In this project, the goals were to develop terrestrial habitat, to demonstrate management of hemlock (Tsuga spp.) "carpets," to allow retention of full crowns and encourage diameter, to open up the understory and reintroduce herbs and shrubs, and to develop a stand with three canopy layers. The pretreatment stand condition was a variable understory, with 5,000 to 20,000 trees per acre. The prescription was to thin to an average spacing of 16 feet, from below. The assumptions were that once hemlock is established it can be thinned mechanically, that two canopy layers plus an understory would be able to prevent a second pulse of hemlock, that thinned understory hemlock would be able to thrive without lots of "wet noodling," and that herbs and shrubs would be able to flourish in thins. The area was thinned in two stages, first in 2001, then in 2004. Potential problems included the contractors not understanding the prescription (inadvertently cutting shrubs, etc.), slash, and wet noodling. Overall results of the treatment were the elimination of the hemlock carpet, a few midstory hemlocks and vine maples (Acer circinatium Pursh), a few wet noodles, no pulse of hemlock regeneration, and much more ground vegetation.