Palau historical vegetation cover

Metadata:

Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Dendy, Julian T.
Originator: Collins, Paul
Originator: Mesubed, Dino
Originator: Cordell, Susan
Originator: Giardina, Christian P.
Originator: Uowolo, Amanda L.
Originator: Iida, Akiko
Publication_Date: 2022
Title:
Palau historical vegetation cover
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector and raster digital data
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Fort Collins, CO
Publisher: Forest Service Research Data Archive
Online_Linkage: https://doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2022-0020
Description:
Abstract:
This data publication contains vegetative land cover spatial data for Babeldaob Island, Palau for the years of 1921, 1947, 1954, 1976, 1992, 2001, 2006, and 2014. Land cover data were digitized using a variety of historical sources such as topographic maps, aerial photographs, and satellite imagery. Land cover products included in this publication consist of: five (5) Esri geodatabases containing landcover classifications for 1921, 1954, 1976, 1992, and 2006; three (3) landcover image raster files for 2001, 2006, and 2014; and one (1) Esri geodatabase containing roads around Babeldaob Island, Palau.
Purpose:
These data were created to summarize historical vegetation cover change on Babeldaob Island, Palau.
Supplemental_Information:
These data were originally published on 1/21/2022. Minor metadata updates were made on 06/06/2022 to include citation for newly published article.

For more information about these data, see Dendy et al. (2022).
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Multiple_Dates/Times:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1921
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1947
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1954
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1976
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1992
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 2001
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 2006
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 2014
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Babeldaob Island, Palau
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: 134.45800
East_Bounding_Coordinate: 134.64900
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 7.73800
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 7.32100
Bounding_Altitudes:
Altitude_Minimum:
Altitude_Maximum: 242
Altitude_Distance_Units: meters
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: biota
Theme_Keyword: imageryBaseMapsEarthCover
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: National Research & Development Taxonomy
Theme_Keyword: Ecology, Ecosystems, & Environment
Theme_Keyword: Landscape ecology
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: vegetation cover
Theme_Keyword: forest
Theme_Keyword: tropical
Theme_Keyword: imagery
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: Palau
Place_Keyword: Babeldaob Island
Taxonomy:
Keywords/Taxon:
Taxonomic_Keyword_Thesaurus:
None
Taxonomic_Keywords: multiple species
Taxonomic_Keywords: plants
Taxonomic_System:
Classification_System/Authority:
Classification_System_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: ITIS
Publication_Date: 2022
Title:
Integrated Taxonomic Information System
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: on-line database
Other_Citation_Details:
Retrieved [January, 3, 2022]; CC0
Online_Linkage: https://www.itis.gov
Online_Linkage: https://doi.org/10.5066/F7KH0KBK
Classification_System_Modifications:
Taxonomy for Hibiscus tiliaceus is provided under the accepted name: Talipariti tiliaceum.
Taxonomic_Procedures:
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Kingdom
Taxon_Rank_Value: Plantae
Applicable_Common_Name: plantes
Applicable_Common_Name: Planta
Applicable_Common_Name: Vegetal
Applicable_Common_Name: plants
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subkingdom
Taxon_Rank_Value: Viridiplantae
Applicable_Common_Name: green plants
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Infrakingdom
Taxon_Rank_Value: Streptophyta
Applicable_Common_Name: land plants
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Superdivision
Taxon_Rank_Value: Embryophyta
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Division
Taxon_Rank_Value: Tracheophyta
Applicable_Common_Name: vascular plants
Applicable_Common_Name: tracheophytes
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subdivision
Taxon_Rank_Value: Spermatophytina
Applicable_Common_Name: spermatophytes
Applicable_Common_Name: seed plants
Applicable_Common_Name: phanérogames
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Magnoliopsida
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Superorder
Taxon_Rank_Value: Lilianae
Applicable_Common_Name: monocots
Applicable_Common_Name: monocotyledons
Applicable_Common_Name: monocotylédones
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Arecales
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Arecaceae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cocos
Applicable_Common_Name: coconut palm
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cocos nucifera
Applicable_Common_Name: coconut palm
Applicable_Common_Name: Palma de Coco
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Poales
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Poaceae
Applicable_Common_Name: grasses
Applicable_Common_Name: graminées
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Bambusa
Applicable_Common_Name: bamboo
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Superorder
Taxon_Rank_Value: Rosanae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Malvales
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Malvaceae
Applicable_Common_Name: mallows
Applicable_Common_Name: mauves
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Talipariti
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Talipariti tiliaceum
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Malpighiales
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Rhizophoraceae
Applicable_Common_Name: mangroves
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Rhizophora
Applicable_Common_Name: mangrove
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Euphorbiaceae
Applicable_Common_Name: spurge
Applicable_Common_Name: euphorbes
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Macaranga
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Macaranga carolinensis
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
These data were collected using funding from the U.S. Government and can be used without additional permissions or fees. If you use these data in a publication, presentation, or other research product please use the following citation:

Dendy, Julian T.; Collins, Paul; Mesubed, Dino; Cordell, Susan; Giardina, Christian P.; Uowolo, Amanda L.; Iida, Akiko. 2022. Palau historical vegetation cover. Fort Collins, CO: Forest Service Research Data Archive. https://doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2022-0020
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Julian Dendy
Contact_Organization: Coral Reef Research Foundation, Palau
Contact_Position: GIS Research Technician
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing
Address: PO Box 1765
State_or_Province: Koror
Postal_Code: 96940
Country: Palau
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 670-488-5255
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: jdendy@hawaii.edu
Data_Set_Credit:
Funding for this project provided by the USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. Funding also provided by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI) (grant number 26870164) for work on 1921 and 2006 vector shapefiles.


Author Information:

Dendy, Julian T.
Coral Reef Research Foundation
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1185-4186

Collins, Paul
University of South Wales

Mesubed, Dino
Palau Bureau of Agriculture, Division of Forestry

Cordell, Susan
USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4840-8921

Giardina, Christian P.
USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry

Uowolo, Amanda L.
USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry

Iida, Akiko
University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Engineering
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4795-267X
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Iida, Akiko
Originator: Kurata, Yoji
Originator: Osawa, Satoshi
Originator: Ishikawa, Mikiko
Publication_Date: 2014
Title:
Industrial development and its impacts on the environment of Micronesian islands under the Japanese administration: a case study of Babeldaob island, Palau
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: journal article
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Pan-Japan: The International Journal of the Japanese Diaspora
Issue_Identification: 10
Other_Citation_Details:
18 pages
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Dendy, Julian T.
Originator: Collins, Paul
Originator: Mesubed, Dino
Originator: Cordell, Susan
Originator: Giardina, Christian P.
Originator: Uowolo, Amanda L.
Originator: Iida, Akiko
Publication_Date: 2022
Title:
Centennial-scale land-cover change on Babeldaob Island, Palau
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: journal article
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Land
Issue_Identification: 11(6): 830
Online_Linkage: https://doi.org/10.3390/land11060830
Back to Top
Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
In general, Landsat accuracy is estimated to be 69.6%, Quickbird accuracy is estimated to be 66.9%, and WorldView-2 accuracy is estimated to be 65.4%.

Complete accuracy estimates of the raster classifications are listed below by land cover type and satellite classification.

Forest:
Landsat 79.5%
QuickBird 74.9%
WorldView-2 92.7%

Non-Forest:
Landsat 71.6%
QuickBird 59.6%
WorldView-2 51.6%

Mangrove:
Landsat 71.7%
QuickBird 63.0%
WorldView-2 34.9%

Non-Vegetation:
Landsat 15.2%
QuickBird 64.4%
WorldView-2 38.1%

Total:
Landsat 69.6%
QuickBird 66.9%
WorldView-2 65.4%
Logical_Consistency_Report:
The data are logically consistent with a few exceptions. There are a few islands outside of the main island area of Babeldaob which are inconsistently represented across time. The largest of these (Ngercheam) is present in the 1921 and 2006 vector shapefiles but not elsewhere.

There are a two land cover codes that do not match the reference material in Cole et al. (1987).
\Data\1954TopoVeg.gdb\forestgrowth47to76 - OBJECTID#875: "UP1LCO" does not match any reference material but is thought to be a typo of "UP1L.CO". These land cover definitions were changed to "UP1L.CO".
\Data\1976VegClasses.gdb\NonForestVegetation - OBJECTID#568: "G.QA.G.P" does not match any reference material but is thought to be a typo of "G.CA.G.P". These land cover definitions were changed to "G.CA.G.P".

Cole, Thomas G.; Falanruw, Marjorie C.; MacLean, Colin D.; Whitesell, Craig D.; Ambacher, Alan H. 1987. Vegetation survey of the Republic of Palau. Resource Bulletin PSW-22. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 13 p. https://doi.org/10.2737/PSW-RB-22
Completeness_Report:
Within the data, blanks should be considered as NULL, where no data were collected or generated or the attribute field was not used for those data.

There are seven small polygons in the 1976 vegetation map which did not have vegetation cover information transferred in the digitization process (PALARIS), and therefore have no data.
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Iida, Akiko
Publication_Date: 2012
Title:
1921 landcover shapefile
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tokyo, Japan
Publisher: Department of Urban Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo
Type_of_Source_Media: Digital database file
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1921
Source_Currentness_Reference:
Publication Date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
Iida (2012)
Source_Contribution:
Landcover shapefile for 1921
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Iida, Akiko
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title:
2006 manual classification landuse shapefile
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tokyo, Japan
Publisher: Department of Urban Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo
Type_of_Source_Media: Digital database file
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 2006
Source_Currentness_Reference:
Publication Date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
Iida 2006 Shapefile
Source_Contribution:
Landuse shapefile with manual classification for 2006
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Cole, Thomas G.
Originator: Falanruw, Marjorie C.
Originator: MacLean, Colin D.
Originator: Whitesell, Craig D.
Originator: Ambacher, Alan H.
Publication_Date: 1987
Title:
Vegetation survey of the Republic of Palau
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: document
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Resource Bulletin
Issue_Identification: PSW-22
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Berkeley, CA
Publisher: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station
Other_Citation_Details:
13 p.
Online_Linkage: https://doi.org/10.2737/PSW-RB-22
Online_Linkage: https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/55646
Type_of_Source_Media: Online
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1976
Source_Currentness_Reference:
Publication Date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
Cole et al. (1987)
Source_Contribution:
Black and white aerial photographs at a 1:1,000 scale to inform a national vegetation survey
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Maragos, J. E.
Originator: Birkeland, C.
Originator: Cook, C.
Originator: Des Rochers, K.
Originator: Di Rosa, R.
Originator: Donaldson, T. J.
Originator: Geermans, S. H.
Originator: Guilbeaux, M.
Originator: Hirsh, H.
Originator: Honigman, L.
Originator: Idechong, N.
Originator: Lobel, P. S.
Originator: Matthews E.
Originator: McDermid, K. J.
Originator: Meier, K. Z.
Originator: Myers, R.
Originator: Otobed, D.
Originator: Richmond, R. H.
Originator: Smith, B.
Originator: Smith, R.
Publication_Date: 1994
Title:
Marine and coastal areas survey of the main Palau Islands: Part 2. Rapid Ecological Assessment Synthesis Report
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: document
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Republic of Palau
Publisher: Ministry of Resources and Development
Type_of_Source_Media: Online
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1992
Source_Currentness_Reference:
Publication Date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
Maragos et al. (1994)
Source_Contribution:
The Nature Conservancy (TNC) - Palau Field Office coordinated 1992 aerial photo survey at 1:1000 scale for a rapid ecological assessment of Palau's near shore marine resources
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Publication_Date: 2012
Title:
Landsat science data
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data
Online_Linkage: https://landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/
Type_of_Source_Media: Online
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1999
Ending_Date: 2002
Source_Currentness_Reference:
Publication Date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
Landsat (2012)
Source_Contribution:
1999-2002 Landsat satellite composite image classification
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Office of the Palau Automated Land and Resource Imaging Service
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title:
PALARIS digital elevation models
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Koror, Republic of Palau
Publisher: Office of the Palau Automated Land and Resource Information System (PALARIS)
Type_of_Source_Media: Online
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 2014
Source_Currentness_Reference:
Publication Date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
PALARIS DEM for Babeldaob
Source_Contribution:
Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for Babeldaob - date unknown.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Digital Globe
Publication_Date: 2006
Title:
NRCS Quickbird satellite composite images
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Longmont, CO
Publisher: Digital Globe Incorporated
Online_Linkage: http://www.digitalglobe.com
Type_of_Source_Media: Online
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 2003
Ending_Date: 2006
Source_Currentness_Reference:
Publication Date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
NRCS 2003-2006 Quickbird satellite composite images
Source_Contribution:
Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) acquired a composite Quickbird satellite imagery (2003-2006) for a national soil survey and environmental assessment of the perimeter road construction.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Digital Globe
Publication_Date: 2014
Title:
NRCS WorldView-2 satellite composite images
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Longmont, CO
Publisher: Digital Globe Incorporated
Online_Linkage: http://www.digitalglobe.com
Type_of_Source_Media: Online
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 2014
Ending_Date: 2016
Source_Currentness_Reference:
Publication Date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
NRCS 2014 and 2016 satellite composite images
Source_Contribution:
The NRCS obtained a composite WorldView-2 (WV2) image of Babeldaob from 2014 to document damages from typhoons in 2012 and 2013. Composite image of 2016 was also obtained.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Office of the Palau Automated Land and Resource Imaging Service
Publication_Date: 2008
Title:
PALARIS road layers
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Koror, Republic of Palau
Publisher: Office of the Palau Automated Land and Resource Information System (PALARIS)
Type_of_Source_Media: Online
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 2008
Source_Currentness_Reference:
Publication Date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
PALARIS road layers
Source_Contribution:
2008 overall road layer and the compact road layer
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
\Data\1921TopoVeg

Between the late 19th century to 1945, the Japanese government invested in producing hand drawn contour maps in east and southeast Asia and Pacific Islands. The Palau map was made by actual three-dimensional measurements in 1921, before initiating its industrial agriculture and mining activities on Babeldaob island. The original 1:25,000 scale map was copied at the National Diet Library of Japan, which owned the 16 series of “Gaiho-zu” of Palau, scanned on a scale of 1:1 with a density of 400 dots per inch (dpi), and georeferenced in ArcGIS 10.0. The land cover product was digitized by Iida (2012). The land cover types were forest, agroforest, grassland, mangrove, and water. Urban or other non-vegetated areas were not classified. For temporal comparison, agroforest was merged into the forest type, and grassland was classified as non-forest vegetation. Water (0.1 hectares) was excluded from temporal comparison.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation:
1921 Gaiho-zu (Foreign country map), black and white topographic map, the Land Survey Office, Japanese Army; Iida (2012)
Process_Date: Unknown
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
\Data\1954TopoVeg.gdb

In 1954 the United States Army produced topographic maps of Palau from 1947 black and white aerial photographs at a 1:25,000 scale, using photogrammetric methods, without field checks. We scanned these maps using a large format flatbed scanner, georeferenced them using the map graticules as control points, and merged the georeferenced images in ERDAS 9.1 to generate a composite image of the entire land area. Land cover types were: forest, mangrove, coconut, scrub, and marsh. Urban or other non-vegetated areas were not classified. All vegetation types in the maps were vectorized by hand in ArcMap 9.3. Coconut (Cocos nucifera) was merged into the forest class, scrub was merged into the non-forest vegetation class, and marsh, which corresponded to present day mangrove, was merged with mangrove.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation:
1947 black and white aerial photos and 1954 topographic map
Process_Date: Unknown
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
\Data\1976VegClasses

The USDA Forest Service made vegetation maps based on 1976 black and white aerial photographs at a 1:1,000 scale to inform a national vegetation survey (Cole et al. 1987). Vegetation types were identified stereoscopically, based on differences in tone, texture, and pattern, with limited field checks. Subsequently, Palau Automated Land and Resource Image Service (PALARIS) processed the maps. They were scanned, georeferenced to IKONOS satellite imagery, and processed into shapefile format, with vegetation type areas vectorized using ArcGIS 9.3. Land cover types are delineated in the vegetation type section. We merged all forest classes (including Rock Island forest on Ngeream Island) and secondary vegetation (defined as fast-growing small trees, shrubs and vines including Macaranga carolinensis, bamboo and Hibiscus tiliaceus) into the forest class, merged all non-forest vegetation except for secondary vegetation into the non-forest vegetation class, and merged barren, urban, and water into the non-vegetation class.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation:
1976 black and white aerial photos/topographic map; Cole et al. (1987)
Process_Date: Unknown
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
\Data\1992AerialsGeodatabase

The Nature Conservancy (TNC) – Palau Field Office coordinated an aerial photo survey at 1:1000 scale for a rapid ecological assessment of Palau's near shore marine resources (Maragos et al. 1994), and the images were post processed with fiducial marks allowing for orthorectification. We scanned the images using a consumer grade flatbed scanner at 300 dpi and created a flight line vector file from the scans and the image metadata to show the areas of island coverage, which allowed us to prioritize the images to orthorectify. We used Leica Photogrammetry Suite (LPS) to orthorectify scanned images, georeference composite images using a Quickbird satellite mosaic image, and create a mosaic island image of Babeldaob. We manually vectorized all land cover in ArcMap 9.3 into mangrove, forest, non-forest vegetation and non-vegetation classes. Non-vegetation included roads, the airport runway, bare soil, urban areas, and water.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation:
1992 color aerial photos obtained from the Nature Conservancy; Maragos et al. (1994)
Process_Date: Unknown
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
\Data\2006VegClasses and \Data\2006_qb_classification.tif

The Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) acquired a composite Quickbird satellite imagery (2003-2006) for a national soil survey and environmental assessment of the perimeter road construction. The imagery was pan sharpened to 0.6 m and contained 4 bands (Red, Green, Blue and near Infra-Red), with less than 1% cloud cover. We employed the same supervised spectral classification methodology as described for the Landsat imagery, with the same field point training samples in mangrove, forest, non-forest vegetation and non-vegetation classes. After the first iteration, we used a knowledge editor in ERDAS 9.1 and a 15 m resolution Digital Elevation Model for Babeldaob, which changed mangrove pixels of elevation higher than 15 m to forest pixels. There was significant tree shadow in the image due to the high resolution, which was classified as non-vegetation. We calculated the mean shadow coverage in small rectangular polygons of variable area known to be 100% forest (n=52, ~5% shadow) or mangrove vegetation (n=40, ~2% shadow), and used this to adjust the forest, mangrove, and non-vegetation class cover percentage values for the island accordingly.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation:
NRCS 2003-2006 Quickbird satellite composite image
Process_Date: Unknown
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
\Data\Roads

The Palau Automated Land and Resource Imaging System (PALARIS) digitized and created the overall road layer and the compact road layer in 2008. Newer roads were manually digitized from WorldView-2 satellite imagery made available in 2016 and were then merged with the original road layer.

A road buffer was created to analyze vegetation change within 120 meters of roads from 2006-2014.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation:
PALARIS
Process_Date: Unknown
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
\Data\2014WV2_Classification.img

The NRCS obtained a composite WorldView-2 (WV2) image of Babeldaob from 2014 to document damages from typhoons in 2012 and 2013, which was pan sharpened to 0.5 m and contained 8 bands. The image contained 17% cloud and shadow cover, and we created a model in ERDAS Imagine 2014 that identified and removed the cloud and cloud shadow areas, but we were unable to find cloud free WorldView-2 imagery to replace those areas, so we manually classified those areas in an NRCS composite image from 2016 and mosaiced them with the final thematic image from 2014. We used the ground truth points collected in 2012 as training signatures with 5 signatures per class in mangrove, forest, non-forest vegetation, and non-vegetation, and 358 points for accuracy assessment of the final thematic output. There were some points that had clearly changed in the two years since the field check visit, and these were removed from the assessment, along with points that fell in cloud or shadow. We conducted a supervised spectral classification using ERDAS Imagine 2014 and ran multiple iterations using different band combinations to identify the best thematic output. There was significant canopy shadow classified as non-vegetation in the thematic output, which we removed with 4 iterations of a 3*3 kernel, Neighborhood Function. There were obvious forest areas classified in known mangrove areas, and so we ran a 3*3 kernel over the mangrove area to reassign pixels that were incorrectly classified as forest to mangrove. We used a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for Babeldaob, which changed mangrove pixels of elevation higher than 15 m to forest pixels.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation:
NRCS 2014 and 2016 WorldView-2 satellite composite images
Process_Date: Unknown
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
\Data\landsat_ke_classification.img

Imagery from the Landsat satellite was available for download with 15 meter (m) resolution and 6 bands and after searching data between 1999 and 2004, we found there were 19 images collected with complete or partial coverage of Babeldaob Island. We choose 5 images captured between 1999 and 2002 based on the lowest cloud cover and relative position of the clouds between images. We radiometrically corrected the images and used the histogram matching function with ERDAS 9.1 to compensate for variation across multiple years. We created a model in ERDAS 9.1 to identify the pixel values (band 1) associated with clouds and shadows, remove, and replace them with data from one of the other 5 images. There was less than 2% cloud cover in the final image. We employed a simple random sampling scheme using 423 ground truth points of vegetation cover across Babeldaob, with 20 points used as training signatures in mangrove, forest, non-forest vegetation and non-vegetation classes, and the remaining points used for accuracy assessment of the final thematic supervised spectral classification of the Landsat composite image.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation:
1999-2002 Landsat satellite composite images
Process_Date: Unknown
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Planar:
Grid_Coordinate_System:
Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
UTM_Zone_Number: 53
Transverse_Mercator:
Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: 135
Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0
False_Easting: 500000
False_Northing: 0
Planar_Coordinate_Information:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: Coordinate Pair
Coordinate_Representation:
Abscissa_Resolution: 1
Ordinate_Resolution: 1
Planar_Distance_Units: Meters
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: World Geodetic System of 1984
Ellipsoid_Name: Geodetic Reference System 80
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137.0000
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257223563
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Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
Below you will find a list and description of the files included in this data publication.

USER GUIDE

\Data\UserGuide_RDS-2022-0020.pdf: Portable Document Format (PDF) file containing a complete description of the geodatabases and rasters included in this publication, which includes specific details about each of the attributes within the feature classes.


DATA FILES
All data files are fully described in \Data\UserGuide_RDS-2022-0020.pdf.

\Data\1921TopoVeg.gdb and 1921TopoVeg.gpkg: Esri ArcGIS file geodatabase (GDB) and Geopackage (GPKG) containing vector polygons of digitized land cover classes from a 1921 map of Babeldaob Island, Palau. Additionally, the original georeferenced map as a geodatabase raster is included.

\Data\1954TopoVeg.gdb and 1954TopoVeg.gpkg: GDB and GPKG containing vector polygons of digitized land cover classes from a 1954 topographic map of Babeldaob Island, Palau. Additionally, a geodatabase raster of the original topographic georeferenced map and a geodatabase raster of only the land area within the topographic map are included. (See \Supplements\LandCoverCode_Definition_Guide.pdf for more information on land cover attribute codes.)

\Data\1976VegClasses.gdb and 1976VegClasses.gpkg: GDB and GPKG containing vector polygons of digitized land cover classes from a 1976 vegetation map derived from black and white aerial photographs of Babeldaob Island, Palau. Additionally, a vector polygon boundary file and ground truth point data are included. (See \Supplements\LandCoverCode_Definition_Guide.pdf for more information on land cover attribute codes.)

\Data\1992AerialsGeodatabase.gdb and 1992AerialsGeodatabase.gpkg: GDB and GPKG containing vector polygons of digitized land cover classes from a 1992 aerial photo survey of Babeldaob Island, Palau. Vector polylines of roads and the coastline are also included.

\Data\2006VegClasses.gdb and 2006VegClasses.gpkg: GDB and GPKG containing vector polygons of digitized land cover classes from 2003-2006 Quickbird satellite imagery of Babeldaob Island, Palau.

\Data\Roads.gdb and Roads.gpkg: GDB and GPKG containing vector polylines of roads for Babeldaob Island, Palau. A vector polygon of a road buffer used to analyze vegetation change is also included.



\Data\2006_qb_classification.tif: GeoTIFF (TIF) raster file (and associated files) containing a supervised classification of mosaiced 2003-2006 Quickbird satellite imagery of Babeldaob Island, Palau.

\Data\2014WV2_classification.img: ERDAS IMAGINE (IMG) georeferenced raster file (and associated files) containing a supervised classification of 2014 WorldView2 satellite imagery of Babeldaob Island, Palau.

\Data\landsat_ke_classification.img: IMG georeferenced raster file (and associated files) containing a supervised classification of 1999-2002 LandSat satellite imagery of Babeldaob Island, Palau.


SUPPLEMENTAL FILES

\Supplements\LandCoverCode_Definition_Guide.pdf: Portable Document Format (PDF) file that contains land cover attribute code definitions for data files included in this package.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Dendy, Julian T.; Collins, Paul; Mesubed, Dino; Cordell, Susan; Giardina, Christian P.; Uowolo, Amanda L.; Iida, Akiko. 2022. Centennial-scale land-cover change on Babeldaob Island, Palau. Land 11(6): 830. https://doi.org/10.3390/land11060830
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: USDA Forest Service, Research and Development
Contact_Position: Research Data Archivist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: 240 West Prospect Road
City: Fort Collins
State_or_Province: CO
Postal_Code: 80526
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: see Contact Instructions
Contact Instructions: This contact information was current as of June 2022. For current information see Contact Us page on: https://doi.org/10.2737/RDS.
Resource_Description: RDS-2022-0020
Distribution_Liability:
Metadata documents have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness. Unless otherwise stated, all data and related materials are considered to satisfy the quality standards relative to the purpose for which the data were collected. However, neither the author, the Archive, nor any part of the federal government can assure the reliability or suitability of these data for a particular purpose. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed for a user's application of these data or related materials.

The metadata, data, or related materials may be updated without notification. If a user believes errors are present in the metadata, data or related materials, please use the information in (1) Identification Information: Point of Contact, (2) Metadata Reference: Metadata Contact, or (3) Distribution Information: Distributor to notify the author or the Archive of the issues.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: GDB
Format_Version_Number: see Format Specification
Format_Specification:
Esri file geodatabase
File_Decompression_Technique: Files zipped with 7-Zip 19.0
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: https://doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2022-0020
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: GPKG
Format_Version_Number: see Format Specification
Format_Specification:
OGC GeoPackage 1.3
File_Decompression_Technique: Files zipped with 7-Zip 19.0
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: https://doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2022-0020
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: IMG
Format_Version_Number: see Format Specification
Format_Specification:
ERDAS IMAGINE file
File_Decompression_Technique: Files zipped with 7-Zip 19.0
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: https://doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2022-0020
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: TIFF
Format_Version_Number: see Format Specification
Format_Specification:
Georeferenced (GeoTIFF) raster file
File_Decompression_Technique: Files zipped with 7-Zip 19.0
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: https://doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2022-0020
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: PDF
Format_Version_Number: see Format Specification
Format_Specification:
Portable Document Format file
File_Decompression_Technique: Files zipped with 7-Zip 19.0
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: https://doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2022-0020
Fees: None
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20220606
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Julian Dendy
Contact_Organization: Coral Reef Research Foundation
Contact_Position: GIS Research Technician
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing
Address: PO Box 1765
State_or_Province: Koror
Postal_Code: 96940
Country: Palau
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 670-488-5255
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: jdendy@hawaii.edu
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Biological Data Profile of the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001.1-1999
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https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/products/RDS-2022-0020/_metadata_RDS-2022-0020.html