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Highlands Regional Study: Connecticut and Pennsylvania 2010 Update


The boundary of the Highlands region has been expanding over the years in response to state involvement and Congressional directives. Most recently, the Connecticut and Pennsylvania Highlands were added to the New York and New Jersey Highlands, with the passage of the Federal Highlands Conservation Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-42, United States Statutes at Large). The resulting Highlands boundary now encompasses 3.4 million acres, 25 counties, and 319 municipalities (Figure 1).

How to Recognize Common Diseases of Oaks in the Midwest: A Quick Guide


This diagnostic guide was developed to help forestry professionals, forest woodland managers, and homeowners identify and manage the most common diseases of oak trees in Midwestern States. It discusses the most common diseases of oak, some of which can be easily confused with others. It compares and contrasts key features of each disease to help you distinguish one disease from another.  Revised in 2017.

A First Look at Tree Decay: An Introduction to How Injury and Decay Affect Trees


Photosynthesis and decay are the two most essential processes in nature. Photosynthesis by green plants captures and stores energy from the sun. This energy is used to form wood and other tree parts. Photosynthesis also removes carbon dioxide and adds oxygen to the atmosphere. Decay releases stored energy and essential elements by the breakdown of wood. Fungi decay the wood in living and dead trees as part of a vital web of microorganisms, insects, and wildlife. Decay organisms enter trees through wounds, large and small.

Asian Longhorned Beetle and Its Host Trees


The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) has been devastating urban forests in the Northeast since it was first detected in New York City in 1996. Efforts to eradicate this pest have resulted in the removal of tens of thousands of trees in several northeastern communities in the United States and Canada. The Asian longhorned beetle has been successfully eradicated from Illinois and several areas of New York and New Jersey.

How to Identify and Manage Dutch Elm Disease NA-PR-07-98


At one time, the American elm was considered to be an ideal street tree because it was graceful, long-lived, fast growing, and tolerant of compacted soils and air pollution. Then Dutch elm disease (DED) was introduced and began devastating the elm population. Estimates of DED losses of elm in communities and woodlands across the U.S. are staggering. Because elm is so well-suited to urban environments, it continues to be a valued component of the urban forest despite the losses from DED.

Monitoring Urban Forests in Indiana: Pilot Study 2002, Part 2: Statewide Estimates Using UFORE Model


The goal of the 2002 Indiana statewide urban forest health monitoring pilot study was to test the application of established methods of collecting forest plot data to urban areas and to illustrate what types of information could be derived from the data to aid urban forest management and planning. This report, based on a limited number of plots, is a demonstration of information that can be derived from these urban forest health monitoring field plots.

Pest Alert Winter Moth Pest Alert NA–PR–01–12


Winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), is a non-native invasive defoliator from Europe that was discovered in Massachusetts in the late 1990s. Winter moth has now been found throughout the eastern half of Massachusetts and into Rhode Island, Connecticut, Long Island (NY), southeastern New Hampshire, and southeastern Maine. It is expected to continue to spread to suitable habitats.

Pest Alert Beech Bark Disease NA–PR–03–12


Beech bark disease causes significant mortality and defect in American beech, Fagus grandifolia (Ehrh.). The disease results when bark, attacked and altered by the beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind., is invaded and killed by fungi, primarily Nectria coccinea var. faginata Lohman, Watson, and Ayers, and sometimes Nectria galligena Bres.

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