nutrient movement from a spray field and through a riparian forest. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agr. Engin. 44:505-512. Measured and simulated movement of nutrients in shallow groundwater moving from uplands treated with swine lagoon waste into a three zoned buffer system. D, F, G, GW, CP, DPP, NIT, DTKN

754. Stone, K.C., P.G. Hunt, F.J. Humenik and M.H. Johnson (1998) Impact of swine waste application on ground and stream water quality in an eastern Coastal Plain watershed. Trans. Am. Soc. Agric. Engin. 41(6):1665-1670. Monitored the concentration of nitrate in shallow groundwater down slope from a hog operation before and after the operation was established. Some wells were within riparian zone and some were not. D; GW; F; CP; NIT

755. Storey, R.G., R.R. Fulthorpe and D.D. Williams (1999) Perspectives and predictions on the microbial ecology of the hyporheic zone. Freshwater Biol. 41:119-130. A broad-ranging review. R, HZ

756. Stream Solute Workshop (1990) Concepts and methods for assessing solute dynamics in stream ecosystems. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 9:95-119. A review that resulted from a workshop. R

757. Stuart, G.W., C.A. Dolloff and E.S. Corbett (1994) Riparian area functions and values - a forest perspective. Pp. 81-89, In: Riparian Ecosystems in the Humid U.S., Functions, Values and Management, (Ed.). Wash. D.C.: Natl. Assoc. Conserv. Districts. Broad Review of the Impacts of Deforestation of Watersheds and Riparian Zones and Channel Alterations, Habitat and Functional Values of Riparian Forests. R; F

758. Swank, W.T. (1988) Stream chemistry responses to disturbance. Pp. 339- 358, In: Forest Hydrology and Ecology at Coweeta, W.T. Swank and D. A. Crossley Jr. (Eds.). London: Springer. Long-term Comparison of Control Forested Watersheds and Two That Were Manipulated. One was Completely Clear Cut and Replanted with Trees, Another Was Managed in Grass for a Long Time, Then Planted in Trees. D; F; MT; 2nd order; NIT; DPP; DAM; Ca

759. Swanson, F.J., S.V. Gregory, J.R. Sedell and A.G. Campbell (1982) Land water interactions: The riparian zone. Pp. 267-291, In: Analysis of Coniferous Forest Ecosystems in the Western United States, R.L. Edmonds (Ed.): US/IBP Synthesis Series. General Wide-Ranging Review of Riparian Zones Including Impact of Vegetation via Litter Inputs. R; POM

760. Sweeney, B.W. (1993) Effects of streamside vegetation on macroinvertebrate communities of White Clay Creek in Eastern North America. Proc. Acad. Natural Sci. Phil. 144:291-340. Direct Measurements of Flux of Litter into Channel. Compared Nitrate Concentrations in Two First Order Streams Which Had and Did Not Have Riparian Forests. D; F; PT; NIT; POM

761. Swift, L.W.J.r. (1986) Filter strip widths for forest roads in the Southern Appalachians. Southern J. Appl. Forestry. 10:27-34. Measured Distance that Sediment was Transported Below New Roads When Various Management Techniques were Utilized. D; F; TSS

762. Syversen, N. (2002) Effect of a cold-climate buffer zone on minimising diffuse pollution from agriculture. Water Sci. Technol. 45:69-76. Measured volume and sediment loads of overland flows through 5 and 10 m buffer zones in winter and summer. D, H, G, PTP, TSS, POM, OF

763. Syversen, N. (2002) Cold-climate Vegetative Buffer Zones as Filters For Surface Agricultural Runoff. Doctoral Thesis, Agric. Univ. Norway. Measured efficiency of trapping of particulates and particulate nutrients from overland flows (both natural and artificial) through various widths and types of buffer. D, F, G, H, OF, PTN, PTP, POM, TSS

764. Syversen, N. (2002) Effect and design of buffer zones in Nordic climate, The influence of width, amount of surface runoff water, seasonal variation and vegetaion type on retention efficiency for nutrient and particle runoff. Pp. 237-247, In: R. Hatano, U. Mander, Y. Hayakawa, V. Kuusemets, Y. Watanabe and K. Kanazawa (eds.), Efficiency of Purification Processes in Riparian Buffer Zones, Their Design and Planning in Agricultural Watersheds, Natl. Agric. Res. Center Hokkaido Region, Kushiro, Japan. Examined volume and nutrient content of surface runoff entering and leaving buffers. D, F, G, OF, TSS, TP, TN, MBal, SedTrap

765. Tabacchi, E., D.L. Correll, R. Hauer, G. Pinay, A.-M. Planty-Tabacchi and R.C. Wissmar (1998) Development, maintenance and role of riparian vegetation in the river landscape. Freshwater Biol. 40:497-516. General review of the dynamics of riparian plant communities and their functions. R

766. Talling, J.F. (1957) The longitudinal succession of water characteristics in the White Nile. Hydrobiologia 11:73-89. Measured Upstream/Downstream Changes in Nutrient Concentrations for the White Nile River as Affected by Passage Through a Large Wetland System - The Sudd. D; H; DPP; DAM; NIT; Fe

767. Tanji, H. (2002) Riparian restoration and historical development of a basin. Pp. 195-204, In: R. Hatano, U. Mander, Y. Hayakawa, V. Kuusemets, Y. Watanabe and K. Kanazawa (eds.), Efficiency of Purification Processes in Riparian Buffer Zones, Their Design and Planning in Agricultural Watersheds, Natl. Agric. Res. Center Hokkaido Region, Kushiro, Japan. A review of the history of the removal of riparian buffers in Japan and a discussion of the target of their restoration. R, M, F

768. Thomas, K., R.H. Norris and G.A. Chilvers (1992) Litterfall in riparian and adjacent forest zones near a perennial upland stream in the Australian Capital Territory. Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 43:511-516. Directly Measured Vertical Litter Inputs to a Small Stream Channel from a Riparian Eucalyptus Forest. D; F; POM

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770. Tochner, K., D. Pennetzdorfer, N. Reiner, F. Schiemer and J.V. Ward (1999) * Hydrological connectivity and the exchange of organic matter and nutrients in a dynamic river-floodplain system (Danube, Austria). Freshwater Biol. 41:521-535.

771. Todd, A.H. (2000) Making decisions about riparian buffer width. Pp. 445-450, in: Riparian Ecology and Management in Multi-Land Use Watersheds. P.J. Wigington Jr. and R.L. Beschta (Eds.), Amer. Water Resourc. Assoc., Middleburg, VA. A review. R, M

772. Todd, R., R. Lowrance, O. Hendrickson, L. Asmussen, R. Leonard, J. Fail and B. Herrick (1983) Riparian vegetation as filters of nutrients exported from a Coastal Plain agricultural watershed. Pp. 485-493, In: R. R. Lowrance, R.L. Todd, L.E. Asmussen, and R. A. Leonard (Eds.), Nutrient Cycling in Agricultural Ecosystems. Spec. Publ. 23, Univ. GA, Agric. Exper. Sta., Athens, GA. Early report on studies of riparian forests on the Little River watershed. D; F; CP; TP; TN; Ca; BioStor; Flux; MBal; NutCyc

773. Tollner, E.W., B.J. Barfield, C.T. Haan and T.Y. Kao (1976) Suspended sediment filtration capacity of simulated vegetation. Trans. Am. Soc. Agric. Engin. 19:678-682. A Model of Sediment Trapping from Overland Flows by Simulated Grass Filter Strips. D; G; OF; TSS

774. Tollner, E.W., B.J. Barfield and J.C. Hayes (1982) Sedimentology of erect vegetal filters. Proc. Hydraulics Div. Amer. Soc. Civil Engin. 108:1518-1531. Theoretical Studies and Experimental Data Were Used to Develop Models to Describe Sediment Deposition in Simulated Grass Filter Strips. D; G; OF; TSS

775. Tollner, E.W., B.J. Barfield, C. Vachirakornwatana and C.T. Haan (1977) Sediment deposition patterns in simulated grass filters. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agric. Engin. 20(5):940-944. Model of Sediment Trapping Efficiency for Various Grass Filter Strip Designs was Validated with Laboratory Experimental Tests of Grass Plots. D; G; TSS; SedTrap

776. Townsend, L. and J. Robinson (2000) Riparian forest buffer design strategies in U.S. agricultural areas. Pp. 439-444, in: Riparian Ecology and Management in Multi-Land Use Watersheds. P.J. Wigington Jr. and R.L. Beschta (Eds.), Amer. Water Resourc. Assoc., Middleburg, VA. A review of the national USDA riparian buffer restoration program. R, M

777. Tremolieres, M., D. Carbienier, R. Carbienier, I. Eglin, F. Robach, J.M. Sanchez-Perez, A. Schnitzler and D. Weiss (1991) Zones indondables, vegetation et qualite de l'eau en milieu alluvial Rhenan: L'ille de Rhinau, un site de recherches integrees. Bull. Ecol. 22(3-4):317-336. A Review of Work on the Interactions Between Waters Flooding from the Rhine River onto its FloodPlain and Infiltrating into Groundwater Under the FloodPlain Forests. Focused on the Effects of Forest Species Composition and Water Quality Effects. R; F; GW

778. Tremolieres, M., D. Correll and J. Olah (1997) Riparian vegetation and water quality improvement. Pp. 227-230, In: Groundwater/Surface Water Ecotones: Biological and Hydrological Interactions and Management Options. Internatl. Hydrol. Series, J. Gibert, J. Mathieu and F. Fournier (Eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. A brief review of the literature and research questions that are yet to be resolved concerning the effects of riparian vegetation on stream water quality. R

779. Tremolieres, M., I. Eglin, U. Roeck and R. Carbiener (1993) The exchange process between river and groundwater on the Central Alsace floodplain (Eastern France). I. The Case of the Canalized River Rhine. Hydrobiologia 254:133-148. Followed Nutrient, Mercury, and Dissolved Organic Matter Concentrations of Waters Infiltrating and Moving as Groundwater in the Phreatic Zone of Riparian Forest Areas. D; F; GW; HZ; NIT; DPP; TrM; DOM

780. Tremolieres, M., U. Roeck, J.P. Klein and R. Carbiener (1994) The exchange process between river and groundwater on the central Alsace floodplain (Eastern France): II. The case of a river with functional floodplain. Hydrobiologia 273:19-36. Studied Changes in Groundwater Nutrients as River Channel Waters Interacted with Groundwater in the Ill River, a Major Tributary of the Rhine. D; F; G; GW; DOM; DAM; DPP; NIT

781. Trimble Jr., G.R. and R.S. Sartz (1957) How far from a stream should a logging road be located? J. Forestry 55:339-341. Field Data and Recommendations for Width of Forest Buffers in New England Mountains Based on Slope. D; M; F; MT; TSS

782. Triska, F.J., J.H. Duff and R.J. Avanzino (1990) Influence of exchange flow between the channel and hyporheic zone on nitrate production in a small mountain stream. Canad. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 47:2099-2111. Studied Changes in Nutrient Concentrations in Shallow Groundwater and Hyporheic Zone of Riparian Area. Experimentally Added Ammonium to Shallow Groundwater and Measured Nitrification. D; F; 3rd order; HZ; DAM; NIT; DTKN; Nitrif

783. Triska, F.J., J.H. Duff and R.J. Avanzino (1993) Patterns of hyrological exchange and nutrient transformation in the hyporheic zone of a gravel-bottom stream: Examining terrestrial-aquatic linkages. Freshwater Biol. 29(2):259-274. Experimental Injections into Shallow Groundwater of Ammonium to Measure Potential Ammonification and Nitrification and of Acetylene and Nitrate to Measure Potential Denitrification. D; F; GW; HZ; TS; DAM; Nitrif; Denit-F

784. Triska, F.J., A.P. Jackman, J.H. Duff and R.J. Avanzino (1994) Ammonium sorption to channel and riparian sediments: A transient storage pool for dissolved inorganic nitrogen. Biogeochemistry 26(2):67-83. Alluvial Sediments in Nylon Mesh Bags were Incubated in Stream Bed and in Groundwater Wells in the Riparian Zone. Compared Riparian Old-Growth Forest with a 23-Year Old Clear Cut. Focused on Ammonium and Nitrate. D; F; MT; 3rd Order; PAM; DAM; NIT

785. Triska, F.J., V.C. Kennedy, R.J. Avanzino, G.W. Zellweger and K.E. Bencala (1989) Retention and transport of nutrients in a third-order stream in northwestern California: hypoheic processes. Ecology 70:1893-1905. Injected Chloride and Nitrate Continuously for 20 days into Stream Channel and Measured Exchange Rate and Distances into Riparian Zone with Groundwater Wells. Measured Dissolved Carbon and Nitrogen. D; F; GW; HZ; TS; NIT; DAM; DOC

786. Triska, F.J., V.C. Kennedy, R.J. Avanzino, G.W. Zellweger and K.E. Bencala (1990) In situ retention-transport response to nitrate loading and storm discharge in a third-order stream. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 9(3):229-239. Examined the Kinetics and Magnitude of Channel-Riparian Zone Exchange by Conducting a Mass Balance Injection of Nitrate and Chloride to Stream Channel. D; F; HZ; 3rd order; NIT; MBal

787. Triska, F.J., J.R. Sedell, K. Cromack Jr., S.V. Gregory and F.M. McCorison (1984) Nitrogen budget for a small coniferous forest stream. Ecol. Monogr. 54:119-140. A Complete Nitrogen Budget for a Small Completely Forested Watershed Including Vertical and Lateral Litter Inputs and the Nitrogen Content of these Litter Inputs. D; F; MT; 1st order; POM; PTKN; DTKN; NIT

788. Triska, F.J., J.R. Sedell and S.V. Gregory (1982) Coniferous forest streams. Pp. 292-332, In: Analysis of Coniferous Forest Ecosystems in the Western United States. US/IBP Synthesis Series 14, R.L. Edmonds (Ed.). Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Inc. Review and Synthesis of Research on Nutrient Dynamics of Several Forested Mountain Watersheds Including Inputs of Dissolved Organic Matter in Groundwater and Litter Inputs. R; F; MT; POM; DOM

789. Trlica, M.J., E.A. Nibarger, W.C. Leininger and G.W. Frasier (2000) Runoff water quality from grazed and ungrazed montane riparian plots. Pp. 263-268, in: Riparian Ecology and Management in Multi-Land Use Watersheds. P.J. Wigington Jr. and R.L. Beschta (Eds.), Amer. Water Resourc. Assoc., Middleburg, VA. Used a rainfall simulator and measured runoff volume and composition from control riparian grassed plots and plots that had been exposed to a heavy grazing event. D, G, OF, MT, NIT, DAM, DPP

790. Tsushima, K., S. Ueda and N. Ogura (2002) Nitrate loss for denitrification during high frequency research in floodplain groundwater of the Tama River. Water Air Soil Pollut. 137:167-178. Measured changes in shallow groundwater chemistry on the floodplain of a moderate-sized Jappanese river. After flooding events, dissolved oxygen and nitrate were depleted, chloride increased, and N-15 in remaining nitrate became enriched. D, F, GW, TS, DOM, NIT, Denit-F

791. Tufekcioglu, A., J.W. Raich, T.M. Isenhart and R.C. Schultz (1999) Fine root dynamics, coarse root biomass, root distribution, and soil respiration in a multispecies riparian buffer in central Iowa, USA. Agroforestry Systems 44:163-174. Compared data from various parts of the buffer and in upland croplands. D, G, F, POM

792. Tufekcioglu, A., J.W. Raich, T.M. Isenhart and R.C. Schultz (2001) Soil respiration within riparian buffers and adjacent crop fields. Plant and Soil 229:117-124. Examined spatial and seasonal variability in soil respiration. D, G, F

793. Tytherleigh, A. (1997) The establishment of buffer zones - The habitat scheme water fringe option, UK. Pp. 255-264, In: Buffer Zones: Their Processes and Potential in Water Protection, N. Haycock, T. Burt, K. Goulding and G. Pinay (Eds.). Harpenden, UK: Quest Environmental. A management-oriented review of United Kingdom efforts to reestablish riparian buffers. R; M

794. Uchida, T. (2002) A simple method and ecological consideration on instattation of buffer zone using Phragmites australis. Pp. 185-194, In: R. Hatano, U. Mander, Y. Hayakawa, V. Kuusemets, Y. Watanabe and K. Kanazawa (eds.), Efficiency of Purification Processes in Riparian Buffer Zones, Their Design and Planning in Agricultural Watersheds, Natl. Agric. Res. Center Hokkaido Region, Kushiro, Japan. Tested and demonstrated a method for inexpensive vegetating of buffers with P. australis. D, M, H

795. Urban, N.R. and S.J. Eisenreich (1988) Nitrogen cycling in a forested Minnesota bog. Can. J. Bot. 66:435-469. Nitrogen Budget for a Mire/Bog Including Upland Inputs and Stream Outputs. D; F; DTKN; NIT; DAM; BioStor; MBal

796. Uusi-Kamppa, J (2002) Phosphorus purification in riparian zones. Pp. 248-257, In: R. Hatano, U. Mander, Y. Hayakawa, V. Kuusemets, Y. Watanabe and K. Kanazawa (eds.), Efficiency of Purification Processes in Riparian Buffer Zones, Their Design and Planning in Agricultural Watersheds, Natl. Agric. Res. Center Hokkaido Region, Kushiro, Japan. Studied phosphorus trapping by wooded and grassed buffers in Finland, compared with sites with no buffer. D, F, G, OF, DPP, PPP

797. Uusi-Kamppa, J., B. Braskerud, H. Jansson, N. Syversen and R. Uusitalo (2000) Buffer zones and constructed wetlands as filters for agricultural phosphorus. J. Environ. Qual. 29:151-158. A review of work in Finland, Norway, Sweden and Denmark. R

798. Uusi-Kamppa, J., E. Turtola, H. Hartikainen and T. Ylaranta (1997) The interactions of buffer zones and phosphorus runoff. Pp. 43-53, In: Buffer Zones: Their Processes and Potential in Water Protection, N. Haycock, T. Burt, K. Goulding and G. Pinay (Eds.). Harpenden, U.K.: Quest Environmental. R; M; TP; DTP

799. Uusi-Kamppa, J. and T. Ylaranta (1992) Reduction of sediment, phosphorus and nitrogen transport on vegetated buffer strips. Agric. Sci. Finl. 1:569-574. Compared effectiveness of 10 meter wide buffers in grass or native vegetation for removing sediments and nutrients from farm croplands. D; OF; G; F; TSS; TP; TN

800. Uusi-Kamppa, J. and T. Ylaranta (1996) Effect of buffer strips on controlling soil erosion and nutrient losses in southern Finland. Pp. 221-235, In: Wetlands:Environmental Gradients, Boundaries, and Buffers, B.G. Warner and E.A. McBean (Eds.). New York: Lewis/CRC. Measured discharges of overland flows and their content from research plots of row crops with various buffer strips. D; G; OF; H; TSS; TP; DPP; TN; NIT; DAM

801. Valett, H.M. (1993) Surface-hyporheic interactions in a Sonoran Desert stream: hydrologic exchange and diel periodicity. Hydrobiologia 259:133-144. Measured changes in DO and dissolved nutrients as waters moved in and out of hyporheic zone. D; HZ; NIT; DPP

802. Valett, H.M., C.N. Dahm, M.E. Campana, J.A. Morrice, M.A. Baker and C.S. Fellows (1997) Hydrologic influences on groundwater-surface water ecotones: heterogeneity in nutrient composition and retention. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 16(1):239-247. Compared nutrient transport with injections and hyporheic interactions on five streams in New Mexico. D; HZ; TS; 1st order; 2nd order; NIT, DAM; DPP; DOM

803. Valett, H.M., S.G. Fisher, N.B. Grimm and P. Camill (1994) Vertical hydrologic exchange and ecological stability of a desert stream ecosystem. Ecology 75:548-560. Measured hyporheic exchanges and correlations to nitrate concentrations and algal populations. D; HZ; NIT; NutCyc; DPP

804. Valett, H.M., S.G. Fisher, N.B. Grimm, E.H. Stanley and A.J. Boulton (1992) Hyporheic - Surface water exchange: Implications for the structure and functioning of desert stream ecosystems. Pp. 395-405, In: Proc. First Internatl. Conf. Groundwater Ecology, J.A. Stanford and J.J. Simons (Eds.). Bethesda, MD: Amer. Water Res. Assoc. A review of hyporheic studies at Sycamore Creek site. R; HZ; NIT

805. Valett, H.M., S.G. Fisher and E.H. Stanley (1990) Physical and chemical characteristics of the hyporheic zone of a Sonoran Desert stream. J. N. Am. Benth. Soc. 9(3):201-215. Measured sediment particle size distributions and organic matter content, along with DO, and dissolved nutrients along transects through hyporheic sediments under stream channel. D; HZ; NIT; DAM; POM

806. Valett, H.M., C.C. Hakenkamp and A.J. Boulton (1993) Perspectives on the hyporheic zone: integrating hydrology and biology. Introduction. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 12(1):40-43. A brief perspective on the state of hyporheic zone research. R; HZ

807. Valett, H.M., J.A. Morrice, C.N. Dahm and M.E. Campana (1996) Parent lithology, surface-groundwater exchange and nitrate retention in headwater streams. Limnol. Oceanogr. 41:333-345. A comparative study of three streams in different geological settings. Hydrological linkages were quantitated and transport of nutrients between stream channels and hyporheic zones delineated. D; HZ; GW; TS; NIT; DAM; DPP; DOM

808. Van der Peijl, M.J., M.M.P. van Oorschot and J.T.A. Verhoeven (2000) Simulation of the effects of nutrient enrichment on nutrient and carbon dynamics in a river marginal wetland. Ecol. Model. 134:169-184. Compared the results of the model with a field nutrient enrichment experiment. D, H, TN, TP

809. Van der Peijl, M.J. and J.T.A. Verhoeven (1999) A model of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics and their interactions in river marginal wetlands. Ecol. Model. 118:95-130. For a series of american and european rivers a model was developed for nutrient dynamics. D, OF, POM, TN, TP

810. Van der Valk, A.G., C.B. Davis, J.L. Baker and C.E. Beer (1978) Natural freshwater wetlands as nitrogen and phosphorus traps for land runoff. Pp. 457-467, In: Wetlands Functions and Values: The State of Our Understanding, P.E. Greeson, J.R. Clark and J.E. Clark (Eds.). Minneapolis, MN: Am. Water Resour. Assoc. General Review of Nutrient Trapping in Fresh Water Wetlands. R

811. Van der Valk, A.G. and R.W. Jolly (1992) Recommendations for research to develop guidelines for the use of wetlands to control rural nonpoint source pollution. Ecol. Engin. 1:115-134. Recommendations for the use of Constructed Wetlands for Nonpoint Source Control. M

812. Van Dijk, P.M., F.J.P.M. Kwaad and M. Klapwijk (1996) Retention of water and sediment by grass strips. Hydrol. Proc. 10:1069-1080. Measured volume and sediment concentrations of overland flows through grass strips. D, G, OF, TSS, Infil

813. Van Lear, D.H., J.E. Douglass, S.K. Cox and M.K. Augspurger (1985) Sediment and nutrient export in runoff from burned and harvested pine watersheds in the South Carolina Piedmont. J. Environ. Qual. 14(2):169-174. Six small watersheds completely vegetated with mature Loblolly Pine were studied. Three were pretreated with prescribed burning and then were clear cut, while three were kept as controls. H-flumes and Coshocton wheels were used to measure discharges. D; PT; F; TSS; NIT; DAM; DPP; Ca; Mg; K; Na

814. Vellidis, G., R. Lowrance, P. Gay and R.K. Hubbard (2003) Nutrient transport in a restored riparian wetland. J. Environ. Qual. 32:711-726. A long-term study of the movement of nutrients from pasture and manure application lands through a three tiered riparian buffer (grass, pine, and hardwood forest) to a stream. D, G, F, CP, GW, OF, TAM, TS, TPP, TKN, TP, NIT, Denit-L, Flux, MBal

815. Vellidis, G., R. Lowrance, P. Gay and R.D. Wauchope (2002) Herbicide transport in a restored riparian forest buffer system. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agric. Engin. 45:89-97. For two years measured the surface and groundwater transport of atrazine and alachlor from a cropland through a three zone riparian buffer (grass, pine, and hardwood). Used a bromide tracer one year. D, F, G, GW, OF, TS, CP, HERB

816. Vellidis, G., R. Lowrance and M.C. Smith (1994) A quantitative approach for measuring N and P concentration changes in surface runoff from a restored riparian forest wetland. Wetlands 14:73-81. A descriptive paper on a study of nutrient dynamics in GA. D, F, OF, GW, CP, NIT, TN, TP, DPP, PAM

817. Vellidis, G., R. Lowrance, M.C. Smith and R.K. Hubbard (1993) Methods to assess the water quality impact of a restored riparian wetland. J. Soil & Water Cons. 48(3):223-230. Design of a Reconstructed Forested Riparian Zone for Nonpoint Source Agricultural Pollution Control. M; CP; F; GW

818. Verchot, L.V., E.C. Franklin and J.W. Gilliam (1997) Nitrogen cycling in Piedmont vegetated filter zones: I. Surface soil processes. J. Environ. Qual. 26:327-336. Measured mass balances for nitrogen input/output for a year on two transects from cropland through riparian forest to a stream in the Piedmont of North Carolina. Used a level spreader at field edge. D; F; OF; PT; NIT; DAM; DTKN; PTKN

819. Verchot, L.V., E.C. Franklin and J.W. Gilliam (1997) Nitrogen cycling in Piedmont vegetated filter zones: II. Subsurface nitrate removal. J. Environ. Qual. 26:337-347. Studied nitrate concentration changes along a series of transects from cropland through a grass filter strip into a riparian forest in the Piedmont of North Carolina for one year. Measured redox potential, potential denitrification rates. Used bromide tracer. In some cases injected high levels of nitrate and bromide from trenches at the edge of the fields. D; F; G; GW; NIT; TS; Denit-L; DOM

820. Verry, E.S. and D.R. Timmons (1982) Waterborne nutrient flow through an upland-peatland watershed in Minnesota. Ecology 63:1456-1467. A Peat Wetland Which was the Groundwater Outwelling Source Area for a Stream. A Complete Hydrologic and Nutrient Budget was Constructed Including the Role of the Wetland. D; H; GW; NIT; DAM; TN; TP; DPP

821. Vervier, P., M. Dobson and G. Pinay (1993) Role of interaction zones between surface and ground waters in DOC transport and processing: considerations for river restoration. Freshwater Biol. 29:275-284. Changes in Shallow Groundwater as it Moves Through a Gravel Bar on a Large River. D; GW; DOM; TS; NIT; DTP

822. Vervier, P., J. Gibert, P. Marmonier and M.-J. Dole-Olivier (1992) A perspective on thepermeability of the surface freshwater-groundwater ecotone. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 11(1):93-102. A review and discussion of the various factors that change as one moves from the stream channel into the hyporheic zone. R; GW; HZ

823. Vervier, P. and R.J. Naiman (1992) Spatial and temporal fluctuations of dissolved organic carbon in subsurface flow of the Stillaguamish (Washington, USA). Archiv fur Hydrobiologie 123:401-412. Followed Changes in Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentration as Shallow Groundwater Moved Through a Gravel Bar. D; F; GW; 6th order; DOM

824. Vervier, P., L. Roques, M.A. Baker, F. Garabetian and P. Auriol (2002) * Biodegradation of dissolved free simple carbohydrates in surface, hyporheic and riparian waters of a large river. Arch. Hydrobiol. 153(4):595-604.

825. Villar, C.A., L. de Cabo, P. Vaithiyanathan and C. Bonetto (1998) River-floodplain interactions: nutrient concentrations in the lower Parana River. Arch. Hydrobiol. 142(4):433-450. Measured nutrient concentrations along transects down the river and examined changes in nutrients in floodplain pools. D; F; TSS; NIT; DPP; DAM; DOM; POM

826. Vincent, W.F. and M.T. Downes (1980) Variation in nutrient removal from a stream by watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.). Aquatic Bot. 9:221-235. Nutrient Removal by Watercress on Stream Bank. D; H; NIT; DPP; DAM; 2nd order

827. Vitousek, P.M. (1981) Clear-cutting and the nitrogen cycle. Ecol. Bull. (Stockholm). 33:631-642. Review of Effects on Nutrient Dynamics of Clearcutting a Forested Watersheds. R; F; NIT

828. Vitousek, P.M., J.R. Gosz, C.C. Grier, J.M. Melillo, W.A. Reiners and R.L. Todd (1979) Nitrate losses from disturbed ecosystems. Science 204:469-474. Review of the Effects on Nutrient Dynamics of Clearcutting Forested Watersheds. R; F; NIT

829. Vitousek, P.M. and J.M. Melillo (1979) Nitrate losses from disturbed forests: patterns and mechanisms. Forest Science 25(4):605-619. Review of the Effects on Nutrient Dynamics of Clearcutting Forested Watersheds. R; F; NIT

830. Von Gunten, H.R., G. Karametaxas, U. Krahenbuhl, M. Kuslys, R. Giovanoli, E. Hoehn and R. Keil (1991) Seasonal biogeochemical cycles in riverborne groundwater. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 55:3597-3609. Water Quality was Measured as River Channel Water Percolated Through the River Bank to a Pumping Station. D; DOM; NIT; pH; TrM; Mn; Ca; Infil

831. Von Gunten, H.R. and T.P. Kull (1986) Infiltration of inorganic compounds from the Glatt River, Switzerland, into a groundwater aquifer. Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 29:333-346. Measured Changes in Concentrations as River Channel Water Infiltrated the Bank and into Groundwater. D; GW; K; Ca; Mg; NIT; DPP; TrM

832. Vought, L.B.-M., J. Dahl, C.L. Pedersen and J.O. Lacoursiere (1994) Nutrient retention in riparian ecotones. Ambio 23(6):342-348. General Review of Riparian Zone Functions Plus Some New Data From Sweden on Changes in Nutrients in Surface and Groundwaters with Distance of Travel Through Riparian Vegetation Zones. R; D; OF; GW; NIT; TN; TP; DPP

833. Vought, L.B.-M., G. Pinay, A. Fuglsang and C. Ruffinoni (1995) Structure and function of buffer strips from a water quality perspective in agricultural landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning 31:323-331. A general review of the values of buffer strips. R

834. Vought, L.B.M. and J.O. Lacoursiere (2002) Design of riparian buffer zones with regard to aquatic ecosystem. Pp. 215-225, In: R. Hatano, U. Mander, Y. Hayakawa, V. Kuusemets, Y. Watanabe and K. Kanazawa (eds.), Efficiency of Purification Processes in Riparian Buffer Zones, Their Design and Planning in Agricultural Watersheds, Natl. Agric. Res. Center Hokkaido Region, Kushiro, Japan. Studied grass, mixed woody plant and beech forest buffers in southern Sweden. Water enriched with nitrate and phosphate was pumped into the buffers for testing. Also examined biodiversity of invertebrates in streams where these types of buffers existed. D, F, G, OF, NIT, DPP, TP, TN

835. Vought, L.B.M., J.O. Lacoursiere and N.J. Voetz (1991) Streams in the agricultural landscape. Vatten 47:321-328. Experimental Measurements of Overland Flows Through Riparian Zone after Enriching with Nutrients and of Shallow Groundwater Flows. D; F; H; G; OF; GW; NIT; DPP

836. Wainright, S.C., C.A. Couch and J.L. Meyer (1992) Fluxes of bacteria and organic matter into a blackwater river from river sediments and floodplain soils. Freshwater Biol. 28:37-48. Measured fluxes carried by upwelling groundwater in the floodplain soils, overland flows on floodplain soils. D; F; OF; GW; DOM; POM

837. Walbridge, M.R. (1993) Functions and values of forested wetlands in the southern United States. J. Forestry 91(5):15-19. Review of Forested Wetlands. R; F

838. Walbridge, M.R. and B.G. Lockaby (1994) Effects of forest monagement on biogeochemical functions in southern forested wetlands. Wetlands 14(1):10-17. A Review Focused on Nutrients in Forested Wetlands. R

839. Walbridge, M.R. and J.P. Struthers (1993) Phosphorus retention in non- tidal palustrine forested wetlands of the Mid-Atlantic region. Wetlands 13(2):84-94. A Broad Review of Phosphorus Retention in Coastal Plain Floodplain Forests. R; CP; TP

840. Walker, T. and S. Wingo-Tussisng (2001) Cock Robin Island restoration project: A creative and collaborative effort to reestablish riparian and wetland habitat in the Eel River Estuary, California. Wetland Journal 13:12-23. An overall description of the restoration efforts. M, F

841. Walling, D.E. and Q. He (1997) Investigating spatial patterns of overbank sedimentation on river floodplains. Water Air Soil Pollut. 99(1-4):9-20. Used Cs-137 and Pb-210 techniques to map the ages of sediments in the floodplain of the River Culm in the UK. D; SedTrap

842. Walters, C. and J. Korman (1999) Cross-scale modeling of riparian ecosystem responses to hydrologic management. Ecosystems 2:411-421. A theoretical discussion of various approaches to riparian modeling. M

843. Ward, J.V. (1989) The four dimensional nature of lotic ecosystems. J. North Amer. Benth. Soc. 8:2-8. Review and Conceptual Description of How Stream Channels Interact with Floodplains and Hyporheic Zone. R

844. Ward, J.V. and J.A. Stanford (1995) Ecological connectivity in alluvial river ecosystems and its disruption by flow regulation. Regulated Rivers: Res. & Manage. 11:105-119. A review of the effects of dams and dikes on river interactions with riparian zones. R

845. Warwick, J. and A.R. Hill (1988) Nitrate depletion in the riparian zone of a small woodland stream. Hydrobiologia 157(3):231-240. A Forested Watershed. Water Flowing on or Near Surface from Spring Seeps Through Riparian Zone was Enriched with Nitrate and Concentrations were Traced to Stream Channel. Laboratory Denitrification Potentials Were Measured for Soils. D; F; 2nd order; NIT; Denit-L

846. Watts, S.H. and S.P. Seitzinger (2000) Denitrification rates in organic and mineral soils from riparian sites: a comparison of N2 flux and acetylene inhibition methods. Soil Biol. Biochem. 32:1383-1392. A laboratory comparison. D, F, 1st Order, Denit-L

847. Webster, E.P. and D.R. Shaw (1996) Impact of vegetative filter strips on herbicide loss in runoff from soybeans (Glycine max). Weed Sci. 44:662-671. Measured changes in concentration as overland flows moved through. D, G, OF, Herb

848. Webster, J.R. (1977) Large particulate organic matter processing in stream ecosystems. Pp. 505-526, In: Watershed Research in Eastern North America, D.L. Correll (Ed.). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Press. Directly Measured Both Vertical Litter Fall and Lateral Litter Inputs to 4 Completely Forested Watershed Streams. D; F; MT; POM

849. Webster, J.R., S.W. Golladay, E.F. Benfield, D.J. D'Angelo and G.T. Peters (1990) Effects of watershed disturbance on particulate organic matter budgets of small streams. J. North Amer. Benth. Soc. 9:120-140. Litter Inputs to Channels were Directly Measured for Two Completely Forested and Three Logged Watersheds. D; F; POM

850. Webster, J.R., S.W. Golladay, E.F. Benfield, J.L. Meyer, W.T. Swank and J.B. Wallace (1992) Catchment disturbance and stream response: An overview of stream research at Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory. Pp. 231- 253, In: River Conservation and Management, P.J. Boon, P. Calow and G.E. Petts (Eds.). Chichester: Wiley. Review of Effects of Logging Forested Watersheds. R; F; TSS; POM

851. Weighelhofer, G. and J.A. Waringer (1994) Allochthonous input of coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) in a first to fourth order Austrian forest stream. Int. Rev. Ges. Hydrobiol. 79(3):461-471. Measured direct and lateral litter inputs. D; F; POM

852. Weimhoff, J.R. (1977) Hydrology of a Southern Illinois Cypress Swamp. Master's Thesis. Chicago: Illinois Institute Technology, 98 pp.

853. Weiss, D., R. Carbiener and M. Tremolieres (1991) Biodisponibilite comparee du phosphore en fonction des substrats et de la frequence des inondations dans trois forets alluviales rhenanes de la plaine d�Alsace. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 313:245-251. Measured phosphorus availability to forest trees at three sites on a river floodplain that had different times since last flooded. D; F

854. Weller, D.E., D.L. Correll and T.E. Jordan (1994) Denitrification in riparian forests receiving agricultural discharges. Pp. 117-131, In: Global Wetlands: Old World and New, W.J. Mitsch (Ed.). New York: Elsevier. Soil Cover Chambers and Trace Gas Analyzers were Used to Map Emission of Nitrous Oxide in an Agricultural/Riparian Forest Watershed. D; F; GW; CP; NIT; Denit-F; 1st order

855. Weller, D.E., T.E. Jordan and D.L. Correll (1998) Heuristic models for material discharge from landscapes with riparian buffers. Ecol. Appl. 8(4):1156-1169. Used what is known about forested riparian buffers to model the effects of different spatial distributions of buffer on water quality. D; F

856. Welsch, D. (1991) Riparian Forest Buffers, Function and Design for Protection and Enhancement of Water Resources. Radnor, PA.: US Forest Service, 24 pp. Managment Recommendations for Riparian Zones Along Streams. M; F; G; OF; GW

857. Welty, J.J., T. Beechie, K. Sullivan, D.M. Hyink, R.E. Bilby, C. Andrus and G. Pess (2002) Riparian aquatic interaction simulator (RAIS): a model of riparian forest dynamics for the generation of large woody debris and shade. For. Ecol. Manage. 162:299-318. Describes a model for predicting riparian forest growth dynamics and the interactions with streams, especially with respect to inputs of large woody debris and provision of shade. M, F

858. Wenger, S. (1999) A review of scientific literature on riparian buffer width, extent and vegetation. Institute of Ecology, Univ. GA, 57 pp. R

859. Weston, B.A., D.J. Cummings and H.M. Shaw (1986) Soil, water and nutrient movement through pastured filter strips. Pp. 392-393, In: Proc. Symp. Hydrology and Water Resources, Brisbane, Australia: Griffith Univ. Effectiveness of Riparian Pastureland to Remove Nutrients from Cropland Generated Overland Storm Flows. D; G; TSS; PPP

860. Whigham, D.F. and S.E. Bayley (1978) Nutrient dynamics in fresh water wetlands. Pp. 468-478, In: Wetland Functions and Values: The State of Our Understanding, P.E. Greeson, J.R. Clark and J.E. Clark (Eds.). Minneapolis, MN: Amer. Water Resources Assoc. General Review of Nutrient Retention by Wetlands. R

861. Whigham, D.F., C. Chitterling and B. Palmer (1988) Impacts of freshwater wetlands on water quality: a landscape perspective. Environ. Manag. 12(5):663-671. General Review of the Nutrient Retention by Wetlands in a Landscape. R

862. Whigham, D.F., C. Chitterling, B. Palmer and J. O'Neill (1986) Modification of runoff from upland watersheds - The influence of a diverse riparian ecosystem. Pp. 305-332, In: Watershed Research Perspectives, D.L. Correll (Ed.). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Press. Measured Surface and Shallow Groundwater Nutrient Concentration Patterns in Three Habitats of a Floodplain Wetland. D; F; CP; GW; NIT; DAM; DPP; DTKN

863. White, D.S. (1993) Perspectives on defining and delineating hyporheic zones. J. N. Amer. Benthol. Soc. 12(1):61-69. A general review of stream channel - hyporheic zone interactions. R; HZ

864. Willems, H.P.L., M.D. Rotelli, D.F. Berry, E.P. Smith, R.B. Reneau Jr. and S. Mostaghimi (1997) Nitrate removal in riparian wetland soils: Effects of flow rate, temperature, nitrate concentration and soil depth. Water Res. 31(4):841-849. Studied soil columns from riparian areas in the laboratory. D, F, CP, NIT, Denit-L

865. Williams, D.D. (1989) Towards a biological and chemical definition of the hyporheic zone in two Canadian rivers. Freshwater Biol. 22:189-208. Studied lateral transects of Duffin Creek and the Rouge River in Ontario. Measured biotic and chemical parameters in interstitial water. D; HZ

866. Williams, D.D. (1993) Nutrient and flow vector dynamics at the hyporheic/groundwater interface and their effects on the interstitial fauna. Hydrobiologia 251:185-198. Measured patterns of nitrate, phosphate, DOC, alkalinity, and CO2 around the channels of two streams in Ontario and developed a conceptual model of the hyporheic zones. D; HZ; GW; DPP; NIT

867. Williams, H.M., M.H. Craft and G.L. Young (1997) Reforestation of frequently flooded agricultural fields: A compendium of results from research conducted at the Lake George wetland and wildlife restoration project, Mississippi. Tech. Report WRP-RE-18, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Exper. Sta., Vicksburg, MS. A summary of efforts to reforest 3,600 ha of floodplain croplands with bottomland hardwood forest in the Mississippi River delta. R

868. Williams, R.D. and A.D. Nicks (1988) Using CREAMS to simulate filter strip effectiveness in erosion control. J. Soil & Water Conserv. 43:108-112. Used model to estimate effectiveness of grass filter strips for erosion control. M; G; OF; TSS

869. Williams, R.G., R. Lowrance and S. P. Inamdar (2000) Simulation of nonpoint source pollution control using the riparian ecosystem management model (REMM). Pp. 433-438, in: Riparian Ecology and Management in Multi-Land Use Watersheds. P.J. Wigington Jr. and R.L. Beschta (Eds.), Amer. Water Resourc. Assoc., Middleburg, VA. Calibrated the model on data from a Coastal Plain site and simulated effects of management scenarios. M, F, CP, GW, OF, DAM, DTKN, DTP, NIT, PAM, PTP, PTKN

870. Williamson, R.B., C.M. Smith and A.B. Cooper (1996) Watershed riparian management and its benefits to a eutrophic lake. J. Water Resourc. Plann. Manage. Jan./Feb.:24-32. Compared watershed discharges of nutrients before and after implementation of improved riparian management. D, M, DAM, NIT, DTKN, PTKN, DPP, DTP, TP, TSS

871. Wilson, L.G. (1967) Sediment removal from flood water by grass filtration. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agric. Engin. 10(1):35-37. Measured Reductions in Suspended Sediments with Distance As Overland Flows Moved Through Grassed Filters. D; G; TSS

872. Winterbourn, M.J. (1976) Fluxes of litter falling into a small beech forest stream. N.Z.J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 10:399-416. Directly Measured both Vertical and Lateral Litter Inputs to Stream Channel. D; F; 1st order; POM

873. Wissmar, R.C. and R.L. Beschta (1998) Restoration and management of riparian ecosystems: a catchment perspective. Freshwater Biol. 40:571-585. A landscape ecology perspective. R

874. Woessner, W.W. (2000) Stream and fluvial plain ground water interactions: rescaling hydrogeologic thought. Ground Water 38:423-429. A review of the hydrology of riparian zones and hyporheic zones. R, HZ, GW

875. Wondzell, S.M. and F.J. Swanson (1996) Seasonal and storm dynamics of the hyporheic zone of a 4th-order mountain stream. I. Hydrologic processes. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 15:3-19. Used MODFLOW to model groundwater flows around the stream channel. D; F; HZ; GW; 4th order

876. Wondzell, S.M. and F.J. Swanson (1996) Seasonal and storm dynamics of the hyporheic zone of a 4th-order mountain stream. II. Nitrogen cycling. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 15(1):20-34. Measured Changes in Dissolved Nitrogen Parameters as Water Moved Between Stream Channel and Riparian Zone. D; F; GW; 4th order; NIT; DAM; MT; DTKN

877. Wondzell, S.M. and F.J. Swanson (1999) Floods, channel change, and the hyporheic zone. Water Resourc. Res. 35:555-567. Measured effects of a major flood on stream channels and their interactions with the hyporheic zone in the Cascade Mountains. D, F, 4th Order, 5th Order, GW, HZ, MT

878. Wright, J.M. and J.C. Chambers (2002) Restoring riparian meadows currently dominated by Artemisa using alternative state concepts � above-ground vegetation response. Appl. Vegetation Sci. 5:237-246. Experimented with plots in Nevada that were selected to have high, intermediate or low water tables. Plots were burned and seeded. D, G, H

879. Wroblicky, G.J., M.E. Campana, H.M. Valett and C.N. Dahm (1998) Seasonal variation in surface-subsurface water exchange and lateral hyporheic area of two stream-aquifer systems. Water Resourc. Res. 34(3):317-328. Used lateral transects of piezometers to estimate lateral hyporheic zone exchanges in two streams of differing geology. D; HZ; 1st order

880. Xiang, W.-N. (1993) Application of a GIS-based stream buffer generation model to environmental policy evaluation. Environ. Manage. 17(6):817- 827. A management oriented model for calculation of locations of riparian buffers. M

881. Xiang, W.-N. (1993) A GIS method for riparian water quality buffer generation. Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Syst. 7(1):57-70. A management oriented model for calculation of location of riparian buffers. M

882. Xiang, W.-N. (1995) GIS-based land acquisition analysis for establishing water quality protection buffers. Amer. Water Resourc. Assoc. April:633-642. A management based and GIS related model for calculating where to maintain riparian buffers. M

883. Xiang, W.-N. (1996) GIS-based riparian buffer analysis: injecting geographic information into landscape planning. Landscape Urban Plann. 34:1-10. Used GIS and a riparian forest model to delineate riparian zones and identify those in need of added protection. M; F

884. Xiang, W.-N. and W.L. Stratton (1993) A GIS-based decision support system for stream buffer policy formulation and evaluation. Geographic Inform. Syst. Water Resourc. March:121-130. A method for using GIS data bases to make management decisions about riparian buffers. Applied to a case study site in the Carolina coastal plain. M

885. Xu, L. (1992) Nitrate Movement and Removal in Riparian Buffer Areas. M.S. Thesis. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University. Added nitrate and chloride to the B horizon of soil trenches at the boundary between croplands and riparian buffers and measured how far they had moved through the soils after 530 days. D; CP; PT; NIT; TS; GW

886. Yarbro, L.A. (1979) Phosphorus Cycling in the Creeping Swamp Floodplain Ecosystem and Exports from the Creeping Swamp Watershed. Ph.D. Thesis. Chapel Hill, NC: Univ. North Carolina.

887. Yarbro, L.A. (1983) The influence of hydrologic variations on phosphorus cycling and retention in a swamp stream ecosystem. Pp. 223- 245, In: Dynamics of Lotic Systems, T.D. Fontaine and S.M. Bartell (Eds.). Ann Arbor, MI: Ann Arbor Science. Measured Retention of Various Phosphorus Fractions From Floodwaters by a Floodplain Forest. D; F; CP; PTP; DTP; DPP

888. Yarbro, L.A., E.J. Kuenzler, P.J. Mulholland and R.P. Sniffen (1984) Effects of Stream Channelization on Exports of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from North Carolina Coastal Plain Watersheds. Environ. Management 8(2):151-160. Compared Nutrient Discharges of Watersheds With and Without Channelization. Inferred Effects Were Caused by Interuption of Channel/Floodplain Forest Interactions. D; F; TN; TP; NIT; DAM; DPP; DTP

889. Yates, P. and J.M. Sherian (1983) Estimating the effectiveness of vegetated floodplains/wetlands as nitrate-nitrite and orthophosphate filters. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 9:303-314. Comparison of Nutrient Fluxes from Cropped Watersheds with and without Forested Floodplains. D; F; CP; NIT; DPP

890. Young, R.A., T. Huntrods and W. Anderson (1980) Effectiveness of vegetated buffer strips in controlling pollution from feedlot runoff. J. Environ. Qual. 9:483-487. Measured Effectiveness of Sorghum, Grass, and Oat Buffer Zones for Nutrient Removal. Some Water Infiltrated and Its Quality was not Measured. D; H; OF; TN; TP; DPP; DAM; NIT

 

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Agroforestry intentionally combines agriculture and forestry to create integrated and sustainable land-use systems. Agroforestry takes advantage of the interactive benefits from combining trees and shrubs with crops and/or livestock. Agroforestry practices include:

About the NAC

The USDA National Agroforestry Center (NAC) had its origins in the 1990 Farm Bill. It began as a Forest Service Research and State & Private Forestry effort in 1992 and expanded into a partnership with the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) in 1995. It is administered by the Forest Service's, Washington, DC, Office of Research and Development. NAC offices are located in Lincoln, Nebraska.

NAC accelerates the application of agroforestry through a national network of partners. Together, we conduct research, develop technologies and tools, coordinate demonstrations and training, and provide useful information to natural resource professionals.

About Working Trees

The right trees planted in the right places for the right reasons can add value to land-use systems. That's the Working Trees message that helps natural resource professionals, community leaders, and landowners identify with the concept of agroforestry. NAC uses the Working Trees theme to promote the development of sustainable agriculture and communities.

 

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