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Eastern Hemlock Forests: Guidelines to Minimize the Impacts of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid


The primary purpose of this handbook is to help resource managers make informed decisions in preparing management plans and to provide an information bridge between managers with hemlock stands that are, or will be, infested with hemlock woolly adelgid, and the foresters who will implement salvage and rehabilitation activities. This handbook summarizes current scientific knowledge of the impact of hemlock woolly adelgid on eastern hemlock forests and the processes involved in rehabilitating hemlock stands that have been, or will be, damaged by hemlock woolly adelgid.

Implementation and status of biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid


The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand (Hempitera: Adelgidae), threatens the health and sustainability of the native eastern North American hemlocks, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière and T. caroliniana Engelman. The lineage of HWA that was introduced to the eastern United States came from Japan sometime prior to 1951, and did not co-evolve with eastern North American forest ecosystems (Havill et al. 2006).

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