||Kristopher Abell, Therese M. Poland, Allard Cosse, Leah S. Bauer
||Northern Research Station
||In: Van Driesche, R.G.; Reardon, R.C., eds. Biology and control of emerald ash borer. FHTET-2014-09. Morgantown, WV: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team: 113-127. Chapter 7.
As soon as emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (EAB) was discovered near Detroit, Michigan, USA, in 2002, surveys were initiated to delimit the extent of the infested area. These initial delimitation surveys were based on visual assessments using external symptoms because at the time no other detection tools were available and nothing was known about EAB responses to chemical or visual stimuli. Surveys were supplemented by tracing movement of nursery stock shipped from Detroit to other locations to detect new infestations of EAB. External symptoms of EAB infestation, which include D-shaped exit holes, dieback and crown thinning, epicormic shoots, and bark splits over galleries, are not apparent until one or more years after trees are infested by which time some adult beetle emergence may have occurred, allowing dispersal to other locations (Poland and McCullough, 2006). Therefore, visual surveys that rely on detecting infested trees are not effective for discovery of low-density infestations. As of 2014, development of better detection tools for EAB remained an important need for the regulatory program.
Iannone, B.V. III , K.M. Potter , Q. Guo , A.M. Liebhold , B.C. Pijanowski ,C.M. Oswalt and S.Fei. 2015. Biological invasion hotspots: a trait-based perspective reveals new sub-continental patterns. Ecography 39: 961-969.