Overstory and regeneration data from the "Rehabilitation of cutover mixedwood stands" study at the Penobscot Experimental Forest

Metadata:

Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Kenefic, Laura S.
Originator: Gerndt, Kathryn M.
Originator: Puhlick, Joshua J.
Originator: Kuehne, Christian
Publication_Date: 2019
Title:
Overstory and regeneration data from the "Rehabilitation of cutover mixedwood stands" study at the Penobscot Experimental Forest
Edition: 2nd
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tabular digital data
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Fort Collins, CO
Publisher: Forest Service Research Data Archive
Online_Linkage: https://doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2016-0024-2
Description:
Abstract:
This data package contains crop tree, overstory, sapling, and regeneration data collected at the Penobscot Experimental Forest in Maine between 2008 and 2017. These data were collected as part of the project titled "Rehabilitation of cutover mixedwood stands: An economic and silvicultural assessment of alternatives" as described in Appendix C of FS-NRS-07-08-01 "Silvicultural effects on composition, structure and growth of northern conifers in the Acadian Forest Region 2008 study plan" (also known as the Compartment Management Study, see Kenefic et al. 2015). While the Rehabilitation study was conducted within two management units (MUs) of the Compartment Management Study (CMS) the data for the Rehabilitation study are independent of the CMS. The Rehabilitation study examined two levels of intervention treatments against controls in two stands that had been subjected to repeated commercial clearcutting harvests, last occurring 20 and 25 years before. The intervention treatments were 1) moderate treatment, in which crop trees were identified and released, and 2) intensive treatment, in which crop trees were released, unacceptable growing stock was removed, and fill planting of red spruce was conducted. Available data include crop tree species, locations, diameter at beast height (DBH), height, and mortality; overstory species, locations, and DBH; regeneration tally by species; and sapling species and DBH.
Purpose:
The purpose of the Rehabilitation (Rehab) Study is to evaluate methods of rehabilitating degraded northern conifer stands. Specifically, to test the hypothesis that short-term investment in silvicultural rehabilitation of degraded stands improves the composition, quality, and productivity relative to no treatment, and that the intensity of rehabilitation will affect the degree of success in obtaining desired long-term outcomes. Findings will reveal economic consequences, and allow us to develop urgently needed management guidelines for degraded stands, thus serving a critical need in the Northern Forest.
Supplemental_Information:
We strongly recommend that users read the study plans and accompanying documentation provided with the full data publication download before proceeding with data summary or analysis. Refer to the end of the Entity and Attributes section of the metadata for a list of commonly used acronyms and abbreviations.

This data publication is an update to the first edition of these data (Kenefic et al. 2016). We recommend the use of this second edition which includes an additional inventory completed in 2017 and other minor updates in the way data are recorded. See \Supplements\PEF_RehabStudy__DBEChanges.csv for a list of the changes between the first and second edition of these data.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Multiple_Dates/Times:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 2008
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 2009
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 2011
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 2012
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 2017
Currentness_Reference:
Ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
The 3855-acre Penobscot Experimental Forest (PEF) is located in the towns of Bradley and Eddington, Maine. The Rehabilitation Study was installed in CMS MUs 08 and 22.
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -68.64430
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -68.58620
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 44.87260
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 51.82690
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: biota
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: National Research & Development Taxonomy
Theme_Keyword: Forest & Plant Health
Theme_Keyword: Botany
Theme_Keyword: Inventory, Monitoring, & Analysis
Theme_Keyword: Monitoring
Theme_Keyword: Natural Resource Management & Use
Theme_Keyword: Forest management
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: silviculture
Theme_Keyword: species composition
Theme_Keyword: timber supply
Theme_Keyword: forest management
Theme_Keyword: forest stand dynamics
Theme_Keyword: tree regeneration
Theme_Keyword: tree and stand growth
Theme_Keyword: tree height
Theme_Keyword: tree crown
Theme_Keyword: canopy
Theme_Keyword: crown width
Theme_Keyword: balsam fir
Theme_Keyword: red spruce
Theme_Keyword: woody plants
Theme_Keyword: timber stand improvement
Theme_Keyword: crop tree release
Theme_Keyword: precommercial thinning
Theme_Keyword: northern conifers
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: Penobscot Experimental Forest
Place_Keyword: Maine
Taxonomy:
Keywords/Taxon:
Taxonomic_Keyword_Thesaurus:
None
Taxonomic_Keywords: plants
Taxonomic_Keywords: multiple species
Taxonomic_System:
Classification_System/Authority:
Classification_System_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: ITIS
Publication_Date: 2019
Title:
Integrated Taxonomic Information System
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: database
Other_Citation_Details:
Retrieved [May, 5, 2019]
Online_Linkage: https://www.itis.gov
Taxonomic_Procedures:
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Kingdom
Taxon_Rank_Value: Plantae
Applicable_Common_Name: plantes
Applicable_Common_Name: Planta
Applicable_Common_Name: Vegetal
Applicable_Common_Name: plants
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subkingdom
Taxon_Rank_Value: Viridiplantae
Applicable_Common_Name: green plants
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Infrakingdom
Taxon_Rank_Value: Streptophyta
Applicable_Common_Name: land plants
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Superdivision
Taxon_Rank_Value: Embryophyta
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Division
Taxon_Rank_Value: Tracheophyta
Applicable_Common_Name: vascular plants
Applicable_Common_Name: tracheophytes
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subdivision
Taxon_Rank_Value: Spermatophytina
Applicable_Common_Name: spermatophytes
Applicable_Common_Name: seed plants
Applicable_Common_Name: phanérogames
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Magnoliopsida
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Superorder
Taxon_Rank_Value: Asteranae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Lamiales
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Oleaceae
Applicable_Common_Name: olives
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Fraxinus
Applicable_Common_Name: ash
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Fraxinus pennsylvanica
Applicable_Common_Name: green ash
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Fraxinus americana
Applicable_Common_Name: white ash
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Fraxinus nigra
Applicable_Common_Name: black ash
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Superorder
Taxon_Rank_Value: Rosanae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Fagales
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Fagaceae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Quercus
Applicable_Common_Name: chêne
Applicable_Common_Name: oak
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Quercus rubra
Applicable_Common_Name: northern red oak
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Fagus
Applicable_Common_Name: beech
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Fagus grandifolia
Applicable_Common_Name: American beech
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Betulaceae
Applicable_Common_Name: alder
Applicable_Common_Name: birch
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Betula
Applicable_Common_Name: birch
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Betula papyrifera
Applicable_Common_Name: paper birch
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Betula populifolia
Applicable_Common_Name: gray birch
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Ostrya
Applicable_Common_Name: hophornbeam
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Ostrya virginiana
Applicable_Common_Name: eastern hophornbeam
Applicable_Common_Name: hophornbeam
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Rosales
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Rosaceae
Applicable_Common_Name: roses
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Prunus
Applicable_Common_Name: chokecherry
Applicable_Common_Name: plum
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Prunus serotina
Applicable_Common_Name: black chokecherry
Applicable_Common_Name: black cherry
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Prunus pensylvanica
Applicable_Common_Name: pin cherry
Applicable_Common_Name: fire cherry
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Sapindales
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Sapindaceae
Applicable_Common_Name: soapberries
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Acer
Applicable_Common_Name: maples
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Acer rubrum
Applicable_Common_Name: red maple
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Acer saccharum
Applicable_Common_Name: sugar maple
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Malpighiales
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Salicaceae
Applicable_Common_Name: willows
Applicable_Common_Name: saules
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Populus
Applicable_Common_Name: cottonwood
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Populus tremuloides
Applicable_Common_Name: quaking aspen
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Populus balsamifera
Applicable_Common_Name: balsam poplar
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Populus grandidentata
Applicable_Common_Name: bigtooth aspen
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Salix
Applicable_Common_Name: saule
Applicable_Common_Name: saules
Applicable_Common_Name: willow
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Pinopsida
Applicable_Common_Name: conifers
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Pinidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Pinales
Applicable_Common_Name: pines
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Pinaceae
Applicable_Common_Name: pines
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Abies
Applicable_Common_Name: fir
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Abies balsamea
Applicable_Common_Name: balsam fir
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Picea
Applicable_Common_Name: spruce
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Picea rubens
Applicable_Common_Name: red spruce
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Picea glauca
Applicable_Common_Name: Black Hills spruce
Applicable_Common_Name: Canadian spruce
Applicable_Common_Name: cat spruce
Applicable_Common_Name: skunk spruce
Applicable_Common_Name: western white spruce
Applicable_Common_Name: white spruce
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Pinus
Applicable_Common_Name: pine
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Pinus resinosa
Applicable_Common_Name: red pine
Applicable_Common_Name: Norway pine
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Pinus strobus
Applicable_Common_Name: eastern white pine
Applicable_Common_Name: white pine
Applicable_Common_Name: northern white pine
Applicable_Common_Name: soft pine
Applicable_Common_Name: Weymouth pine
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Tsuga
Applicable_Common_Name: hemlock
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Tsuga canadensis
Applicable_Common_Name: Canada hemlock
Applicable_Common_Name: hemlock spruce
Applicable_Common_Name: eastern hemlock
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Larix
Applicable_Common_Name: larch
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Larix laricina
Applicable_Common_Name: tamarack
Applicable_Common_Name: Alaskan larch
Applicable_Common_Name: American larch
Applicable_Common_Name: eastern larch
Applicable_Common_Name: hackmatack
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cupressaceae
Applicable_Common_Name: cypress
Applicable_Common_Name: redwood
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Thuja
Applicable_Common_Name: arborvitae
Applicable_Common_Name: cèdre
Applicable_Common_Name: thuya
Applicable_Common_Name: red cedar
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Thuja occidentalis
Applicable_Common_Name: arborvitae
Applicable_Common_Name: cèdre-thuya occidental
Applicable_Common_Name: eastern white cedar
Applicable_Common_Name: northern white cedar
Applicable_Common_Name: swamp cedar
Applicable_Common_Name: thuier cèdre
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
These data were collected using funding from the U.S. Government and can be used without additional permissions or fees. If you use these data in a publication, presentation, or other research product please use the following citation:

Kenefic, Laura S.; Gerndt, Kathryn M.; Puhlick, Joshua J.; Kuehne, Christian. 2019. Overstory and regeneration data from the "Rehabilitation of cutover mixedwood stands" study at the Penobscot Experimental Forest. 2nd Edition. Fort Collins, CO: Forest Service Research Data Archive. https://doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2016-0024-2
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Laura Kenefic
Contact_Organization: USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: 54 Government Road
City: Bradley
State_or_Province: ME
Postal_Code: 04411
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 207-581-2794
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: laura.kenefic@usda.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: \Supplements\PEF_RehabStudy_Map_Overview.pdf
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
Adobe Acrobat PDF/a file containing an image showing the location of the MUs used for the Rehabilitation Study within the U.S. Forest Service research area in the Penobscot Experimental Forest. Base map from 2011.
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: PDF
Data_Set_Credit:
Data for this study are provided by a unit of the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, located at the Penobscot Experimental Forest in Maine, in association with the School of Forest Resources at the University of Maine, Orono. Funding for collection of these data was provided by the USDA Forest Service and Northeastern States Research Cooperative, as well as the Cooperative Forestry Research Unit for evaluating hardwood growth response to forest management treatments in the Acadian Forest Region and the USDA Agricultural Research Service for work supporting improved models of biomass and carbon stocks in the northeastern USA.
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
Experiment data are primarily managed in a Microsoft Access relational database management system.
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Kenefic, Laura S.
Originator: Knapp, Rachel A.
Originator: Waskiewicz, Justin D.
Originator: Wilson, Jeremy S.
Publication_Date: 2016
Title:
Overstory and regeneration data from the "Rehabilitation of cutover mixedwood stands" study at the Penobscot Experimental Forest
Edition: 1st
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tabular digital data
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Fort Collins, CO
Publisher: Forest Service Research Data Archive
Other_Citation_Details:
Updated 13 January 2017
Online_Linkage: https://doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2016-0024
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Kenefic, Laura S.
Originator: Bataineh, Mohammad
Originator: Wilson, Jeremey S.
Originator: Brissette, John C.
Originator: Nyland, Ralph D.
Publication_Date: 2014
Title:
Silvicultural Rehabilitation of Cutover Mixedwood Stands
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: journal article
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Journal of Forestry
Issue_Identification: 112(3): 261-271
Online_Linkage: https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/46375
Online_Linkage: https://doi.org/10.5849/jof.13-033
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Puhlick, Joshua J.
Originator: Kuehne, Christian
Originator: Kenefic, Laura S.
Publication_Date: 2019
Title:
Crop tree growth response and quality after silvicultural rehabilitation of cutover stands.
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: journal article
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Canadian Journal of Forest Resources
Issue_Identification: 49(6): 670–679
Online_Linkage: https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-2018-0248
Back to Top
Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Measurement Quality Objectives (MQOs) were not defined for this study.

The following instruments were used in the field to collect data for this study:
1. Diameter: diameter tapes (accurate to within 0.1 inch) and diameter forks (accurate to within 1 inch)
2. Tree and crown height and crown radius: Haglof hypsometer, 100-foot tape, or height pole (accurate to within 0.1 feet)
3. Plot size and stem location: Haglof hypsometer or 100-foot tape (accurate to within 0.1 feet)
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Data collected during the previous inventory were carried to the field to ensure the accuracy of new measurements. Once data were converted to an electronic format they are compared to the original field sheets. If errors were apparent in the field-collected data, researchers returned to the field to conduct re-measurements and correct observations when possible.
Completeness_Report:
This section contains information on omissions, missing data, and other important details for Experimental Unit (EU) selection and individual measurements.

EXPERIMENTAL UNIT SELECTION

MU08:
EU 6 fell within an area subject to Shoreland Zoning restrictions (See: The Mandatory Shoreland Zoning Act, 38 M.R.S.A. sections 435-449), and so was designated as a control unit, not randomly assigned a treatment.

MU22:
EUs B1, C3, and D4 were excluded from the study because they had high conifer density, inconsistent with the objectives of the study.

EU A2 was excluded because of a high proportion of road area.

EUs B2, B3, and D3 each contained road; these were re-sized to account for area in road. Re-sizing was done by estimating the road area within the EU (length by width averaged from three points) and extending EU boundaries into adjacent out areas by distances sufficient to make up the same amount. EU B2 was extended 19.5 feet into A2; B3 was extended 15.5 feet into C3; and D3 was extended 18 feet into D4. After deducting the 25-foot buffers from the edges of the adjusted boundaries, the overstory plot sizes (unroaded) for these three EUs was comparable to the other MUs. Each of these three EUs was assigned to one of the three treatments, not assigned at random.


MEASUREMENTS

GENERAL
In 2009, only treated EUs (Intensive and Moderate) were re-measured for regeneration, saplings, and overstory. Control EUs were not measured in 2009.

Expansion factors were calculated based on plot size for six of the nine data tables (PEF_RehabTbl_CropTreeDBH, PEF_RehabTbl_OverstoryDBH, PEF_RehabTbl_OverstoryDClass, PEF_RehabTbl_RegenTallyData, PEF_RehabTbl_SaplingDBH, and PEF_RehabTbl_SaplingDClass). The process and assigned values are detailed in this metadata under Process Steps.

A hip chain (string) was strung between overstory plot corner posts prior to INV1 (2008) to help determine which trees were in the plot. By INV3 (2011), the hip chain was broken. Though overstory plot boundaries were marked with flagging, no tape was stretched between corners, so the in-plot or out-of-plot status of some trees in 2011 was in question. Such questionable trees were recorded as borderline (2012). This accounts for 4.9% of the overstory stems tallied during INV3 (2011). Borderline trees were no longer tracked as of 2017 (INV4), instead crew members determined whether a tree was in or out of the plot by establishing a line of sight between overstory plot corners.

The following is a summary of the results of the quality check completed on the 8 data tables, noting missing data. For the measurement protocol see the Methodology section of the metadata.

1) PEF_RehabTbl_CropTreeDBH:
The 727 tree numbers (TREENUMs) equate to 1152 stems when counting each red maple (Acer rubrum) stem individually. All of these were living in the initial 2008 inventory.

In 2012, 25 of 1152 stems had DBH values smaller than those recorded in 2008 (2.2% of observations). For these 25 stems, the difference in DBH ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 inches. Discrepancies of 0.1 inch, which accounted for 7 of the 25, were ignored. The other 18 records were double checked against field data sheets to ensure that there are no transcription errors. Additionally, 50 records showed no change in DBH (4.3% of observations). From 2008 to 2012, an increase in DBH was observed for 93.5% of the recorded trees.

In 2017, five stems had DBH values smaller than those recorded in 2012. The difference in DBH of four of these stems was more than 0.1 inch and ranged between 0.3 to 1.4 inches. These four stems were checked against field data sheets to ensure no transcription errors. Additionally, 62 records showed no change in DBH (5.4% of observations), while there was an increase in DBH for 80% of the tree records.

Across all three inventories from 2008 to 2017, minimum DBH was 0.1 inch, mean was 2.9 inches and maximum was 9.0 inches. There were 212 NAs (i.e., no DBH record for a given stem and inventory).

For two of these records, DBH and Status were not recorded in the field (NA). In 2012, 29 stems were recorded as dead and were assigned a status code of 4. In 2017, 149 stems were recorded as dead and were assigned a status code of 1. There were four instances of stems that were alive (Status = 2) in which DBH was not recorded in the field. Twenty-eight stems could not be located and were assigned a status code of 3.

The following trees (displayed by TREENUM) were inadvertently excluded from inventory. In the list below, “Stem” refers to the number assigned to an individual red maple stem within a clump.
2008: 38; 93 Stems 9, 10, 11, 12; 135 Stems 15 and 16; 276; 322; 472 Stems 15, 16, 17, 18; 527 Stem 5; 727 Stem 9; 732 Stem 16.
2012: 156; 242; 364; 730.
2017: 50; 73; 242; 325; 512; 519 Stems 8, 9, 10, 11; and 610.

The following four TREENUMs in MU22 (displayed by EU and TREENUM were recorded in 2012 as living (Status = 2) but are missing DBH due to error:
EU A4 276 Stem 10
EU B3 322
EU C4 385 Stem 6, 403 Stem 1


2) PEF_RehabTbl_CropTreeHeight:
There are 1454 records in this table: 727 (the number of crop trees in this study) for each inventory (2008 and 2017). Minimum total height (HT) was 4.5 feet, mean was 29.8 feet and maximum was 64.3 feet. Minimum height to the lowest live branch (HTLLB) was 0.3 feet, mean was 11.1 feet and maximum was 42.3 feet. There were four trees missing HT and HTLLB (indicated by NA), 9 of which were due to physical changes in the tree (reasons noted under Comments). Minimum height to the lowest acute-angle branch (HTLAB) is 2.9 feet, mean is 19.1 feet and maximum is 35.7 feet. These values are in an acceptable range. There are 992 NA values for HTLAB as this attribute was only measured on a subset of trees (see Methodology for detailed reason). There are no records for which HT is less than HTLLB or HTLAB.

For two crop trees, crown position (CRPOS, i.e., crown class) was not recorded in 2008 (these records have NA values). In 2017, CRPOS was not recorded, resulting in 727 NA values.

In 2017 seven additional fields were added to this table (NumES, HTLES, NumEB, HTLEB, TR, potTR, and COMP), and are detailed in the Methodology. Consequently, these fields show 727 NA values in 2008. In 2017, there are 428 NA values for these fields because these attributes were only recorded for paper birch (Betula papyrifera) crop trees (see Methodology).

The following trees (displayed by TREENUM) were inadvertently excluded from the 2008 inventory: 38 and 322.

Crown class (CRPOS) and radii (CRRADN, CRRADE, CRRADS, and CRRADW) were not collected in 2017 (resulting in 727 NA values per data field).

There are 43 NA values for both HTLLB and HT, as these data fields were subset in 2017 (see Methodology for details).

Height to the lowest acute-angle branch (HTLAB) was subset in both inventories (2008 and 2017), resulting in a total of 992 NA values across the two inventories (509 in 2008 and 483 in 2017).

“NA” appears under Comments where no further information was recorded (1403 records across both inventories).

NumES (number of epicormics sprouts), NumEB (number of epicormics branches), TR (trainer), potTR (potential trainer), and COMP (competitor) were added to the inventory in 2017. Because these data fields did not exist in 2008, 727 NA values appear under these data fields for that inventory. Because these data fields were subset, 428 NA values appear in the 2017 data.

HTLES (height to the lowest epicormic sprout) and HTLEB (height to the lowest epicormic branch) were added in 2017 and therefore show 727 NA values in 2008, matching the total number of trees. HTLES shows 660 NA values in 2017 while HTLEB displays 616.


3) PEF_RehabTbl_CropTreeStemMap:
When maximum allowable distances from plot center based on plot size were applied to the Crop Tree Stem Map data, 18 of 720 (2.5%) of the trees were outside that maximum. The average distance beyond maximum distance from plot center was 10.4 feet, with a minimum of 1.2 feet and a maximum of 26.7 feet. Field notes indicated that there were obstructions which could account for errors in distance measurements

The following trees were inadvertently excluded from inventory: TREENUM 50; 71; 72; 73; 74.


4) PEF_RehabTbl_OverstoryDBH:
In 2017 (INV 4) only, DBH to nearest 0.1 inch was recorded for all trees ≥ 4.5 inches by species (recorded for 2,386 trees). The minimum DBH was 4.5 inches, the mean was 5.9, and the maximum was 19.6 inches.


5) PEF_RehabTbl_OverstoryDClass:
Overstory and tallies conducted in 2008 and 2011 included trees ≥ 4.5 inches DBH (PEF_RehabTbl_OverstoryDClass). Crop trees were included in the tallies, but were not identified in these tables. There were 379 trees that had DClass recorded in 2008, 177 in 2009, and 407 in 2011. Across these records, the minimum DClass value was 5 inches, the mean was 7 inches and the maximum was 18 inches. Cull values were either 0, 1 or NA. Cull data were not collected in 2009 (177 records).

Cull trees (less than 50% merchantable by volume) were not identified in overstory INV2 (2009) or INV4 (2017), though they were identified in INV1 (2008) and INV3 (2012).


7) PEF_RehabTbl_RegenTallyData:
In 2008, 468 seedlings were recorded, while 285 were recorded in 2009, and 252 in 2011. All count values were found reasonable. The 2011 regeneration inventory was conducted in only two EUs of each treatment within each MU: A1, A3, B4, C1, C2, and D1 in MU 22 and 2, 3, 4, and 6 in MU 08. In addition, regeneration was sampled on two of the five sapling plots in MU 22, EU D2.

Presence of seedlings < 6 inches tall was not consistently recorded in the 2011 inventory.


8) PEF_RehabTbl_SaplingDBH:
Saplings included trees 0.5 to 4.4 inches DBH (PEF_RehabTbl_SaplingDClass).
In 2017, DBH to the nearest 0.1 inch was recorded for 1,974 individual trees 0.5 to 4.4 inches DBH by species. The minimum DBH value was 0.5 inches, mean was 2.2 inches, and maximum was 4.4 inches. These values were within the expected range of 0.5 to 4.4 inches.


9) PEF_RehabTbl_SaplingDClass:
Diameter class was recorded for 1,117 trees in 2008 and 530 trees in 2009. Across these inventories, the minimum DClass value was 1 inch, the mean was 2 inches and the maximum was 4 inches. These values were within the expected range of 1 to 4 inches.
Lineage:
Methodology:
Methodology_Type: Field
Methodology_Description:
SITE SELECTION

The REHAB Study was established in two replicates (MUs) of commercial clearcutting in the Compartment Management Study (Kenefic et al. 2015) on the Penobscot Experimental Forest: MU 08 and MU 22. Within these MUs, EUs for the REHAB study were established in fall of 2007.


EU LAYOUT

EUs for the REHAB study consist of 200-foot by 200-foot squares: 16 in MU 22 and 6 in MU 08. After atypical EUs were removed (See Completeness Report for details), there were 12 EUs in MU 22.

Each EU was established with a staff compass and fiberglass tape, boundaries were marked with pink and yellow flagging, and the corners were monumented with white PVC-pipe posts. EUs in MU 22 were clustered together in a 4 x 4 grid, laid out along the 50° and 140° magnetic azimuths (as is the MU), and were named by alpha-numeric code, with letters D to A along the 50° azimuth and numbers 4 to 1 along the 140° azimuth. EUs in MU 08 were dispersed, though they also were aligned along the same azimuths. They were numbered 1 to 6 from southern- to northern-most. MUs were randomly assigned one of three treatments: control (C), moderate rehabilitation (M), and intensive rehabilitation (I). MU 08 had three replicates each of C and M treatments (no I) and MU 22 had four replicates of each treatment (including I). No more than two adjacent EUs were assigned to the same treatment. In 2017, the EU boundaries were again flagged in pink and yellow (each color was used at every location where flagging was hung along boundaries).

Within each EU, a buffer zone was delineated, 25 feet from each side, making an internal sampling plot of 150-by-150 feet, with red PVC corners. In 2017, overstory plot centers were flagged in blue and labeled with the corresponding EU number. Also, each overstory plot corner was spray painted again in red and re-flagged with red flagging that showed the corresponding EU/overstory plot corner number (e.g., A1-1).

Inside each sampling plot, five sapling plots were established, each a square 25 feet wide, and centered at the following coordinates, in feet from the center of the sampling plot, along the 50° x 140° axes: 0,0; 50,50; 50,-50; -50,-50; -50,50. Sapling plot corners were marked with orange PVC pipe. In 2017, each sapling plot corner was spray painted orange again and orange flagging was labeled with the corresponding EU/sapling plot number (e.g., A1-1) and hung above the four PVC corners.

Within each sapling plot, two milacre (1/1000 acre) regeneration plot centers were established, at 6.25, 6.25 and -6.25, -6.25 feet from the sapling plot center (along the 50° x 140° axes). Regeneration plot centers were marked with a blue PVC pipe, or with a pig-tail stake with blue whiskers.

See \Supplements\PEF_RehabStudy_PlotLayout.pdf for a visual of the layout of the REHAB EUs.


OVERSTORY PLOT CORNER LOCATIONS

A Zephyr antenna was mounted on top of bi-pod at 1.75 meters, and connected to a GeoXH unit, adjacent to the overstory plot corner post. Location of the corner post was obtained using the TerraSync function on the unit. Location was not saved until at least 180 positions were logged for the point. If a plot corner was not measured in field the location was estimated using ArcGIS and the stand map.

For a complete list of these see the \Data\PEF_RehabTbl_OverstoryPlotLocations.csv.


CROP TREE SELECTION

Crop trees were selected beginning in the fall of 2007, using blue-and-black striped flagging to mark hardwood crop trees, and orange-and-black striped flagging to mark softwood crop trees. Selection took place prior to the designation of treatments to be applied to EUs (thus, crop trees were selected in the control as well as treated EUs). Hardwood and softwood crop trees were designated independently of each other, though spacing rules were observed among crop trees of the same type.

Crop trees were tagged in fall 2007 and spring 2008 with pre-numbered aluminum tags, with an aluminum nail at the stem base, facing out at a magnetic azimuth of approximately 95 degrees. In total, approximately 78 trees per acre were selected. Red maple sprout clumps selected as crop trees had one pre-numbered tag number, with clump stems receiving sub-numbers (e.g.: 4-0, 4-1, 4-2, etc.) with write-on aluminum tags.


TREATMENTS

Dates:
Crop tree release treatments began in July 2008 with brush-saw and chainsaw work and continued into August with final herbicide work completed in October.

Red spruce seedlings (2-0 container stock) were planted at 7-foot spacing in the intensive treatment EUs in June 2009, filling canopy gaps > 14 feet wide created by the timber stand improvement work. In all, approximately 176 seedlings per acre were planted. Initially, each seedling was provided with a mesh tube, 18 inches tall, supported by a 3-foot bamboo stake, to protect from mammalian herbivory. Tubes were removed during the 2012 inventory, but the stakes were left, with pink flagging tied to them, to facilitate future re-location.

Description:
Control EUs received no treatment (Treatment Code = C). EUs selected to receive moderate treatment underwent mechanical and chemical (herbicide) release of hardwood and softwood crop trees (Treatment Code = M). EUs selected to receive intensive treatment underwent the same treatment as the moderate and additionally all unacceptable growing stock and trees of noncommercial species were removed, and red spruce were fill planted within treeless gaps (Treatment Code = I).

Assignments:
MU 08:
EUs 1, 4 and 6 were assigned to the Control treatment.
EUs 2, 3 and 5 were assigned to the Moderate treatment.

MU 22:
EUs A1, A4, B2 and C2 were assigned to the Control treatment.
EUs B3, B4, C1, and D2 were assigned to the Moderate treatment.
EUs A3, C4, D1 and D3 were assigned to the Intensive treatment.


MEASUREMENTS

Dates:
Inventories are numbered independently for each study component (Crop Tree, Overstory, Sapling, and Regeneration). There are nine data tables for this study, one of which (PEF_RehabTbl_OverstoryPlotLocations) was described above in the beginning of the Methodology section of this document under the subtitle Overstory Plot Corner Locations. The other eight tables are described below, by study component.


Description:

Crop Trees
Crop tree species, DBH, crown class, HT and crown radii in the four cardinal directions, as well as stem location (i.e., mapping) were collected in Summer 2008 (INV1). Crop tree DBH was re-measured in Spring 2012 (INV2) and again in 2017 (INV3). Mortality was first recorded in 2012 (Status 1 = dead); Status 4 (dead in a previous inventory) was added in 2017 to avoid overestimation of mortality. Crop tree height was first measured in 2008 and again in 2017, at which time changes were made to the protocol (described in detail below). Stem mapping was done once in 2008. Each of the three crop tree tables (DBH, height, and mapping) are described below, shown by letter A-C.

1) PEF_RehabTbl_CropTreeDBH:
Crop tree DBH was initially measured in June 2008, after selection, but before application of treatments. Tree numbers, provided on metal tags attached at stem bases, were recorded for each crop tree. The location of DBH was marked on each crop tree stem with tube paint and refreshed in 2017. For each numbered tree, workers recorded species, DBH (to the nearest 0.1 inch), whether the tree occurred in a red maple clump (CLUMP; 0 = single stem origin, otherwise the number of the individual stem in the clump is listed), and Status (1 = died since the previous inventory, 2 = living, 3 = could not be located, 4 = recorded as dead in the previous inventory).

2) PEF_RehabTbl_CropTreeHeight:
Crop tree heights were recorded in 2008 and 2017. Crown class (CRPOS; dominant, codominant, intermediate, or overtopped), HTFLB, HT, and crown radius in cardinal directions using magnetic north were first measured in 2008. In addition, for hardwood crop trees other than sprout-clump maple, height to the base of HTLAB was measured. In 2017, HTLAB was only recorded for paper birch crop trees. All of these measurements were made to the nearest 0.1 feet.

In 2017, CRPOS and the four radii (CRRADN, CRRADE, CRRADS, and CRRADW) were not recorded. Instead, for live paper birch crop trees only (299 out of the 727 crop trees), NumES, the HTLES, NumEB, HTLEB, as well as the presence/absence (presence = 1, absence = 0) of TR, ppotTR, and COMP were recorded. These new data fields are described below in detail.

Field - Description:
NumES - The number of epicormics with a diameter < 0.5 inches on the crop tree bole below the lowest acute-angle branch (above which most of compact live crown occurred).

HTLES - The height (feet) from the base of the crop tree to the lowest epicormic sprout.

NumEB - The number of epicormics with a diameter ≥ 0.5 inches on the crop tree bole below the lowest acute-angle branch (above which most of compact live crown occurred). Epicormic branches tended to have lighter-colored bark and less lichen cover than primary branches.

HTLEB - Height (feet) from the base of the tree to the lowest epicormic branch.

TR - A trainer tree was defined as a shade-tolerant conifer (e.g., balsam fir or spruce) in a lower stratum with a crown projection area that intersected that of the crop tree.

potTR - A conifer with the potential to become a trainer tree in the future (i.e., a tree with a crown projection area that intersected that of the crop tree, but had not yet developed enough height or crown growth to cast shade on the bole of the crop tree).

COMP - A strong competitor was defined as a shade-tolerant conifer or hardwood (e.g., red maple) occurring in the same stratum with a crown projection area that intersected that of the crop tree.

3) PEF_RehabTbl_CropTreeStemMap:
In addition to the crop tree DBH and height measurements, workers recorded the distance (to the nearest 0.1 feet) and direction (azimuth, within one degree) of each crop tree from the EU center. These measurements were made in 2008.


Overstory
Overstory tallies were first completed in Summer 2008 (INV1), and repeated in both the summers of 2009 (INV2) and 2011 (INV3). In 2017, this inventory was restructured and trees were no longer tallied by species and DClass, nor were cull and borderline tree designations made. Instead only tree DBH and species were recorded. Due to these changes, two data tables are described in detail below, indicated by letters A and B.

4) PEF_RehabTbl_OverstoryDBH:
In 2017, instead of tallies (count by category) by DClass, DBH to nearest 0.1 inch was recorded for living trees ≥ 4.5 inches DBH (individuals all measured), by species. Borderline trees were judged as in or out by field crews by establishing a line of sight between overstory plot corners. Diameters were recorded only for trees determined to fall within overstory plot boundaries.

5) PEF_RehabTbl_OverstoryDClass:
In 2008, 2009, and 2011, living overstory trees (≥ 4.5 inches DBH) were tallied by species and 1-inch DClasses over the 150- x 150-foot sampling plot (inside the 25-foot internal buffer from the EU boundaries). Clumped (stump sprout) red maple stems were tallied as a separate class from stems occurring singly. In 2008 and 2011, cull trees were tallied separately (also by species and DClass); this did not occur in 2009 or 2017. Borderline trees (see Completeness Report for details) were recorded in only 2011.


Regeneration
7) PEF_RehabTbl_RegenTallyData:
Regeneration was first measured in 2008 (INV1) and then in 2009 (INV2) and 2011 (INV3). Regeneration was tallied on two milacre (1/1000 acre) plots within each sapling plot (thus 10 regeneration plots in each EU). Seedlings under 0.5 feet in height were recorded as present if one or more was found; for the height categories ≥ 0.5 to 1.0 feet, > 1.0 to 2.0 feet, > 2.0 to 4.5 feet, and > 4.5 feet to < 0.5 inches DBH, seedlings were tallied by species. No distinction was between seedlings (seed origin) and sprouts (root or stump sprout origin). Regeneration was not re-measured in 2017.


Saplings
Five sapling plots (25 x 25 feet) were placed within each EU and designated 1 to 5, starting with northeastern corner and counting clockwise, with the center plot as number 5. During inventories, two measuring tapes were pulled around the plot boundaries, running between each corner, so that trees inside and outside the plot could be readily determined. Saplings were first measured in 2008 (INV1) and then again in 2009 (INV2). Saplings were also re-measured in 2017 (INV3) but using different protocol (detailed below). The sapling data tables are described below, indicated by letters A and B.

8) PEF_RehabTbl_SaplingDBH:
In 2017, sapling inventory protocol was changed to measuring DBH (individuals measured) rather than tallying by diameter class (count by category) (≥ 0.5 to < 4.5 inches DBH).

9) PEF_RehabTbl_SaplingDClass:
Living saplings (≥ 0.5 to < 4.5 inches DBH) were tallied (count data) by species and DClass.

For more details on protocol used for this study, see the Methodology Citation section of this metadata.
Methodology_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Kenefic, Laura S.
Originator: Wilson, Jeremy
Originator: Brissette, John C.
Originator: Lilieholm, Robert
Originator: Nyland, Ralph D.
Publication_Date: Unpublished material
Title:
Rehabilitation of cutover mixedwood stands: A silvicultural and economic assessment of alternatives: Project plan
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: document
Other_Citation_Details:
Written in 2008, from Appendix C of "Silvicultural effects on composition, structure and growth of northern conifers in the Acadian Forest region 2008 study plan." FS-NSR-07-08-01 (available through full data publication download: \Supplements\PEF_RehabStudy_ProjectPlan.pdf)
Methodology_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Knapp, Rachel
Originator: Kenefic, Laura S.
Publication_Date: Unpublished material
Title:
Addendum to: Rehabilitation of cutover mixedwood stands: A silvicultural and economic assessment of alternatives: Project plan addendum
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: document
Other_Citation_Details:
Written in March 2016 as an addendum to Appendix C of "Silvicultural effects on composition, structure and growth of northern conifers in the Acadian Forest region 2008 study plan." FS-NSR-07-08-01 (available through full data publication download: \Supplements\PEF_RehabStudy_ProjectPlan_Addendum2016.pdf)
Methodology_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Kenefic, Laura S.
Originator: Rogers, Nicole S.
Originator: Puhlick, Joshua J.
Originator: Waskiewicz, Justin D.
Originator: Brissette, John C.
Publication_Date: 2015
Title:
Overstory tree and regeneration data from the "Silvicultural effects on composition, structure, and growth" study at Penobscot Experimental Forest
Edition: 2nd
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tabular digital data
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Fort Collins, CO
Publisher: Forest Service Research Data Archive
Online_Linkage: https://doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2012-0008-2
Methodology_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Kenefic, Laura S.
Originator: Nyland, Ralph D.
Publication_Date: Unpublished material
Title:
Rehabilitation of cutover mixedwood stands: An economic and silvicultural assessment of alternatives - Instructions for field crew: Intensive rehabilitation treatment (crop tree release, TSI, and fill planting)
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: document
Other_Citation_Details:
Written in August 2008 (available through full data publication download: \Supplements\PEF_RehabStudy_TreatmentInstructions_Intensive.pdf). Abbreviations used in instructions: UGS = unacceptable growing stock; AGS = acceptable growing stock; TSI = timber stand improvement.
Methodology_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Kenefic, Laura S.
Originator: Nyland, Ralph D.
Publication_Date: Unpublished material
Title:
Rehabilitation of cutover mixedwood stands: An economic and silvicultural assessment of alternatives - Instructions for field crew: Moderate rehabilitation treatment (crop tree release only)
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: document
Other_Citation_Details:
Written in August 2008 (available through full data publication download: \Supplements\PEF_RehabStudy_TreatmentInstructions_Moderate.pdf). Abbreviations used in instructions: UGS = unacceptable growing stock; AGS = acceptable growing stock.
Methodology_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Kenefic, Laura S.
Originator: Nyland, Ralph D.
Publication_Date: Unpublished material
Title:
Rehabilitation of cutover mixedwood stands: An economic and silvicultural assessment of alternatives - Instructions for field crew: Crop tree selection criteria
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: document
Other_Citation_Details:
Written in 2007 (available through full data publication download: \Supplements\PEF_RehabStudy_CropTree_SelectionCriteria.pdf). Abbreviations used in instructions: ft = feet; TSI = timber stand improvement.
Methodology_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Kenefic, Laura S.
Originator: Bataineh, Mohammad
Originator: Wilson, Jeremey S.
Originator: Brissette, John C.
Originator: Nyland, Ralph D.
Publication_Date: 2014
Title:
Silvicultural Rehabilitation of Cutover Mixedwood Stands
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: journal article
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Journal of Forestry
Issue_Identification: 112(3): 261-271
Online_Linkage: https://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/46375
Online_Linkage: https://doi.org/10.5849/jof.13-033
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
LOCATION ESTIMATES

Approximate locations of missing points were predicted in ArcMap 10.2.2 using the ‘Editor’ toolbar. ‘Intersection’, ‘Midpoint’, ‘Tangent’, ‘Point’, ‘End’, ‘Vertex’, and ‘Edge’ snapping were all turned on. When only one point was missing from the overstory plot, a polygon was created that first connected the existing three points together. To complete the unit with four segments, a measurement was taken on a completed segment (i.e. opposite of the missing segment) in meters using the ‘Measure’ tool. The final segment of the polygon was then completed using the ‘Constrain Parallel’ tool within the ‘Feature Construction’ toolbar, based on the angle of the opposite segment, and a point was created and snapped on the end vertex of the final segment. When > 3 points were missing from the rehabilitation unit, a polygon was created with four segments, each at 45.72 meters (150 feet). In this case, segment angles were determined using ‘Constrain Parallel’ based on the angles of the compartment perimeter. Predicted points were created and snapped to the vertices of the created polygon.
Process_Date: 2016
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
SPECIES CODES

Species were coded by a variety of systems over the course of the study. In 2007 and early 2008, in crop tree selection and the first overstory and sapling inventories, species were identified with four-letter codes, consisting of the first two letters of the Latin genus name and first two letters of the Latin species name (e.g.: white pine (Pinus strobus) = PIST). Later, in overstory and sapling inventories, two-letter codes were used, generally corresponding with USDA Forest Service Forest Vegetation Simulator codes, along with some abbreviations. Regeneration was recorded by common names, with PEF-specific numeric codes. The 2011 regeneration inventory used six-letter codes (e.g.: white pine = pinstr) and other abbreviations for species. For simplification, in the database, tree species are identified for all inventories and all stand attributes by a two-letter species code, with the exception that red maple sprout clump stems are recorded as “RMC.” For a list of codes used see the Entity and Attribute section or \Supplements\PEF_RehabStudy_SpeciesCode.csv (available through full data publication download).
Process_Date: 2016
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
EXPANSION FACTORS

Expansion factors (used to convert observations to per-acre values) were derived from the size of the plot on which the tree was measured in a given inventory. After deducting area in road, all overstory plots were approximately the same size and assigned the same expansion factor. Measurements on a 0.517 acre plot (Overstory plots) were assigned an expansion factor of 1.934. Measurements on a 0.014 acre plot (Sapling plots) were assigned an expansion factor of 71.428. Measurements on a 1/1000 acre plot (Regeneration plots) were assigned an expansion factor of 1000. Expansion factor values were office-assigned.
Process_Date: 2016
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
OVERSTORY PLOT CORNER LOCATIONS

All data were post-processed using GPS Pathfinder Office and exported to a shapefile. For a complete list of these points see the \Data\PEF_RehabTbl_OverstoryPlotLocations.csv.

It should be noted that some corner posts could not be found in the field, therefore, some points are approximate locations. Exact accuracy is unknown. In total, 58 of 72 corner posts were estimated. For details on the estimation process see the "LOCATION ESTIMATES" Process Step in the Data Quality section of this metadata.
Process_Date: 2016
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
DATA QUALITY ASSURANCE

The following is a summary of the methods used to check the quality of the data. For results see the Attribute and Accuracy section of the metadata.
Data entry accuracy is checked prior to publication of data by comparing spreadsheet values to field datasheets.

TREENUM was double-checked using R and duplicates were corrected. Species assignments were checked to make sure they were consistent across inventories. Missing data were double checked by referring back to original field data sheets and corrected when data were available.

A summary of quality assurance checks by data table follows:

For all crop tree tables:
R software was used to confirm that there were the expected 727 individual tree numbers (not including stems within clumps). (R Core Team. 2019. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. https://www.R-project.org)

1) PEF_RehabTbl_CropTreeDBH:
R was used to check for discrepancies in DBH from Inventory 1 to 2, or from 2 to 3. Also, the minimum, mean, and maximum of DBH was checked to confirm logical consistency.

2) PEF_RehabTbl_CropTreeHeight:
Using R, the minimum, mean, and maximum of HT, HTFLB, and HTLAB were checked to confirm logical consistency. R was also used to confirm that all instances of HTLLB or HTLAB were smaller than HT and, furthermore, that HTLLB was smaller than or equal to HTLEB.

3) PEF_RehabTbl_CropTreeStemMap: Based on standard overstory plot size of 150 feet by 150 feet, the maximum distance any tree can be from plot center is 106.1 feet. Due to adjustments in plot size in MU 22 EUs B2, B3, and D3, trees on each of those plots may exceed the standard maximum distance. Those maximum distances are as follows: B2 = 113.2 feet, B3 = 111.7 and D3 = 112.6. See Completeness Report for details on plot size adjustments made in these EUs. The maximum distance allowable values were examined to determine if any trees were outside of the expected range.

4) PEF_RehabTbl_OverstoryDBH:
Minimum, mean, and maximum of each of the stem categories was checked for logical consistency.

5) PEF_RehabTbl_OverstoryDClass:
R was used to check minimum, mean, and maximum values of DClass, Cull, and Count.

7) PEF_RehabTbl_RegenTallyData:
Minimum, mean, and maximum of each of the stem categories was checked for logical consistency.

8) PEF_RehabTbl_SaplingDBH:
Minimum, mean, and maximum of each of the stem categories was checked for logical consistency.

9) PEF_RehabTbl_SaplingDClass:
R Code was used to check minimum, mean, and maximum values of DClass and Count.
Process_Date: 2017
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Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
DATA FILES

This data package contains nine (9) data files (found in the \Data folder in full data publication download). Below is a list of these files (numbered based on alphabetical order) and the variables they contain.

The following species abbreviations are used throughout the data:

AB = Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. (American beech)
BA = Fraxinus nigra (Black ash)
BC = Prunus serotina Ehrh. (Black cherry)
BF = Abies balsamea (L.) P. Mill. (Balsam fir)
BP = Populus balsamifera L. (Balsam poplar)
BT = Populus grandidentata Michx. (Bigtooth aspen)
EH = Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. (Eastern hemlock)
GA = Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. (Green ash)
GB = Betula populifolia Marsh. (Gray birch)
HH = Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch (Hophornbeam)
PB = Betula papyrifera Marsh. (Paper birch)
PR = Prunus pensylvanica L. f. (Pin cherry)
QA = Populus tremuloides Michx. (Quaking aspen)
RM = Acer rubrum L. (Red maple, single stem)
RMC = Acer rubrum L. (Red maple, part of sprout clump)
RN = Pinus resinosa (Red pine)
RO = Quercus rubra L. (Northern red oak)
RS = Picea rubens Sarg. (Red spruce)
SM = Acer saccharum Marsh. (Sugar maple)
TA = Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch (Tamarack/larch)
WA = Fraxinus americana L. (White ash)
WC = Thuja occidentalis L. (Northern white-cedar)
WL = Salix L. (Willow)
WP = Pinus strobus L. (Eastern white pine)
WS = Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (White spruce)

CROP TREE DBH
1) \Data\PEF_RehabTbl_CropTreeDBH.csv
Comma-delimited ASCII text file containing crop tree data for 2008, 2012, and 2017. Mortality was recorded in 2012 and 2017.
MU - management unit
EU - experimental unit within MU
TREENUM - assigned tree number
MONTH - month that measurements began (5=May, 6=June)
YEAR - year associated with month that measurements began
INV - sequential inventory number, specific to crop tree inventory
EXPF - expansion factor based on plot size = 0.517 acres
SPECIESID - species identification code
CLUMP - number assigned to stem when TREENUM contained multiple stems from one stump. If tree had only one stem Clump = 0.
DBH - diameter at breast height (inches) measured to the nearest 0.1 inch (NA = DBH missing)
STATUS - tree status (1 = died since the previous inventory; 2 = live; 3 = could not be located; 4 = previously recorded as dead; NA = status missing)

CROP TREE HEIGHT AND CROWN
2) \Data\PEF_RehabTbl_CropTreeHeights.csv
Comma-delimited ASCII text file containing crop tree data from 2008 and 2017 including crown position, height to lowest live branch, height to the base of the lowest acute-angle branch and crown radius in cardinal directions using magnetic north.
MU - management unit
EU - experimental unit within MU
TREENUM - assigned tree number
CLUMP - number assigned to stem when TREENUM contained multiple stems from one stump. If clump = 0, tree is single stem or the "main" stem in clump.
MONTH - month that measurements began (6=June)
YEAR - year associated with month that measurements began
INV - sequential inventory number, specific to crop tree inventory
SPECIESID - species identification code
CRPOS - crown class (D = dominant, C = codominant, I = intermediate, O = overtopped)
HTLLB - height at lowest live branch measured to the nearest 0.1 feet
HTLABHTLAB - height to lowest acute-angle branch measured to the nearest 0.1 feet
HT - total height measured to the nearest 0.1 feet
CRRADN - crown radius to the nearest 0.1 feet at 0 degrees
CRRADE - crown radius to the nearest 0.1 feet at 90 degrees
CRRADS - crown radius to the nearest 0.1 feet at 180 degrees
CRRADW - crown radius to the nearest 0.1 feet at 270 degrees
COMMENTS - comments
NumES - number of epicormic sprouts
HTLES - height to the lowest epicormic sprout to the nearest 0.1 feet
NumEB - number of epicormic branches
HTLEB - height to the lowest epicormic branch to the nearest 0.1 feet
TR - presence (1) or absence (0) of trainer tree
potTR - presence (1) or absence (0) of a potential trainer tree
COMP - presence (1) or absence (0) of a competitor
*Note that NA = Not Available and is used for missing data. See the Completeness Report in the Data Quality section of this metadata for a full list of missing data.

CROP TREE STEM MAP
3) \Data\PEF_RehabTbl_CropTreeStemMap.csv
Comma-delimited ASCII text file containing distance and azimuth from plot center for all crop trees collected during 2008.
MU - management unit
EU - experimental unit in MU
TREENUM - assigned tree number
CLUMP - number assigned to stem when TREENUM contained multiple stems from one stump. Only clump = 0, single stem trees and "main" stem in clump, have height and crown measurements.
MONTH - month that measurements began (6 = June)
YEAR - year associated with month that measurements began
INV - sequential inventory number, specific to crop tree inventory
SPECIESID - species identification code
DIST - distance from plot center (feet), measured to the nearest 0.1 foot
AZ - azimuth (magnetic, from plot center to tree) in degrees, measured to nearest 1 degree)
OBSTRUCT - is the view obstructed? (Y = obstructed view made measurement more challenging, N = no issues during measurement)
SOURCE - measurements were either taken with a hypsometer or a measuring tape
*Note that NA = Not Available and is used for missing data. See the Completeness Report in the Data Quality section of this metadata for a full list of missing data.
COMMENTS – Optional comments.


OVERSTORY
4) \Data\ PEF_RehabTbl_OverstoryDBH.csv
Comma-delimited ASCII text file containing overstory tree data from 2017.
MU - management unit
EU - experiment unit in MU
MONTH - month that measurements began (6 = June, 8 = August)
YEAR - year associated with month that measurements began
INV - sequential inventory number, specific to overstory inventory
SPECIESID - species identification code
DBH - diameter at breast height (inches) measured to the nearest 0.1 inch
EXPF - expansion factor based on plot size = 0.517 acres

5) \Data\PEF_RehabTbl_OverstoryDClass.csv
Comma-delimited ASCII text file containing overstory tree data from 2008, 2009 and 2011.
MU - management unit
EU - experiment unit in MU
MONTH - month that measurements began (6 = June, 8 = August)
YEAR - year associated with month that measurements began
INV - sequential inventory number, specific to overstory inventory
EXPF - expansion factor based on plot size = 0.517 acres
SPECIESID - species identification code
DCLASS - diameter at breast height (inches) measured to the nearest 1 inch
CULL - NA = status not recorded (in 2009); 1 = non-merchantable, 0 = merchantable
COUNT - Number of trees or stems (in the case of red maple clumps) observed
BORDERLINE - In 2011 plot boundaries were not verified using hip chain. (Y = tree close to presumed on the border; N = tree not near border; and NA = not applicable because a hip chain was used to maintain plot boundary, as such, no trees are considered borderline in those inventory years [2008 and 2009]).

OVERSTORY PLOT LOCATIONS
6) \Data\PEF_RehabTbl_OverstoryPlotLocations.csv
Comma-delimited ASCII text file containing overstory plot corner locations.
MU - management unit
EU - experimental unit in MU
CORNER - Corner 1, 2, 3 or 4. (See corner labels on Study Maps: \Supplements\PEF_RehabStudy_Map_MU08.pdf and \Supplements\PEF_RehabStudy_Map_MU22.pdf
DATUM - datum used
PROJECTION - projection used
UTM_EAST - Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) northing coordinate (meters) of plot corner
UTM_NORTH - Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) easting coordinate (meters) of plot corner.
LATITUDE - latitude (decimal degrees) of plot corner
LONGITUDE - longitude (decimal degrees) of plot corner
SOURCE - GPS = coordinates found using a Trimble GeoXH (GPS) and differentially corrected, or estimated (ESTIMATED) which means coordinates found using ArcGIS 10.2.2

REGENERATION
7) \Data\PEF_RehabTbl_RegenTallyData.csv
Comma-delimited ASCII text file containing plot regeneration tally data from 2008, 2009 and 2011.
MU - management unit
EU - experimental unit in MU
PLOT - 0.014-acre plot within block, 5 per EU
MILPLOT - 0.001 acre sub-plot within sapling plot, 2 per sapling plot (10 per EU)
MONTH - month that measurements began (6 = June, 7 = July, 8 = August)
YEAR - year associated with month that measurements began
INV - sequential specific inventory number, specific to regeneration
EXPF - expansion factor based on plot size = 0.001 acres
SPECIESID - species identification code
PRESENCE - Seedlings less than 6 inches height, presence (1) or absence (0)
STEMS1 - Count of number of stems 6 inches - 1.0 foot in height
STEMS2 - Count of number of stems 1.1 feet - 2.0 feet in height
STEMS3 - Count of number of stems 2.1 feet - 4.5 feet in height
STEMS4 - Count of number of stems greater than 4.5 feet height but less than 0.5 inches DBH

SAPLING
8) \Data\ PEF_RehabTbl_SaplingDBH.csv
Comma-delimited ASCII text file containing sapling tree data from 2017.
MU - management unit
EU - experimental unit in MU
PLOT - 0.014-acre plot within block, 5 per block
MONTH - month that measurements began (6 = June)
YEAR - year associated with month that measurements began
INV - sequential inventory number, specific to sapling inventory
SPECIESID - species identification code
DBH - diameter at breast height (inches) measured to the nearest 0.1 inch
EXPF - expansion factor based on plot size = 0.014 acres

9) \Data\PEF_RehabTbl_SaplingDClass.csv
Comma-delimited ASCII text file containing sapling tree data from 2008 and 2009.
MU - management unit
EU - experimental unit in MU
PLOT - 0.014-acre plot within overstory plot, 5 per overstory plot
MONTH - month that measurements began (6 = June)
YEAR - year associated with month that measurements began
INV - sequential inventory number, specific to sapling inventory
EXPF - expansion factor based on plot size = 0.014 acres
SPECIESID - species identification code
DCLASS - diameter at breast height (inches) measured to the nearest 1 inch.
COUNT - number of trees or stems (in the case of red maple clumps) observed
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
For more details see the Methodology citation section for applicable study plans and instructions (which are available through full data publication download).
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
SUPPLEMENTAL FILES

This data package also contains twelve (12) additional files (found in \Supplements folder in full data publication download) that are crucial to understanding these data. Below is a list of these files (numbered based on alphabetical order) and a brief description of each.

CHANGES IN EDITIONS
1) \Supplements\PEF_RehabStudy__DBEChanges.csv
Comma-delimited ASCII text file that lists the changes between version 1 and version 2 of the rehab study published data.
TABLENAME - data table name to which the change/update applies
MU - management unit to which the change/update applies
EU - experimental unit, if applicable, to which the change/update applies
INV - inventory number, if applicable, to which the change/update applies
CHANGE DETAILES - explanation of the change or update


PLOT/EU/MU LAYOUTS
3) \Supplements\PEF_RehabStudy_Map_MU08.pdf
Adobe Acrobat PDF/a file containing an image showing layout of experimental units in Management Unit 08 (MU 08).

4) \Supplements\PEF_RehabStudy_Map_MU22.pdf
Adobe Acrobat PDF/a file containing an image showing the layout of experimental units in Management Unit 22 (MU 22).

5) \Supplements\PEF_RehabStudy_Map_Overview.pdf
Adobe Acrobat PDF/a file containing an image showing the location of the management units used for the Rehabilitation Study within the U.S. Forest Service research area in the Penobscot Experimental Forest.

6) \Supplements\PEF_RehabStudy_PlotLayout.pdf
Adobe Acrobat PDF/a file containing an illustration of sample plot layout.


SPECIES CODES
9) \Supplements\PEF_RehabStudy_SpeciesCodes.csv
Comma-delimited ASCII text file containing descriptions of species codes.
SPECIES ID - two (or three) letter code used to identify tree species
COMMON NAME - common name for species
SCIENTIFIC NAME - scientific name for species


TREATMENT ASSIGNMENTS
10) \Supplements\PEF_RehabStudy_TreatmentAssignments.csv
Comma-delimited ASCII text file containing treatment assignments.
MU - management unit
EU - experimental unit within MU
TREATMENT - treatment assigned to EU (Control, Moderate or Intensive)


DOCUMENTS
2) \Supplements\PEF_RehabStudy_CropTree_SelectionCriteria.pdf
Adobe Acrobat PDF/a file containing the criteria by which crop trees were selected.

7) \Supplements\PEF_RehabStudy_ProjectPlan.pdf
Adobe Acrobat PDF/a file containing the 2008 study plan.

8) \Supplements\PEF_RehabStudy_ProjectPlan_Addendum2016.pdf
Adobe Acrobat PDF/a file containing an addendum the 2008 study plan.

11) \Supplements\PEF_RehabStudy_TreatmentInstructions_Intensive.pdf
Adobe Acrobat PDF/a file containing the details of how the intensive treatments were executed.

12) \Supplements\PEF_RehabStudy_TreatmentInstructions_Moderate.pdf
Adobe Acrobat PDF/a file containing the details of how the moderate treatments were executed.

*Note that in this documentation a few standard acronyms are used:
ac = acres
ba or BA = basal area
cm = centimeters
CU = compartment unit (also known as MU)
dbh or DBH = diameter at breast height
EU = experimental unit
ft = feet
ha = hectares
in = inches
m = meters
MU = management unit (also known as CU)
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
not applicable
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: USDA Forest Service, Research and Development
Contact_Position: Research Data Archivist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: 240 West Prospect Road
City: Fort Collins
State_or_Province: CO
Postal_Code: 80526
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: see Contact Instructions
Contact Instructions: This contact information was current as of May 2019. For current information see Contact us page on: https://doi.org/10.2737/RDS
Resource_Description: RDS-2016-0024-2
Distribution_Liability:
Metadata documents have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness. Unless otherwise stated, all data and related materials are considered to satisfy the quality standards relative to the purpose for which the data were collected. However, neither the author, the Archive, nor any part of the federal government can assure the reliability or suitability of these data for a particular purpose. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed for a user's application of these data or related materials.

The metadata, data, or related materials may be updated without notification. If a user believes errors are present in the metadata, data or related materials, please use the information in (1) Identification Information: Point of Contact, (2) Metadata Reference: Metadata Contact, or (3) Distribution Information: Distributor to notify the author or the Archive of the issues.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: ASCII
Format_Version_Number: see Format Specification
Format_Specification:
Comma-delimited ASCII text file (CSV)
File_Decompression_Technique: Files zipped with 7-Zip 18.05
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: https://doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2016-0024-2
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: PDF
Format_Version_Number: see Format Specification
Format_Specification:
Adobe Acrobat PDF/a file
File_Decompression_Technique: Files zipped with 7-Zip 18.05
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Computer_Contact_Information:
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Network_Resource_Name: https://doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2016-0024-2
Fees: None
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20190508
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Laura Kenefic
Contact_Organization: USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: 54 Government Road
City: Bradley
State_or_Province: ME
Postal_Code: 04411
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 207-581-2794
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: laura.kenefic@usda.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Biological Data Profile of the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001.1-1999
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