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Title Description Author Publication ID Topic(s)
Pest Alert Squirrel Damage to Pines NA-FB/P-18 Flagging (dead branch tips) on jack pine and red pine may be caused by insects, diseases, or mechanical damage. In the Lake States, flagging is often the result of mechanical damage, sometimes girdling, caused when the cones are torn off by red squirrels.Up to a three-year portion of the branch may be killed depending on where the cone was located. Drops of pitch can often be seen around the scar where the cone was torn off.Damage caused by squirrels is most common in years when foods other...
Insects and Diseases
Pest Alert Premature Needle Loss of Spruce NA-PR-01 Premature needle loss on white, black and Norway spruce has been observed in forest plantations in Wisconsin and Minnesota during the past six years. Symptoms vary by species but usually appear first in 2-4-year old needles on lower branches. Infected needles are dropped, resulting in branch mortality that progresses upward through the crown, sometimes killing even large, dominant trees. Several insects and fungi, as well as abiotic stresses such as drought and poor soils, appear to contribute...
Jennifer Juzwik Joseph G. O'Brien
Insects and Diseases
Pest Alert European Larch Canker NA-FB/P-17 The European larch canker, Lachnelluta willkommii, has been reported on native larch (tamarack) at several locations in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia , Canada, and Washington County, Maine. Some trees 3 to 4 inches (7.6-10.2 cm) in diameter have died from this disease, which can attack all species of the genus Larix and Pseudolarix.
Margaret Miller-Weeks
Insects and Diseases
Pest Alert Canker Stain Affects Delaware Sycamores NA-PR-03-01 An often fatal disease of American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis), known as canker stain, is caused by the fungus, Ceratocystis fimbriata f.sp. platani. This fungus, indigenous to the United States, occurs in urban and forested areas from New Jersey to Georgia and west to Missouri and Louisiana. Other trees affected are the Oriental plane (Platanus orientalis) and London plane (Platanus acerifolia). The disease is most devastating to young trees that may die within two years after becoming...
Alan Iskra Gary Schwetz Dr. Michael A. Valenti
Insects and Diseases
Pest Alert Bruce Spanworm NA-FB/P-26 In the northern part of the USA and in Canada, the caterpillars of Bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata(Hulst), attack a variety of hardwood trees, but sugar maple,aspen, and beech are the favored host trees. In areas where these favored host trees are numerous, moderate to severe defoliation will occur. For the past two years, the insect has caused widespread defoliation in the New England States. Several hundred thousand acres have been defoliated in 1982/1983 with 330,000 acres in Maine...
Parker Snowden USDA Forest Service P.O. Box 640 Durham, NH 03824
Insects and Diseases
Pest Alert Butternut Canker NA-PR-04-95 Butternut canker is caused by a fungus known as Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum which is killing butternut(Juglans cinerea) throughout its range in North America. Butternut is closely related to black walnut (Juglans nigra), which is not naturally susceptible to the disease.
Insects and Diseases
Pest Alert Cherry Scallop Shell Moth NA-PR-01-96 The cherry scallop shell moth, Hydria prunivorata(Ferguson) is a defoliator of black cherry, and occasionally other native cherries, throughout its range in eastern North America. The moth's name is derived from the pattern of alternating dark and light scalloped lines on the wings.
John R. Omer, Debra Allen-Reid USDA Forest Service
Insects and Diseases
Pest Alert Common Pine Shoot Beetle NA-TP-05-93 The common (or larger) pine shoot beetle, Tomicus(=Blastophagus) piniperda (L.), was discovered near Cleveland, Ohio in July 1992. As of this writing, it is now in six states: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Adults of the common pine shoot beetle are cylindrical and range from 3 to 5mm in length (about the size of a match head). Their head and thorax are shiny black while the wing covers are reddish-brown to black. Eggs are 1 mm long, oval, smooth, and shiny white...
Bob Haack USDA FS NCFES, Dan Kucera USDA FS NATechnical
Insects and Diseases
Pest Alert Garlic Mustard NA-PR-03-99 Garlic mustard was used as an edible green in Europe and may have been brought to North America by European settlers. The coarsely toothed leaves give off a garlic-like odor when crushed, accounting for its common name and use in cooking. It is a member of the mustard family.
USDA Forest Service Wayne National Forest Rosemarie Boyle 219 Columbus Road Athens, OH 45701 (740)592-0200
Insects and Diseases
Pest Alert Hemlock Looper NA-PR-05-92 The hemlock looper Lambdina fiscellaria is adefoliating insect native to North America. It occurs in the eastern United States from Maine to Georgia and west to Wisconsin. The larvae can be extremely destructive to hemlock, balsam fir, and white spruce. During an outbreak it will also feed on many other species including: larch, red and black spruce, cedar, jack pine, paper and yellow birch, basswood, maple, elm, and wild cherry. Hemlocks may die after one year of severe defoliation, fir in one...
Maine Forest Service 50 Hospital Street Augusta, ME 04330 (207) 289-2431 USDA
Insects and Diseases
Pest Alert Hemlock Woolly Adelgid NA-PR-09-05 Native to Asia, the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) is a small,aphidlike insect that threatens the health and sustainability of eastern hemlock(Tsuga canadensis) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana) in theEastern United States. Hemlock woolly adelgid was first reported in the Eastern United States in 1951 near Richmond, Virginia. By 2005, it was established in portions of 16 States from Maine to Georgia, where infestations covered about half of the range of hemlock. Areas of...
Insects and Diseases
Pest Alert Nun Moth NA-PR-95-98 The nun moth, Lymantria monacha (L.)(Lymantriidae), is a Eurasian pest of conifers that could be accidentallyintroduced into North America. Its establishment in this country would be disastrous because it feeds on a variety ofvegetation and can migrate and colonize a variety of sites.
Melody Keena and KathleenShields(USDA Forest Service,NortheasternResearch Station); MaryTorsello(USDA Forest Service,NortheasternArea State and Private Forestry)
Insects and Diseases
Pest Alert Oak Tatters NA-PR-02-00 Oak tatters is a relatively new condition that affectsemerging oak leaves, causing them to appear lacy ortattered. It has been observed throughout theMidwestern United States, including Minnesota,Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio,and Missouri. This disorder was first reported duringthe 1980's in Iowa, Indiana and Ohio, but has beenobserved only in the last 10 years in Wisconsin andMinnesota.
Linda Haugen, USDA FS; Phil Marshall, Indiana DNR; Jane Cummings Carlson, Wisconsin DNR; Mark Vitosh, Iowa State Univ. Extension; andEd Hayes, Minnesota DNR.
Insects and Diseases
Pest Alert Red Pine Pocket Mortality NA-FBP-30 Continuing mortality of red pine from an unknown cause has been observed in 30 to 40 year old plantations in southern and west central Wisconsin. A single tree or small group of trees die, followed by mortality of adjacent trees. These circular pockets of dead trees expand up to 0.3 acre per year.
Jane CummingsWisconsin Department of Natural Resources Madison, Wisconsin
Insects and Diseases
Pest Alert Rhizosphaera Needle Disease of Fir NA-PR-06-96 Rhizosphaera pini is a common plant pathogen in the Lake States, Northeastern States andCanada. A closely related pathogen, Rhizosphaera kalkhoffii, causes a common needle blight on spruce and other conifers. R. pini is often considered to be a weak pathogen,occurring on stressed foliage or foliage killed by other causes. However, it has been observed causing significant damage on balsam fir and Fraser fir. It appears to be particularly damaging in shaded, damp areas and when the trees are...
Authors: Mike Albers (MN DNR), Jana Albers (MN DNR), Jane Cummings-Carlson (WI DNR), Linda Haugen (USDA FS) and Nancy Wenner (Penn. State Univ., Plant Path.)
Insects and Diseases
Pest Alert Scarlet Oak Sawfly NA-PR-06-98 The scarlet oak sawfly, Caliroa quercuscoccineae (Dyar) skeletonizes leaves of scarlet, black, pin, and white oaks in eastern North America. It is also called the oak slug sawfly because of the fact that the larvae are covered with a coat of slime that helps them adhere to foliage.
Sherri F. Hutchinson, WV Department of Agriculture
Insects and Diseases
Pest Alert Sirex Woodwasp NA-PR-07-05 Sirex woodwasp has caused mortality of millions of North American pines planted In Southern Hemisphere forests, where Sirex Woodwasp (S. noctilio) is also an invasive species.
Dennis A. HaugenUSDA Forest ServiceForest Health ProtectionSt. Paul, MN.E.Richard HoebekeDepartment of EntomologyCornell University, Ithaca, NY.
Insects and Diseases
Pest Alert Sphaeropsis Collar Rot of Red and Jack Pines NA-PR-05-02 Sphaeropsis collar rot has been detected in red and jackpines in Wisconsin and Michigan, and it could be affectingpines in other states. This disease may be less familiar thanSphaeropsis shoot blight, but both the incidence and thedistribution of collar rot appear to be increasing.
Glen R. Stanosz, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Linda Haugen and JosephO'Brien, USDA Forest Service; Jana Albers, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources
Insects and Diseases
Pest Alert Sudden Oak Death Caused by a New Species, Phytophthora ramorum NA-PR-06-01 Tens of thousands of tanoak (Lithocarpusdensiflorus), coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia),California black oak (Quercus kelloggii), Shreveoak (Quercus parvula var. shrevei), andmadrone (Arbutus menziesii) have been killedby a newly identified species, Phytophthoraramorum, which causes Sudden Oak Death.
Susan Frankel
Insects and Diseases
Pest Alert Sudden Oak Death NA-PR-02-02 A phenomenon known as Sudden Oak Death was first reported in 1995 in central coastal California. Since then, tens of thousands of tanoaks (Lithocarpus densiflorus), coast live oaks(Quercus agrifolia), and California black oaks (Quercus kelloggii) have been killed by a newly identified fungus, 
Northeastern Area S&PF
Insects and Diseases
Pest Alert Oak Wilt in the Northeastern United States NA-PR-02-17 Oak wilt is a deadly vascular disease caused by a fungus (Ceratocystis fagacearum) that affects all native oak trees. Oaks are common in the Eastern United States and can be found in more mesic sites mixed in with other northern hardwoods such as sugar maple (Acer saccharum) or in drier sites with pines (Pinus spp.). Red oaks (northern red (Quercus rubra), pin (Q. palustris), and scarlet (Q. coccinea)) are more susceptible to oak wilt than white oaks (white (Q. alba), swamp white (Q. bicolor),...
O’Brien, Joseph; Mielke, Manfred; Starkey, Dale; Juzwik, Jennifer; Pokorny, Jill.
Insects and Diseases
Pest Alert Dutch Elm Disease (DED) and the American Elm NA-PR-05-99 A two-page pest alert about Dutch elm disease including symptoms and treatment.
USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry
Insects and Diseases
Pest Alert Gypsy Moth NA-PR-05-01 The gypsy moth has been an important pest of hardwoods in the Northeastern United States since its introduction in 1869. Established populations exist in all or parts of 19 states from Maine to Wisconsin and south to Illinois and generally in a southeasterly line from Illinois to northeastern North Carolina
USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry
Insects and Diseases
Pest Alert Japanese Knotweed NA-PR-04-99 Pest Alert - Japanese knotweed is native to Eastern Asia. It appears to require high-light habitats, and does very well along roadways and rivers. It reproduces by seed and large rhizomes, which may reach a length of 40 to 60 feet. This plant is a threat to native vegetation because it often forms dense patches, which shade out all other plants. It is a particular threat in riparian areas where it can survive floods and quickly colonize scoured streambanks.
USDA Forest Service Northeastern Area State and Private Forestryin
Invasive Plants
Pest Alert Elm Yellows NA- PR-04-12 Pest Alert - Elm yellows, formerly known as elm phloem necrosis, is a lethal systemic disease of native elms caused by a wall-less bacteria. The only known hosts of the elm yellows phytoplasma are elms and insect vectors that transmit this pathogen. In the United States the disease is transmitted by the whitebanded elm leafhopper and possibly other insects that feed on phloem sap.
Martin, Danielle
NA- PR-04-12
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