At one time, the American elm was considered to be an ideal street tree because it was graceful, long-lived, fast growing, and tolerant of compacted soils and air pollution. Then Dutch elm disease (DED) was introduced and began devastating the elm population. Estimates of DED losses of elm in communities and woodlands across the U.S. are staggering (figure 1). Because elm is so well-suited to urban environments, it continues to be a valued component of the urban forest despite the losses from DED. The challenge before us is to reduce the loss of remaining elms and to choose suitable replacement trees for the ones we cannot save.