Carol L. Miller
Missoula, MT 59801
Primary responsibilities are to develop the understanding necessary to guide the stewardship of fire as a natural process in wilderness. This includes: 1) studying natural fire regimes and how they have been altered by management, 2) evaluating options for the stewardship of fire as a natural process and the consequences of these management alternatives, and 3) seeking to understand the social and institutional factors that influence the evaluation of tradeoffs by fire managers and members of the public.
*Integration of fuel dynamics and fire processes into a forest succession model for the Sierra Nevada in California so that climate-fire-forest interactions could be better studied and understood.
*Development, use, and evaluation of spatially explicit models to map the likelihood of burning across heterogeneous landscapes for use in quantitative risk analysis.
*Retrospective modeling for quantifying the impacts of past suppression decisions and revealing the hidden consequences of suppression.
*Co-editor of a book on the Landscape Ecology of Fire.
*Analyses to evaluate the conservation capacity of the current protected area network in North America now and into the future.
*Use of wilderness fire histories to quantify the self-limiting property of fire regimes.
*Advancing knowledge about the formation, persistence, and function of fire refugia.
*A framework for understanding value-neutral and value-explicit dimensions of social-ecological resilience to wildfire.
Interactions among fire regimes, climate, and vegetation pattern.
Implications of fire suppression and our ability to restore fire as an ecosystem process.
Effects of global climatic change on disturbance regimes.
Managers of protected areas, such as wilderness, have the challenge of restoring or maintaining the disturbance process of fire while considering a suite of other social and ecological values inside and outside the boundaries of these areas. Their decisions can have long lasting consequences that are difficult to predict. Fire suppression is the dominant fire management strategy across all land designations, and in many areas, suppression has contributed to increasing hazardous fuel accumulations, increasing probability of extreme fire behavior and effects, and altered ecosystem structure and function. These results run counter to protected area management goals, and continue to increase the vulnerability of nearby human communities to wildland fire. Fire suppression also has helped to distort human perceptions of natural systems. The orientations toward fire management held by the public and government agencies need to shift away from suppression as the dominant strategy and toward a stewardship of the process of fire that includes natural and prescribed fire.
- Penn State University, B.S., Electrical Engineering, 1985
- Colorado State University, M.S., Forest Sciences, 1994
- Colorado State University, Ph.D., Ecology, 1998
Society for Wilderness Stewardship,
Association for Fire Ecology,
International Association of Wildland Fire,
International Association for Landscape Ecology (U.S. Chapter),
National Wilderness Awards, Excellence in Wilderness Stewardship Research Award, 2016
This award recognizes the contribution of a timely research endeavor that informs and responds to wilderness stewardship challenges. Awarded for Parks, S.A. et al. 2015. Ecol Appl 25:1478-1492.
Mid-Career Scientist Publication, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 2011
McKENZIE, D., MILLER, C., FALK, D.A., editors. 2011. The Landscape Ecology of Fire. Springer. 312 pages.
Best Paper in Landscape Ecology, US Chapter of the International Association for Landscape Ecology, 2008
FALK, D.A., C. MILLER, McKENZIE, D., BLACK, A.E. 2007. Cross-scale analysis of fire regimes. Ecosystems 10: 809-823.
Excellence in Research, National Fire Plan, 2005
Nomination was based on success in creating an interdisciplinary research program that proactively addresses high priority fire and fuels management needs.
Best Early Career Publication, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 2004
MILLER, C. 2003. Simulation of effects of climatic change on fire regimes. Pages 69 – 94 in T. Veblen, W. Baker, G. Montenegro and T. Swetnam (eds.), Fire and Climatic Change in Temperate Ecosystems of the Western Americas. Springer-Verlag.
- McWethy, David B.; Schoennagel, Tania ; Higuera, Philip E.; Krawchuk, Meg ; Harvey, Brian J.; Metcalf, Elizabeth C.; Schultz, Courtney ; Miller, Carol ; Metcalf, Alexander L.; Buma, Brian ; Virapongse, Arika ; Kulig, Judith C.; Stedman, Richard C.; Ratajczak, Zak ; Nelson, Cara R.; Kolden, Crystal. 2019. Rethinking resilience to wildfire
- Coop, Jonathan D.; DeLory, Timothy J.; Downing, William M.; Haire, Sandra L.; Krawchuk, Meg A.; Miller, Carol ; Parisien, Marc-Andre ; Walker, Ryan B.. 2019. Contributions of fire refugia to resilient ponderosa pine and dry mixed-conifer forest landscapes
- Mansuy, Nicolas ; Miller, Carol ; Parisien, Marc-Andre ; Parks, Sean A.; Batllori, Enric ; Moritz, Max A.. 2019. Contrasting human influences and macro-environmental factors on fire activity inside and outside protected areas of North America
- Higuera, Philip E.; Metcalf, Alexander L.; Miller, Carol ; Buma, Brian ; McWethy, David B.; Metcalf, Elizabeth C.; Ratajczak, Zak ; Nelson, Cara R.; Chaffin, Brian C.; Stedman, Richard C.; McCaffrey, Sarah ; Schoennagel, Tania ; Harvey, Brian J.; Hood, Sharon M.; Schultz, Courtney A.; Black, Anne E.; Campbell, David ; Haggerty, Julia H.; Keane, Robert E.; Krawchuk, Meg A.; Kulig, Judith C.; Rafferty, Rebekah ; Virapongse, Arika. 2019. Integrating subjective and objective dimensions of resilience in fire-prone landscapes
- Batllori, Enric; Parisien, Marc-Andre; Parks, Sean A.; Moritz, Max A.; Miller, Carol. 2017. Potential relocation of climatic environments suggests high rates of climate displacement within the North American protection network
- Barnett, Kevin; Miller, Carol; Venn, Tyron J.. 2016. Using risk analysis to reveal opportunities for the management of unplanned ignitions in wilderness
- Miller, Carol; Aplet, Gregory H.. 2016. Progress in wilderness fire science: Embracing complexity
- Parks, Sean A.; Holsinger, Lisa M.; Miller, Carol; Nelson, Cara R.. 2015. Wildland fire as a self-regulating mechanism: The role of previous burns and weather in limiting fire progression
- Miller, Carol. 2012. The hidden consequences of fire suppression
- Miller, Carol ; Higuera, Philip E.; McWethy, David B.; Metcalf, Alexander L.; Metcalf, Elizabeth C.; Black, Anne E.; Clarke, Lily ; Hodge, Haley. 2021. Developing strategies to support social-ecological resilience in flammable landscapes: A structured approach for natural resource managers and other stakeholders
- Berkey, Julia K.; Miller, Carol ; Larson, Andrew J.. 2021. A history of wilderness fire management in the Northern Rockies
- Larson, Andrew J.; Berkey, Julia K.; Maher, Colin T.; Trull, Wyatt ; Belote, R. Travis; Miller, Carol. 2020. Fire history (1889-2017) in the South Fork Flathead River Watershed within the Bob Marshall Wilderness (Montana), including effects of single and repeat wildfires on forest structure and fuels
- Downing, William M.; Krawchuk, Meg A.; Coop, Jonathan D.; Meigs, Garrett W.; Haire, Sandra L.; Walker, Ryan B.; Whitman, Ellen ; Chong, Geneva ; Miller, Carol ; Tortorelli, Claire. 2020. How do plant communities differ between fire refugia and firegenerated early seral vegetation
- Parisien, Marc-Andre ; Dawe, Denyse A.; Miller, Carol ; Stockdale, Christopher A.; Armitage, O. Bradley.. 2019. Applications of simulation-based burn probability modelling: A review
- Parisien, Marc-Andre ; Ager, Alan A.; Barros, Ana M.; Dawe, Denyse ; Erni, Sandy ; Finney, Mark A.; McHugh, Charles W.; Miller, Carol ; Parks, Sean A.; Riley, Karin L.; Short, Karen C.; Stockdale, Christopher A.; Wang, Xianli ; Whitman, Ellen. 2020. Commentary on the article Burn probability simulation and subsequent wildland fire activity in Alberta, Canada - Implications for risk assessment and strategic planning by J. L. Beverly and N. McLoughlin
- Downing, William M.; Krawchuk, Meg A.; Meigs, Garrett W.; Haire, Sandra L.; Coop, Jonathan D.; Walker, Ryan B.; Whitman, Ellen ; Chong, Geneva ; Miller, Carol. 2019. Influence of fire refugia spatial pattern on post-fire forest recovery in Oregon s Blue Mountains
- Hessburg, P.; Miller, C.; Parks, S.; Povak, N.; North, M.; Collins, B.; Spies, T.; Cansler, C.; Battaglia, M.; Skinner, C.. 2019. Climate, environment, and disturbance history govern resilience of Western North American forests
- Holsinger, Lisa ; Parks, Sean A.; Parisien, Marc-Andre ; Miller, Carol ; Batllori, Enric ; Moritz, Max A.. 2019. Climate change likely to reshape vegetation in North America's largest protected areas
- Parks, Sean A.; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Shaw, John D.; Miller, Carol. 2019. Living on the edge: Trailing edge forests at risk of fire-facilitated conversion to non-forest
- Haire, Sandra L.; Coop, Jonathan D.; Miller, Carol. 2017. Characterizing spatial neighborhoods of refugia following large fires in northern New Mexico, USA
- Krawchuk, Meg A.; Haire, Sandra L.; Coop, Jonathan ; Parisien, Marc-Andre ; Whitman, Ellen ; Chong, Geneva ; Miller, Carol. 2016. Topographic and fire weather controls of contemporary fire refugia in forested ecosystems of northwestern North America
- Parks, Sean A.; Parisien, Marc‐Andre; Miller, Carol; Holsinger, Lisa M.; Baggett, Larry Scott. 2018. Fine-scale spatial climate variation and drought mediate the likelihood of reburning
- Robinne, Francois-Nicolas; Bladon, Kevin D.; Miller, Carol; Parisien, Marc-Andre; Mathieu, Jerome; Flannigan, Mike D.. 2017. A spatial evaluation of global wildfire-water risks to human and natural systems
- Parks, Sean A.; Holsinger, Lisa M.; Miller, Carol ; Parisien, Marc-Andre. 2018. Analog-based fire regime and vegetation shifts in mountainous regions of the western US
- Cooke, Brian; Parks, Sean; Miller, Carol; Holsinger, Lisa; Nelson, Cara; Holden, Zack; Baggett, Scott; Bird, Benjamin. 2016. Science You Can Use (SYCU) - Wildland fire: Nature s fuel treatment
- Barnett, Kevin; Parks, Sean A.; Miller, Carol; Naughton, Helen T.. 2016. Beyond fuel treatment effectiveness: Characterizing interactions between fire and treatments in the US
- Robinne, Francois-Nicolas; Miller, Carol; Parisien, Marc-Andre; Emelko, Monica B.; Bladon, Kevin D.; Silins, Uldis; Flannigan, Mike. 2016. A global index for mapping the exposure of water resources to wildfire
- Holsinger, Lisa; Parks, Sean A.; Miller, Carol. 2016. Weather, fuels, and topography impede wildland fire spread in western US landscapes
- Parisien, Marc-Andre; Miller, Carol; Parks, Sean A.; DeLancey, Evan R.; Robinne, Francois-Nicolas; Flannigan, Mike D.. 2016. The spatially varying influence of humans on fire probability in North America
- Parks, Sean A.; Miller, Carol; Abatzoglou, John T.; Holsinger, Lisa M.; Parisien, Marc-Andre; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.. 2016. How will climate change affect wildland fire severity in the western US
- Parks, Sean A.; Miller, Carol; Holsinger, Lisa M.; Baggett, Scott; Bird, Benjamin J.. 2016. Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence
- Parks, Sean A.; Miller, Carol; Parisien, Marc-Andre; Holsinger, Lisa M.; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Abatzoglou, John. 2015. Wildland fire deficit and surplus in the western United States, 1984-2012
- Haire, Sandra L.; Miller, Carol; McGarigal, Kevin. 2015. Influence of landscape gradients in wilderness management and spatial climate on fire severity in the Northern Rockies USA, 1984 to 2010
- Hessburg, Paul F.; Churchill, Derek J.; Larson, Andrew J.; Haugo, Ryan D.; Miller, Carol; Spies, Thomas A.; North, Malcolm P.; Povak, Nicholas A.; Belote, R. Travis; Singleton, Peter H.; Gaines, William L.; Keane, Robert E.; Aplet, Gregory H.; Stephens, Scott L.; Morgan, Penelope; Bisson, Peter A.; Rieman, Bruce E.; Salter, R. Brion; Reeves, Gordon H.. 2015. Restoring fire-prone Inland Pacific landscapes: seven core principles
- Fule, Peter Z.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Brown, Peter M.; Falk, Donald A.; Peterson, David L.; Allen, Craig D.; Aplet, Gregory H.; Battaglia, Mike A.; Binkley, Dan; Farris, Calvin; Keane, Robert E.; Margolis, Ellis Q.; Grissino-Mayer, Henri; Miller, Carol; Sieg, Carolyn Hull; Skinner, Carl; Stephens, Scott L.; Taylor, Alan. 2014. Unsupported inferences of high-severity fire in historical dry forests of the western United States: Response to Williams and Baker
- Keane, Robert E.; McKenzie, Donald; Falk, Donald A.; Smithwick, Erica A.H.; Miller, Carol; Kellogg, Lara-Karena B.. 2015. Representing climate, disturbance, and vegetation interactions in landscape models
- Batllori, Enric; Miller, Carol; Parisien, Marc-Andre; Parks, Sean A.; Moritz, Max A.. 2014. Is U.S. climatic diversity well represented within the existing federal protection network
- Morgan, Penelope; Heyerdahl, Emily K.; Miller, Carol; Wilson, Aaron M.; Gibson, Carly E.. 2014. Northern Rockies pyrogeography: An example of fire atlas utility
- Miller, Carol. 2014. The contribution of natural fire management to wilderness fire science
- Parks, Sean A.; Parisien, Marc-Andre; Miller, Carol; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.. 2014. Fire activity and severity in the western US vary along proxy gradients representing fuel amount and fuel moisture
- Parks, Sean A.; Dillon, Gregory K.; Miller, Carol. 2014. A new metric for quantifying burn severity: The Relativized Burn Ratio
- Parks, Sean A.; Miller, Carol; Nelson, Cara R.; Holden, Zachary A.. 2014. Previous fires moderate burn severity of subsequent wildland fires in two large western US wilderness areas
- Haire, Sandra L.; McGarigal, Kevin; Miller, Carol. 2013. Wilderness shapes contemporary fire size distributions across landscapes of the western United States
- Miller, Carol; Ager, Alan A.. 2012. A review of recent advances in risk analysis for wildfire management
- Scott, Joe H.; Helmbrecht, Donald J.; Parks, Sean A.; Miller, Carol. 2012. Quantifying the threat of unsuppressed wildfires reaching the adjacent wildland-urban interface on the Bridger-Teton National Forest, Wyoming
- Parisien, Marc-Andre; Parks, Sean A.; Miller, Carol; Krawchuck, Meg A.; Heathcott, Mark; Moritz, Max A.. 2011. Contributions of ignitions, fuels, and weather to the spatial patterns of burn probability of a boreal landscape
- Parks, Sean A.; Parisien, Marc-Andre; Miller, Carol. 2012. Spatial bottom-up controls on fire likelihood vary across western North America
- Parks, Sean A.; Parisien, Marc-Andre; Miller, Carol. 2011. Multi-scale evaluation of the environmental controls on burn probability in a southern Sierra Nevada landscape
- Miller, Carol. 2006. Wilderness fire management in a changing world
- Miller, Carol. 2010. Living with fire: Fire ecology and policy for the twenty-first century book review
- Parisien, Marc-Andre; Miller, Carol; Ager, Alan A.; Finney, Mark A.. 2010. Use of artificial landscapes to isolate controls on burn probability
- Davis, Brett H.; Miller, Carol; Parks, Sean A.. 2010. Retrospective fire modeling: Quantifying the impacts of fire suppression
- Alexander III, Jack D.; Findley, Jean; Kury, Brenda K.; Beyers, Jan L.; Cram, Douglas S.; Baker, Terrell T.; Boren, Jon C.; Edminster, Carl; Ferguson, Sue A.; McKay, Steven; Nagel, David; Piepho, Trent; Rorig, Miriam; Anderson, Casey; Hoadley, Jeanne; Ford, Paulette L.; Andersen, Mark C.; Fredrickson, Ed L.; Truett, Joe; Roemer, Gary W.; Kury, Brenda K.; Vollmer, Jennifer; May, Christine L.; Lee, Danny C.; Menakis, James P.; Keane, Robert E.; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Miller, Carol; Davis, Brett; Gray, Katharine; Mix, Ken; Kuvlesky Jr., William P.; Drawe, D. Lynn; Narog, Marcia G.; Ottmar, Roger D.; Vihnanek, Robert E.; Wright, Clinton S.; Paysen, Timothy E.; Pendleton, Burton K.; Pendleton, Rosemary L.; White, Carleton S.; Rogan, John; Stow, Doug; Franklin, Janet; Miller, Jennifer; Levien, Lisa; Fischer, Chris; Underwood, Emma; Klinger, Robert; Moore, Peggy; Wright, Clinton S.. 2008. Poster Session- Extended Abstracts
- Miller, Carol; Davis, Brett. 2009. Quantifying the consequences of fire suppression in two California national parks
- Stewart, Susan I.; Wilmer, Bo; Hammer, Roger B.; Aplet, Gregory H.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Miller, Carol; Radeloff, Volker C.. 2009. Wildland-urban interface maps vary with purpose and context
- Miller, Carol. 2008. Changing research needs in wilderness fire
- Miller, Carol. 2007. Simulation of the consequences of different fire regimes to support wildland fire use decisions
- Miller, C.; Parisien, M.-A.; Ager, A. A.; Finney, M. A.. 2008. Evaluating spatially explicit burn probabilities for strategic fire management planning
- Miller, Carol; Landres, Peter B.; Alaback, Paul B.. 2000. Evaluating risks and benefits of wildland fire at landscape scales
- Doane, Dustin L.; O'Laughlin, Jay; Morgan, Penelope; Miller, Carol. 2006. Barriers to wildland fire use: A preliminary problem analysis
- Parsons, David J.; Landres, Peter B.; Miller, Carol. 2003. Wildland fire use: the dilemma of managing and restoring natural fire and fuels in United States wilderness
- Miller, Carol; Landres, Peter. 2004. Exploring information needs for wildland fire and fuels management
- Falk, Donald A.; Miller, Carol; McKenzie, Donald; Black, Anne E.. 2007. Cross-scale analysis of fire regimes