The ice storm of January 1998 in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada was an extreme example of severe weather that injures trees every year. Broken branches, split branch forks, and snapped stems are all examples of storm injury. Immediately following the storm, broken stems and hanging branches presented a safety hazard. In addition to safety, landowners and foresters were concerned about the amount of damage — defined as the loss of economic value of wood products — that would result from storm injury. In response to this concern about hardwood quality, we began a 5-year research program to identify patterns of storm injury and tree response to wounding.