Ice storms occur frequently in northeastern North America. They damage and kill trees, change the structural characteristics of a forest, and may importantly alter the goods and services that owners realize from their land. This literature review summarizes 90 years of relevant information, mainly from fairly short term studies published between 1904 and 2006. It documents ice storm severity and the effects on hardwood branch loss, primarily among upper canopy trees; methods for estimating and classifying hardwood crown damage; and factors influencing epicormic branch formation on hardwood trees. It also summarizes management recommendations for dealing with crown loss and for managing stands after damage by ice storms.
Kraemer, Martin J.; Nyland, Ralph D. 2010. Hardwood crown injuries and rebuilding following ice storms: a literature review. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-60. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 29 p.