The wide range of stand and age-cohort structures in these old-growth P. resinosa
stands depicts pre-settlement forests more complex than those of the single-cohort, post-stand-replacing-fire model that has guided regional forest management. Within-stand patchiness of cohort age structures implies disturbances operating at scales smaller than typically associated with this regional forest type. Presence of non-pine 'ingrowth' on all sites might suggest that P. resinosa
stands supporting these species liewithin the natural range of variability for this community type, representing situations in which surface fires did not occur for extended periods or were spatially patchy at the stand scale. The diversity of reference conditions documented here suggests targets that might guide ecological restoration prescriptions for these ecosystems, with the goal of reintroducing structural and compositional complexity reflecting natural disturbance and stand development.
Coarse woody debris
Fraver, Shawn; Palik, Brian J. 2012. Stand and cohort structures of old-growth Pinus resinosa-dominated forests of northern Minnesota, USA. Journal of Vegetation Science. 23: 249-259.