Economic and physical criteria for selecting even-aged rotation lengths are reviewed with examples of their optimizations. To demonstrate the trade-off between physical volume, economic return, and stand diameter, examples of thinning regimes for maximizing volume, forest rent, and soil expectation are compared with an example of maximizing volume without thinning. The soil expectation criterion consistently accounts for the market premium logging and other silvicultural costs.
Riitters, Kurt H.; Brodie, J. Douglas; Kao, Chiang. 1982. Volume versus value maximization illustrated for Douglas-fir with thinning. Journal of Forestry, Vol. 80: 86-89