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Linking complex forest fuel structure and fire behavior at fine scales

Formally Refereed
Authors: EL Loudermilk, Joseph O'Brien, RJ Mitchell, JK Hiers, WP Cropper, S Grunwald, J Grego, J Fernandez
Year: 2012
Type: Scientific Journal
Station: Southern Research Station
Source: International Journal of Wildland Fire


Improved fire management of savannas and open woodlands requires better understanding of the fundamental connection between fuel heterogeneity, variation in fire behaviour and the influence of fire variation on vegetation feedbacks. In this study, we introduce a novel approach to predicting fire behaviour at the submetre scale, including measurements of forest understorey fuels using ground-based LIDAR (light detection and ranging) coupled with infrared thermography for recording precise fire temperatures. We used ensemble classification and regression trees to examine the relationships between fuel characteristics and fire temperature dynamics. Fire behaviour was best predicted by characterising fuelbed heterogeneity and continuity across multiple plots of similar fire intensity, where impacts from plot-to-plot variation in fuel, fire and weather did not overwhelm the effects of fuels. The individual plot-level results revealed the significance of specific fuel types (e.g. bare soil, pine leaf litter) as well as the spatial configuration of fire. This was the first known study to link the importance of fuelbed continuity and the heterogeneity associated with fuel types to fire behaviour at metre to submetre scales and provides the next step in understanding the complex responses of vegetation to fire behaviour.


fuel heterogeneity, IR imagery, LIDAR, longleaf pine, regression tree, savanna


Loudermilk, E.L., O Brien, J.J., Mitchell, R.J., Hiers, J.K., Cropper Jr., W.P., Grunwald, S, Grego, J., Fernandez, J. 2012. Linking complex forest fuel structure and fire behavior at fine scales. International Journal of Wildland Fire 21: 882 893.