Many ecosystems and landscapes are experiencing rapid and potentially persistent changes as the result of complex and potentially novel interactions of anthropogenic climate changes; shifting fire regimes; exotic plant, insect, and pathogen invasions; and industrial, agricultural, and urban development (Moritz and Agudo 2013; Joyce et al. 2014; Bone et al. 2016; Kolb et al. 2016; Smith et al. 2016; Stephens et al. 2016; Schoennagel et al.