Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious larval endoparasitoid, is one of three biocontrol agents from Asia currently being released in the United States to combat the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis
Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). The current protocol for rearing T. planipennisi
involves presenting the wasps with artifcially infested ash sticks made by placing field-collected larvae into shallow grooves beneath flaps of bark. Although third and fourth instars are readily accepted by T. planipennisi
in these exposures, the suitability of younger or older developmental stages, which are often more readily available in the field, has not been tested. In this study, we used both artifcially infested ash sticks and naturally infested ash logs to test which emerald ash borer developmental stages (second to fourth instars, J larvae [preprepupae], prepupae, and pupae) are most suitable for rearing T. planipennisi. T. planipennisi
parasitized all stages except for pupae, but parasitized fewer J larvae and prepupae in naturally infested logs than in artifcially infested ash sticks.
classical biological control
Ulyshen, Michael D.; Duan, Jian J.; Bauer, Leah S.; Fraser, Ivich. 2010. Suitability and accessibility of immature Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) stages to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 103(4): 1080-1085.