Urban residents who cultivate relationships with nature tend to experience: enhanced wellbeing, cognitive function, social cohesion and sense of place; reduced stress; strengthened socio-ecological resilience; and, in some cases, improved sustenance via the gathering of foods and medicines as well as materials for cultural practices. The goal of strategic planning in urban areas is to design networks of green and blue spaces that deliver wide-ranging benefts across spatial scales (Hansen et al. 2017). By urban nature, we refer to the green (land) and blue (water) spaces in cities, suburbs and towns where plants grow and animals dwell, including parks, gardens, street trees, waterbodies and waterways.
McMillen, Heather; Campbell, Lindsay; Giardina, Christian; Svendsen, Erika; Kealiikanakaoleohaililani, Kekuhi; Francisco, Kainana. 2020. Living in kinship within urban landscapes through equitable, multicultural, and collaborative stewardship in New York City. In: Cocks, Michelle L.; Shackleton, Charlie M., eds. Urban Nature: Enriching Belonging, Wellbeing, and Bioculture. New York, NY: Routledge. 219-240. Chapter 12.