This data publication contains an ESRI grid dataset describing annual productivity and drought in the non-forest domain of Region 5 (California) of the United States Forest Service (USFS). Production data were generated from the Rangeland Vegetation Simulator (RVS). This program uses Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) from 2000-2015 at 250 square meter resolution to estimate production. NDVI is converted to production estimates using vegetation specific coefficients in the Rangeland Vegetation Simulator (RVS). In addition to annual production data (offered in pounds per acre), this ESRI grid dataset also provides an annual summation of drought data from the USDA drought monitor for aiding interpretation of annual production data. Both the production and drought data are offered from 2000-2015. In addition, basic relationships, such as correlation coefficients, between drought and productivity are offered so that the analyst can find anomalies in allotments where production is not matching temporal patterns of drought. The RVS was applied to allotments of Region 5 of the USFS. The allotment data were spatially combined with CalVeg (Classification and Assessment with Landsat of Visible Ecological Groupings) (a polygon based description of vegetation types for California and more information can be found at: https://www.fs.fed.us/r5/rsl/projects/classification/system.shtml) layer to produce 4035 unique combinations of vegetation attributes and allotments. The vegetation classification used to do this combination was the Society for Range Management (SRM) cover type. There were 23 vegetation types considered to represent non-forested vegetation in the SRM classification found across the grazing allotments. The time period of analysis for this assessment across which production estimates were developed was also 2000-2015.