Background: Several small experimental studies and cross-sectional observational studies have shown that exposure to the natural environment might protect against attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or moderate the symptoms of ADHD in children.
Most studies of the health benefits of the natural environment use coarse 2D exposure metrics based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). We compare the performance of these 2D NDVI metrics to finer-resolution 3D metrics derived from Light Detection and Ranging imagery (LiDAR).
Accurate estimates of growth and structural changes are key for forest management tasks such as determination of optimal rotation times, optimal rotation times, site indices and for identifying areas experiencing difficulties to regenerate.
The quantity and condition of downed dead wood (DDW) is emerging as a major factor governing forest ecosystem processes such as carbon cycling, fire behavior, and tree regeneration. Despite this, systematic inventories of DDW are sparse if not absent across major forest biomes.
Although a natural ecological process, wildfire in unhealthy forests can be uncharacteristically destructive. Fuel treatments—such as thinning, mowing, prescribed fire, or managed wildfire—can help reduce or redistribute the flammable fuels that threaten to carry and intensify fire.