As rates of urbanization and climatic change soar, decision-makers are increasingly challenged to provide innovative solutions that simultaneously address climate change impacts and risks and inclusively ensure quality of life for urban residents. Cities have turned to nature-based solutions to help address these challenges. Nature-based solutions, through the provision of ecosystem services, can yield numerous benefits for people and address multiple challenges simultaneously. Yet, efforts to mainstream nature-based solutions are impaired by the complexity of the interacting social, ecological, and technological dimensions of urban systems. This complexity must be understood and managed to ensure ecosystem-service provisioning is effective, equitable, and resilient. Here, we provide a social-ecological-technological system (SETS) framework that builds on decades of urban ecosystem services research to better understand four core challenges associated with urban nature-based solutions: multi-functionality, systemic valuation, scale mismatch of ecosystem services, and inequity and injustice. The framework illustrates the importance of coordinating natural, technological, and socio-economic systems when designing, planning, and managing urban nature-based solutions to enable optimal social-ecological outcomes
McPhearson, Timon; Cook, Elizabeth M.; Berb s-Bl zquez, Marta; Cheng, Chingwen; Grimm, Nancy B.; Andersson, Erik; Barbosa, Olga; Chandler, David G.; Chang, Heejun; Chester, Mikhail V.; Childers, Daniel L.; Elser, Stephen R.; Frantzeskaki, Niki; Grabowski, Zbigniew; Groffman, Peter; Hale, Rebecca L.; Iwaniec, David M.; Kabisch, Nadja; Kennedy, Christopher; Markolf, Samuel A.; Matsler, A. Marissa; McPhillips, Lauren E.; Miller, Thaddeus R.; Mu oz-Erickson, Tischa A.; Rosi, Emma; Troxler, Tiffany G. 2022. A social-ecological-technological systems framework for urban ecosystem services. One Earth. 5(5): 505-518. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oneear.2022.04.007.