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Rocking Behavior of High-Aspect-Ratio Cross-Laminated Timber Shear Walls: Experimental and Numerical Investigation

Formally Refereed
Authors: M. Omar Amini, John W. van de Lindt, Douglas Rammer, Shiling Pei
Year: 2021
Type: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
Station: Forest Products Laboratory
Source: Journal of Architectural Engineering


Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a mass timber product that has recently garnered considerable attention for lateral-force resisting system (LFRS) applications. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the rocking behavior of a high-aspect-ratio (height/width) CLT shear wall without post-tensioning, and to validate a finite-element (FE) model based on the cyclic and dynamic response of the wall. To this point, high-aspect-ratio walls in the literature have primarily been post-tensioned. The testing component of this study included connector tests, quasistatic cyclic shear wall tests, and shake-table tests under four different ground motions scaled to design earthquake (DE)- and maximum considered earthquake (MCE)-level intensities. A generic shear connector was used for this study to allow for proprietary and other systems to demonstrate equivalence. The connectors were tested under shear and uplift, and shear-wall tests were performed using the Consortium of Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering (CUREE) displacement protocol, which has been widely used for light-frame wood structures. Interstory drift (ISD) ratios in the shake-table tests ranged from 0.97% to 2.02%, and the tests demonstrated the system’s ability to resist seismic loading. An FE model of the CLT wall was developed that showed good agreement with the cyclic and shake-table tests. The difference between the ISD ratios in the numerical model and the shake-table tests ranged from 5.4% to 31.3%, with an average of 17.9%, which was in good accordance with the accuracy of the existing CLT models. This system can be utilized as a retrofit option, in conjunction with light-frame wood shear walls, where lack of space may be a challenge.


Cross-laminated timber, Shake-table testing, Nonlinear modeling


Amini, M. Omar; van de Lindt, John W.; Rammer, Douglas; Pei, Shiling. 2021. Rocking Behavior of High-Aspect-Ratio Cross-Laminated Timber Shear Walls: Experimental and Numerical Investigation. Journal of Architectural Engineering. 27(3): 04021013-2.