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Keyword: Arizona

Small Mammals, Reptiles, and Amphibians

Publications Posted on: May 12, 2016
This chapter focuses on small mammals, reptiles, and amphibians that inhabit the grasslands within the Southwestern Region of the USDA Forest Service. The chapter is not intended to be an all inclusive list of species, but rather to address the species that play important roles in grassland ecosystems and that often are associated with the management of grasslands. Among the larger rodents discussed here are prairie dogs and pocket gophers.

Food habits of Bald Eagles breeding in the Arizona desert

Publications Posted on: May 12, 2016
Of 1814 foraging attempts, prey captures, or nest deliveries by Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in 14 Arizona breeding areas during 1983-1985, 1471 observations were identifiable to at least class: fish (76%), mammal (18%), bird (4%), and reptile/amphibian (2%). Forty-five species were recorded: catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Pylodictis olivaris), suckers (Catostomus insignis, C. clarki), and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were most common.

Ice fishing by wintering Bald Eagles in Arizona

Publications Posted on: May 12, 2016
Northern Arizona winters vary within and between years with occasional heavy snows (up to 0.6 m) and extreme cold (overnight lows -18 to -29°C) interspersed with dry periods, mild temperatures (daytime highs reaching 10°C), and general loss of snow cover at all but highest elevations. Lakes in the area may freeze and thaw partially or totally several times during a winter.

Evidence of Bald Eagles feeding on freshwater mussels

Publications Posted on: May 12, 2016
A 1978 study of the winter habitat of the Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Coconino National Forest, Arizona, indicated repeated and potentially heavy use of a freshwater mussel (Anodonta corpulenta) in the eagles’ diet. As many as 10 eagles (five adults and five immatures) were observed at Upper Lake Mary near Flagstaff when the junior author collected field data between 27 February and 10 March.

Southwestern Grassland Ecology

Publications Posted on: May 12, 2016
This chapter provides a brief overview, and selected in-depth coverage, of the factors and processes that have formed, and continue to shape, our Southwestern grasslands. In general, this chapter looks at how distributions of grasslands are regulated by soils and climate, and modified by disturbance (natural and/or anthropogenic).

Tools for Management for Grassland Ecosystem Sustainability: Thinking "Outside the Box"

Publications Posted on: May 12, 2016
Grassland ecosystem management is dynamic and has adapted to the development of new tools and ideas. Our ancestors were indirectly managing grasslands when they learned to move livestock to take advantage of better water and greener forage. One could argue that even their hunting of grassland wildlife, especially the use of fire to drive animals to waiting hunters, had an influence on local grassland ecology.

Effects of wildfire on densities of secondary cavity-nesting birds in ponderosa pine forests of northern Arizona

Publications Posted on: May 12, 2016
Many catastrophic wildfires burned throughout forests in Arizona during the spring and summer of 1996 owing to severely dry conditions. One result of these fires was a loss of preexisting tree cavities for reproduction. In ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests most cavities are found in dead trees; therefore, snags are a very important habitat component for cavity-nesting species.

Effects of wildfire severity on small mammals in northern Arizona ponderosa pine forests

Publications Posted on: May 12, 2016
We examined effects of a varied-severity wildfire on the community structure of small mammals and populations of the 2 most abundant species, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) and the gray-collared chipmunk (Tamias cinereicollis), in northern Arizona ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. We examined 2 fire severities and compared them to unburned controls.

Purpose and Need for a Grassland Assessment

Publications Posted on: May 12, 2016
This report is volume 1 of an ecological assessment of grassland ecosystems in the Southwestern United States, and it is one of a series of planned publications addressing major ecosystems of the Southwest. The first assessment, General Technical Report RM-GTR- 295, An Assessment of Forest Ecosystem Health in the Southwest (by Dahms and Geils, technical editors, published July 1997), covered forested ecosystems.

Historic and Current Conditions of Southwestern Grasslands

Publications Posted on: May 12, 2016
Southwestern grasslands today share general differences from their pre-Euro-American settlement conditions. With few exceptions, grasslands--whether in the desert, prairie, or mountains--were, prior to non-Indian settlement, more diverse in plant and animal species composition, more productive, more resilient, and better able to absorb the impact of disturbances.

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