Forest management planning is a challenge due to the diverse criteria that need to be considered in the underlying decision-making process. This challenge becomes more complex in joint collaborative management areas (ZIF) because the decision now may involve numerous actors with diverse interests, preferences, and goals. In this research, we present an approach to identifying and quantifying the most relevant criteria that actors consider in a forest management planning process in a ZIF context, including quantifying the performance of seven alternative stand-level forest management models (FMM). Specifically, we developed a combined multicriteria decision analysis and group decision-making process by (a) building a cognitive map with the actors to identify the criteria and sub-criteria; (b) structuring the decision tree; (c) structuring a questionnaire to elicit the importance of criteria and sub-criteria in a pairwise comparison process, and to evaluate the FMM alternatives; and (d) applying a Delphi survey to gather actors’ preferences. We report results from an application to a case study area, ZIF of Vale do Sousa, in North-Western Portugal. Actors assigned the highest importance to the criteria income (56.8% of all actors) and risks (21.6% of all actors) and the lowest to cultural services (27.0% of all actors). Actors agreed on their preferences for the sub-criteria of income (diversification of income sources), risks (wildfires) and cultural services (leisure and recreation activities). However, there was a poor agreement among actors on the sub-criteria of the wood demand and biodiversity criteria. For 27.0% of all actors the FMM with the highest performance was the pedunculate oak and for 43.2% of all actors the eucalypt FMM was the least preferable alternative. The findings indicate that this approach can support ZIF managers in enhancing forest management planning by improving its utility for actors and facilitating its implementation.
Communities and protected areas worldwide have initiated programs to protect and promote dark night skies. Yet, limited research has explored how and why night skies become of interest or meaningful to people. Because night skies are literally beyond human reach, we focus on how visitors to a U.S. national park imagine night skies and invoke imaginaries that make night skies meaningful. Drawing from interviews, we examine how visitors use symbolic language, narrative, and other discursive practices to develop the social, cultural, and spatial contexts of their night sky experiences. Findings inform our understanding of imagination and imaginaries in tourism and recreation research, while offering new approaches to night skies research.
This research expands the applicability of the Feasible Goals (FGoal) Pareto frontier multiple criteria method to display the Edgeworth–Pareto hull using interactive decision maps (IDMs). Emphasis is placed upon the development of a communication architecture to display the Pareto frontiers, which includes a client device, a web server, and a dedicated computation server implemented with sockets. A standalone application on the latter processes client-server requests and responses to display updated information on the client. Specifically, the dedicated computation server is responsible for calculating the information needed to generate the Edgeworth–Pareto hull. This is delivered to the web server to generate the IDM to be displayed on the client device. The key innovation of this work is a tool that is developed to aid decision-makers with a network-based computational architecture that includes a computational server constantly in communication with a web server for fast responses to client requests to represent IDMs. Results show that this innovation avoids time-consuming communication, and this approach to represent IDMs on the web facilitates collaboration among decision-makers because they can analyze several complex problems in different browser windows and decide which problem and solution better correspond to their aims.
Mentoring has had a recent resurgence as the key to achieving both individual and organizational goals, especially as workforce diversification efforts have led to the hiring of new talent. Few studies have evaluated mentoring within an organization or examined changes in mentoring practices over time. We describe the role and status of mentoring for current fish biologists in the USDA Forest Service, including correlations between participation in mentoring and gender, race/ethnicity, career level, time in career, and job satisfaction based on a survey of agency employees (n = 136). Mentoring relates to a more than two-fold increase in job satisfaction. Neither gender, race/ethnicity, career length, nor position are reliable predictors of whether someone has a mentor, evidence that participation in mentoring is consistent across the workforce and, at least superficially, it is equitable. Respondents sought guidance from mentors regarding technical skills, program management, communication, and leadership. Fish biologists of color were more likely than others to look for mentoring to build self-confidence, address conflicts, and inform professional values and ethics. More early-career fish biologist respondents identify as women in 2019 compared to a 1984 assessment. Overall, our results suggest that mentoring plays an important and positive role in career development and job satisfaction for fish biologists in the USDA Forest Service.
As we reflect on the rich history of the American Fisheries Society (AFS), no greater inspiration emerges than the pioneering figure of our 47th president, Dr. Emmeline Moore. In addition to serving as the Society’s first woman president, her groundbreaking research in the fields of aquatic ecology, fish health, and watershed-based ecosystems irrevocably shaped fisheries research and management. She led the New York State Conservation Department (NYSCD), reminiscing “I had to be all things to all fishes”. She was similarly broad in her service to AFS as is demonstrated by her participation in more than a dozen diverse committees throughout her tenure with AFS providing consistent high-level expertise, synthesis, and leadership. From award-winning presentations to regular donations to Society funds, her legacy reveals a mixture of brilliance, talent, and dedication to fisheries and to AFS. With over 25 first-author publications she broke boundaries as the first woman to publish in Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, and later the first woman in the U.S. to publish a paper on fish diseases. Dr. Moore not only strengthened the Society, but fisheries science as a whole.
As the American Fisheries Society (AFS) approaches its sesquicentennial, it is a time to take a moment to celebrate the increasing diversity within the Society and the pivotal role of pioneering women in shaping fisheries. Gender disparities still persist in science, including in fisheries where only a fraction of academic tenure-track, research, and federal scientist positions are held by women, though attainment of PhDs in biological sciences is equal between women and men. In addition, an extensive review of published peer-reviewed articles in both the International Aquaculture Curated Database and JSTOR revealed that only 15% of authors are women. As result, only 21% of most-cited fisheries articles are from women authors. Despite all of these efforts, there is still a lack of both representation and recognition of women’s contributions to fisheries. In light of the profound influence that women have had in fisheries science and AFS, we take a moment to recognize contributions of some of the historical mothers of fishes and AFS, in keeping with the theme of ‘The Father of All the Fishes’.
Discussions about diversity, equity, and inclusivity are becoming increasingly common in scientific societies. However, more concerted efforts are needed to recognize and challenge systemic discrimination to ensure scientists from marginalized groups can contribute to and benefit from scientific societies. Here, we evaluate efforts and opportunities within the Society for Freshwater Science (SFS) as examples for how scientific societies can make progress toward diversity, equity, and inclusivity. In 2017, SFS collected anonymous demographic information and open-ended feedback from SFS members through an online survey. We combined this information with 2 examples of recent initiatives and challenges that occurred within SFS. We present a guide for SFS and other scientific societies toward creating a more welcoming and equitable space for all scientists. To prioritize diversity, equity, and inclusivity, scientific societies must center the voices of marginalized and underrepresented people in all scientific society activities, including within groups of all sizes and at all society events. These actions will allow scientific societies to better represent and engage with their current and future members and the broader communities those members serve.
To respond to changing demands for outdoor experiences on public lands, managers and researchers specializing in outdoor recreation and tourism are calling for a shift in the way we think about, study, and manage recreation. New and updated conceptual frameworks and management tools are needed to guide agency decision-makers as they face complex and dynamic outdoor recreation management challenges. This article introduces a research strategy that seeks to align management needs with actionable research on sustainable recreation and tourism. We describe eight Research Focus Areas (RFAs) proposed in the strategy. These RFAs were identified and developed through a collaborative process involving researchers and practitioners from government, academia, industry, and non-profit sectors. We emphasize the importance of interdisciplinary, interagency collaboration to solve modern challenges in outdoor recreation management from the site to landscape scale.