Measuring managers' perceptions of llama use in wild areas - data from 1993

Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Watson, Alan E.
Originator: Zaglauer, Hans P.
Publication_Date: 2015
Title:
Measuring managers' perceptions of llama use in wild areas - data from 1993
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tabular digital data
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Fort Collins, CO
Publisher: Forest Service Research Data Archive
Online_Linkage: https://doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2016-0019
Description:
Abstract:
This data publication contains the results of a 1993 survey of Forest Service and Park Service managers across the United States and their perceptions of llama use in wild areas. Over 200 mailback surveys were returned from managers representing more than 150 different wilderness areas and 25 states. Questions were related to manager perceptions about trends on llama use, seriousness of impacts, current llama management strategies, and specific management challenges anticipated. Additional questions related to other pack animals were also included.
Purpose:
The Wilderness Act (PL 88-577) directs federal agencies responsible for wilderness to preserve natural conditions. Wilderness should generally appear to have been affected primarily by forces of nature. To meet these goals, managers must adjust their programs in response to changes in recreational use of pack stock. The use of llamas as pack animals by visitors has increased over the last decade and will presumably continue to grow in the future. The purpose of this study is to attempt to understand manager perceptions of the extent that llama use threatens wilderness conditions and how they are managing llama users. Specific objectives of this study are to compare perceptions about llama use for managers with areas of heavy, light, or no llama packstock use, and to compare manager perceptions of llama use with perceptions visitors expressed in a survey conducted by Utah State University.
Supplemental_Information:
Original metadata date was 6/30/2016. Minor metadata updates on 12/19/2016.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1993
Currentness_Reference:
ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
This study surveyed wilderness areas across the United States. A sample of wilderness areas encompassing 25 different states were chosen from the potential list found in: \Supplements\WildernessArea_RangerDistricts.csv.
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -177.754844
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -66.924766
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 71.393434
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 18.872230
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: biota
Theme_Keyword: boundaries
Theme_Keyword: economy
Theme_Keyword: location
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: society
Theme_Keyword: transportation
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: National Research & Development Taxonomy
Theme_Keyword: Ecology, Ecosystems, & Environment
Theme_Keyword: Environment and People
Theme_Keyword: Impact of people on environment
Theme_Keyword: Recreation
Theme_Keyword: Natural Resource Management & Use
Theme_Keyword: Wilderness
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: residents
Theme_Keyword: resident attitudes
Theme_Keyword: resident-place relationship
Theme_Keyword: fishing
Theme_Keyword: recreation
Theme_Keyword: conditions
Theme_Keyword: resource use
Theme_Keyword: management
Theme_Keyword: management planning
Theme_Keyword: use limits
Theme_Keyword: packstock
Theme_Keyword: horses
Theme_Keyword: llama
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: North America
Place_Keyword: United States of America
Place_Keyword: wilderness areas
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
These data were collected using funding from the U.S. Government and can be used without additional permissions or fees. If you use these data in a publication, presentation, or other research product please use the following citation:

Watson, Alan E.; Zaglauer, Hans P. 2016. Measuring managers' perceptions of llama use in wild areas - data from 1993. Fort Collins, CO: Forest Service Research Data Archive. https://doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2016-0019
Data_Set_Credit:
Funding for this project provided by Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute (ALWRI), which includes USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS).
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Watson, Alan E.
Originator: Christensen, Neal A.
Originator: Blahna, Dale J.
Originator: Archibald, Kari S.
Publication_Date: 1998
Title:
Comparing manager and visitor perceptions of llama use in wilderness
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: document
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Research Paper
Issue_Identification: RMRS-RP-10
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Ogden, UT
Publisher: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station
Online_Linkage: https://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/21488
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Blahna, Dale J.
Originator: Smith, Kari S.
Originator: Anderson, Janet A.
Publication_Date: 1995
Title:
Backcountry llama packing: visitor perceptions of acceptability and conflict
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: document
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Leisure Sciences
Issue_Identification: 17(3):195-204
Back to Top
Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
We believe these data were checked for inconsistent sets and erroroneous values, and think these data are accurate and consistent.

There may be some cases of slight descrepancies in the spelling of wilderness names.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
South Sierra is recorded as both 55 and 121. We do not know why it is repeated, but it is in the codebooks as well, so was left as originally recorded.
Completeness_Report:
Question 6 on the survey (\Supplements\Llama 1993_survey.pdf) asked for comments. Unfortunately these data were not available and are not included in the data file 1993_llama_manage_data.csv.

If a survey question was left blank, it is denoted in the data file as a "9", "99", or "999" as noted in the variable descriptions below.

There were 7 surveys eliminated after receiving them due to nonconformance with sampling objectives. This resulted in a total of 234 surveys, all of which are included in this download.
Lineage:
Methodology:
Methodology_Type: Field
Methodology_Description:
For this study, a sample of Forest Service and Park Service managers throughout the country were surveyed. A stratified (high, low, and no llama use), two-stage (region and use level) random sample of managers was obtained based on a 1990 study by McClaren and Cole (1993). Areas of heavy llama use were selected at a higher rate to insure maximization of information about llama use from those managers with the most experience.

Having identified national parks or wilderness within each region, regional wilderness specialists (FS) and park superintendents (NPS) were asked to identify the best person at each site to send a letter of explanation and a mailback survey. There were two parts of the survey. The first part was to be completed by the person most involved with making decisions about management of the wilderness. The second part of the survey was to be completed by the person most knowledgeable about the current use of the area by llama groups.

A total of 286 surveys were sent to the selected Ranger Districts believed to have management responsibility for a part or the entirety of the wilderness area. Through the mail out there were 25 cases where the political boundaries did not coincide with the actual management of wilderness, which left a potential sample size of 261. Two hundred thirty four completed surveys were returned, resulting in an 89.7% return rate.

For more details see Watson et al. (1998), as well as Watson and Zaglauer (1993; unpublished material).
Methodology_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Watson, Alan E.
Originator: Christensen, Neal A.
Originator: Blahna, Dale J.
Originator: Archibald, Kari S.
Publication_Date: 1998
Title:
Comparing manager and visitor perceptions of llama use in wilderness
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: document
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Research Paper
Issue_Identification: RMRS-RP-10
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Ogden, UT
Publisher: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station
Online_Linkage: https://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/21488
Methodology_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: McClaran, Mitchel P.
Originator: Cole, David N.
Publication_Date: 1993
Title:
Packstock in wilderness: use, impacts, monitoring, and management
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: document
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Gen. Tech. Rep.
Issue_Identification: INT-301
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Ogden, UT
Publisher: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station
Other_Citation_Details:
33 p.
Online_Linkage: https://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/23918
Methodology_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Watson, Alan E.
Originator: Zaglauer, Hans P.
Publication_Date: Unpublished material
Title:
Study Plan: Measuring manager's perceptions of llama use in wild areas
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: document
Other_Citation_Details:
1993; included in full data publication download: \Supplements\Llama 1993_studyplan.pdf
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
No process steps have been described for this data set
Process_Date: Unknown
Back to Top
Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
DATA
\Data\1993_Llama_manage_data.csv is a comma-delimited ASCII text file containing the compiled dataset from returned mailback surveys of wilderness managers. Below is a description of the variables available in the file. Note: question numbers for the associated survey, found in \Supplements\Llama 1993_survey.pdf, are in parentheses. There are two parts of this survey, and it is possible that two different people filled out each section as noted below.

The first part of this survey is intended for wilderness management decision makers. The most likely person to fill out Part I is the District Ranger.

CASENUMB = Case number, a three-digit identification number

POSITIO1 = current position (1=district ranger; 2=recreation officer; 3=forester; 4=wilderness specialist; 5=wilderness coord.; 6=resource asst.; 7=program manager; 8=recreation staff; 9=recreation specialist; 10=wilderness mgr; 11=wilderness ranger; 12=dispersal officer; 13=recreation planner; 14=forestry tech; 15=resource staff; 20=implementation officer; 21=resource forester; 22=recreation forester; 23=area manager; 24=packer; 25=trails coordinator; 26=asst. ranger; 27=recreation manager; 28=assistant ranger; 999=blank)

MUMBYEAR = number of years in current position (99=blank)

WILDERN1 = wilderness area

WT = UNKNOWN - this variable was not a coded variable from the original survey. We suspect it is a weight created to get a more accurate population estimate based on response level for each sampling strata. We included it just for completeness, and do NOT recommend it be used.

WILDECOD = wilderness code (999=blank; See \Supplements\WildernessCodes.csv)

NRYEARS1 = number of years in this wilderness (99=blank)

(1) ENCLLAM1 = have you ever encountered a group with llamas in this wilderness? (1=yes; 2=no; 9=blank)
(1) NRLLPY1 = estimate how many in the past year (999=blank)

(2) ENCHORS1 = have you ever encountered a group with horses or mules in this wilderness? (1=yes; 2=no; 9=blank)
(2) NRHORSE1 = estimate how many in the past year (999=blank)

(3) USERG-HORSECAM = Indicate the extent to which you agree/disagree with each of the following statements. (1=strongly disagree; 2=somewhat disagree; 3=neutral; 4=somewhat agree; 5=strongly agree; 6=don't know; 9=blank)
(3a) USERG = Use Regulations should be the same for llamas as they are for horses and mules
(3b) APPROPRI = Horses and mules are more appropriate in the wilderness than llamas
(3c) INTEREST = Meeting a group of hikers with pack llamas makes a trip more interesting
(3d) SAFETY = Safety problems will occur when llamas meet horses or mules on the trail
(3e) EXPERIEN = In general, llama packers are experienced visitors
(3f) LLAMACAM = Hikers don't mind camping in sites previously occupied by llama packing groups
(3g) INTROEXO = Llamas escaping might reproduce in the wild, introducing an exotic species to compete with native wildlife
(3h) OUTPLACE = Seeing llamas in the wilderness seems out of place
(3i) INTRDIS = Llamas pose the threat of introduction of disease to native wildlife
(3j) LIMITLLA = The limit for the number of llamas per group should be the same as the limit for the number of horses or mules per group in the wilderness
(3k) EXOTICPL = Llamas pose more of a threat of introduction of exotic plant species than horses, mules or hikers, due to seeds being attached to their wool
(3l) MEETMULE = Safety problems are more likely to occur when llamas meet mules on the trail than when llamas meet horses on the trail
(3m) VEGIMPAC = Llamas cause little impact to vegetation due to their eating habits
(3n) OFFTRAIL = When llamas meet horses or mules on the trail the llamas should be led off the trail giving the horses or mules the right of way
(3o) HORSECAM = Hikers don't mind camping in sites previously occupied by horses or mules

(4) FEWHOURS-MORETHAN = How many times per year do you take backcountry trips of each of the following lengths: (999=blank)
FEWHOURS = trips lasting a few hours
FULLDAY = trips lasting a full day
TWONIGHT = trips lasting one or two nights
MORETHAN = trips lasting more than two nights

(5) FORMAL1-INFORMA1 = What training have you received in the use of llamas? (1=none; 2=less than 1 week; 3=one week or more; 4=one month; 5=more than 1 month; 9=blank)
FORMAL1 = length of formal training
INFORMA1 = length of informal training


The second part of this survey is for the person most knowledgeable about packstock use in the wilderness.

POSITIO2 = current position (1=district ranger; 2=recreation officer; 3=forester; 4=wilderness specialist; 5=wilderness coord.; 6=resource asst.; 7=program manager; 8=recreation staff; 9=recreation specialist; 10=wilderness mgr; 11=wilderness ranger; 12=dispersal officer; 13=recreation planner; 14=forestry tech; 15=resource staff; 20=implementation officer; 21=resource forester; 22=recreation forester; 23=area manager; 24=packer; 25=trails coordinator; 26=asst. ranger; 27=recreation manager; 28=assistant ranger; 999=blank)

CURRPOSI = number of years in current position (99=blank)

WILDERN2 = Wilderness area

WILDCODE = wilderness code (999=blank; See \Supplements\WildernessCodes.pdf)

NRYEARS2 = number of years in this wilderness (999=blank)

(7) HIKLLAMA-DAMEGELL = On a scale from 1 to 5, tell us how much of a problem you consider each item to be: (1=no problem at all; 5=a big problem; 6=don't know; 9=blank)
(7a) HIKLLAMA = Hikers encountering llamas on the trail
(7b) HIKHORSE = Hikers encountering horses or mules on the trail
(7c) HORSLLAM = Horses or mules encountering llamas on the trail
(7d) HIKDOGS = Hikers encountering dogs
(7e) HORSEDOG = Horse or mules encountering dogs
(7f) LLAMADOG = Llamas encountering dogs
(7g) LLAMATRA = Trails impacted by the feet of llamas
(7h) HORSETRA = Trails impacted by the feet of horses or mules
(7i) LLAMAMAN = Llama manure on trails or in campsites
(7j) HORSEMAN = Horse manure on trails or in campsite
(7k) DAMAGEHO = Damage to vegetation by horses or mules grazing
(7l) DAMEGELL = Damage to vegetation by llamas grazing

(8) ENCLLAM2 = have you ever encountered a group with llamas in this wilderness? (1=yes; 2=no; 9=blank)
(8) NRLLPY2 = estimate how many in the past year (999=blank)

(9) ENCHORS2 = have you ever encountered a group with horses or mules in this wilderness? (1=yes; 2=no; 9=blank)
(9) NRHORSE2 = estimate how many in the past year (999=blank)

(10) INPAST = how many times in the past 5 years have llamas been used as pack animals during overnight visits in this wilderness? (1=zero times; 2=one to ten times; 3=eleven to fifty times; 4=more than fifty times; 9=blank)

(11) PROPORTH-PROPORTL = estimate the percent of packstock use during the last year in this wilderness for each category: (999=blank)
PROPORTH = percent of horse use
PROPORTL = percent of llama use

(12) PRIVATEL-AGENCY = estimate the percentage of llama use during the last year for each category (999=blank)
PRIVATEL = percent of private llama use
COMERCIA = percent of commercial llama use
AGENCY = percent of agency llama use

(13) CHANGELA = do you expect change in llama use over the next 5 years? (1=no, it will stay the same; 2=yes, it will decrease; 3=yes, it will increase; 9=blank)

(14) CHANGEHO = do you expect change in horse or mule use over the next 5 years? (1=no, it will stay the same; 2=yes, it will decrease; 3=yes, it will increase; 9=blank)

(15) FEWHOUR2-MORETHA2 = How many times per year do you take backcountry trips of each of the following lengths: (999=blank)
FEWHOUR2 = trips lasting a few hours
FULLDAY2 = trips lasting a full day
TWONIGH2 = trips lasting one or two nights
MORETHA2 = trips lasting more than 2 nights

(16) FORMAL2-INFORMA2 = What training have you received in the use of llamas? (1=none; 2=less than 1 week; 3=one week or more; 4=one month; 5=more than 1 month; 9=blank)
FORMAL2 = length of formal training
INFORMA2 = length of informal training

(17) NRVISITO = How many visitor contacts do you make each season with llama users? (999=blank)
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
See \Supplements\Llama 1993_survey.pdf and \Supplements\WildernessCodes.csv for more details.
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
SUPPLEMENTS
\Supplements\WildernessArea_RangerDistricts.csv is a comma-delimited ASCII text file that contains a list of the wilderness areas and addresses at the time of this survey. NOTE: not all wilderness areas and addresses listed were surveyed. Below is a description of the variables available in the file.

Wilderness Area = wilderness area name

Ranger District, National Forest = Ranger District (RD) responsible for some portion of the wilderness area and National Forest(NF) that includes some portion of the wilderness area.

Ranger District Street Address = Street address for the ranger district headquarters.

Ranger District City, State, Zip = City, State, and Zip code for the ranger district headquarters.


\Supplements\WildernessCodes.csv is a comma-delimited ASCII text file that contains a list of the wilderness areas and their associated code. Below is a description of the variables available in the file.

Code = code assigned to wilderness area

Wilderness Area = wilderness area name


\Supplements\Llama_1993_studyplan.pdf is an Adobe Acrobat PDF/a file containing the original study plan for this project "Measuring Manager's Perceptions of Llama use in Wild Areas".


\Supplements\Llama_1993_survey.pdf is an Adobe Acrobat PDF/a file containing the mailback survey used to collect the data in 1993_Llama_manage_data.csv.


\Supplements\Correspondence\Llama_1993_coverletter.pdf is an Adobe Acrobat PDF/a file containing a 1993 letter attached to questionnaires sent to district rangers and wilderness managers asking them for more information about packstock in wilderness, particularly about use and management of llamas, for this study. Respondents who indicated interest were also sent Llama 1995_reportletter.pdf, which discusses results of the survey.


\Supplements\Correspondence\Llama_1995_reportletter.pdf is an Adobe Acrobat PDF/a file containing a 1995 thank you letter sent to respondents along with a summary of the survey results.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
None provided.
Back to Top
Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: USDA Forest Service, Research and Development
Contact_Position: Research Data Archivist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: 240 West Prospect Road
City: Fort Collins
State_or_Province: CO
Postal_Code: 80526
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: see Contact Instructions
Contact Instructions: This contact information was current as of December 2016. For current information see Contact Us page on: https://doi.org/10.2737/RDS.
Resource_Description: RDS-2016-0019
Distribution_Liability:
Metadata documents have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness. Unless otherwise stated, all data and related materials are considered to satisfy the quality standards relative to the purpose for which the data were collected. However, neither the author, the Archive, nor any part of the federal government can assure the reliability or suitability of these data for a particular purpose. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed for a user's application of these data or related materials.

The metadata, data, or related materials may be updated without notification. If a user believes errors are present in the metadata, data or related materials, please use the information in (1) Identification Information: Point of Contact, (2) Metadata Reference: Metadata Contact, or (3) Distribution Information: Distributor to notify the author or the Archive of the issues.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: ASCII
Format_Version_Number: see Format Specification
Format_Specification:
Comma-delimited ASCII text file (CSV)
File_Decompression_Technique: Files zipped with Winzip 14.0
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: https://doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2016-0019
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: PDF
Format_Version_Number: see Format Specification
Format_Specification:
Adobe Acrobat PDF or PDF/a file
File_Decompression_Technique: Files zipped using Winzip 14.0
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: https://doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2016-0019
Fees: None
Back to Top
Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20161219
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Alan Watson
Contact_Organization: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute
Contact_Position: Research Social Scientist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: 790 East Beckwith Avenue
City: Missoula
State_or_Province: MT
Postal_Code: 59801
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 406-542-4197
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Biological Data Profile of the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001.1-1999
Back to Top