In the absence of active management, portions of large high-severity patches may convert from ponderosa pine forests to grasslands, shrublands, or other forest types. However, other portions of large high-severity patches, particularly cooler and wetter areas near surviving trees, may recover to ponderosa pine forests or woodlands. Where ponderosa pine forests do recover, the trees may be largely distributed in heterogeneous “groupy-clumpy” spatial patterns, rather than in random or uniform patterns. Planting in high-severity patches may be most successful where climate tends to be cooler and wetter, such as at higher elevations, as natural regeneration was most successful in these areas. Planting near downed logs or other vegetation may enhance regeneration success, though it may also increase their risk of mortality in a reburn. To mimic patterns of natural regeneration in ponderosa pine forests, planting can be done in groups.
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