The reproductive success of plants is a complex interaction among beneficial organisms such as pollinators, and destructive ones such as defoliators or seed predators that eat plant tissue. Many insects that consume reproductive tissue destroy much of a plant's reproductive output (Breedlove & Ehrlich 1968; Janzen 1971; Evans et al. 1989). In particular, the predation of seeds serves as a major selective force affecting plant abundance, distribution, and evolution (Harper et al. 1970; Moore 1978; Duggan 1985). Seed predation (destruction prior to dispersal) often accounts for a large portion of a plant population's mortality (Janzen 1969; Louda 1978; Norambuena & Piper 2000).
Horn, Scott; Hanula, James L. 2004. Impact of Seed Predators on the Herb Baptisia Lanceolata (Fabales: Fabaceae). Florida Entomologist 87(3):398-400 September 2004