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Keyword: ecosystems

A burning paradox: Whitebark is easy to kill but also dependent on fire

Publications Posted on: October 01, 2020
Many research studies and syntheses have suggested that prescribed fire (Rx fire) and wildland fire use fires (WFU) are perhaps the most effective tool for restoring whitebark pine ecosystems (Murray et al. 1995, Keane et al. 2012, Perkins 2015, Keane 2018). Rx and WFU fires can kill competing conifers; reduce surface and canopy fuels; and create attractive sites for nutcracker caching.

Discovering key relationships between forest disease/health and microbial communities

Publications Posted on: September 30, 2020
The forest pathology paradigm is shifting to include complex ecological interactions that contribute to disease development, such as 1) microbial communities associated with the soil or host plant that suppress or enhance disease; 2) invasive pathogens that are associated with new hosts in new environments; 3) host and pathogen populations that display different adaptation and ecological behaviors; 4) induced host resistance to disease that is

The need for rapid molecular diagnostics to distinguish biotypes of the myrtle rust pathogen (Austropuccinia psidii)

Publications Posted on: September 30, 2020
Austropuccinia psidii impacts numerous forest ecosystems world-wide by causing myrtle rust disease on many myrtaceous species, including guava (Psidium guajava), eucalypts (Eucalyptus spp.), rose apple (Syzygium jambos), and ‘ohi’a (Metrosideros polymorpha). First reported in 1884 on guava in Brazil, the rust has since been detected in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. At least three biotypes of A.

Phylogenetics and host distribution of Armillaria in riparian ecosystems of the northern Great Plains

Publications Posted on: September 30, 2020
Root disease pathogens, including Armillaria (Fr.) Staude, are a leading cause of growth loss and mortality of trees in forest ecosystems of North America (Lockman & Kearns 2016). This panglobal fungus can cause significant reductions in tree growth that can lead to mortality. Armillaria spp.

Forest and rangeland soil biodiversity [Chapter 5]

Publications Posted on: September 30, 2020
Regardless of how soil is defined, soils are the most diverse of all ecosystems. It is estimated that 25-30% of all species on Earth live in soils for all or part of their lives (Decaëns et al. 2006). A single gram of soil is estimated to contain 1 × 109 microorganisms, roughly the same population size as the number of humans in Africa (Microbiology by Numbers 2011). That same gram of soil likely contains 4000 species.

Soil mapping, monitoring, and assessment [Chapter 9]

Publications Posted on: September 30, 2020
Soils are a nonrenewable resource that support a wide array of ecosystem functions. The scope of these functions depends on the nature and properties of the soil at a given location on the Earth. Demand for better soil information has been growing since the development of soil science in the nineteenth century.

What can we do differently about the extreme wildfire problem: An overview [Chapter 13]

Publications Posted on: August 16, 2020
Fire is a natural process that has shaped the history of Earth long before human presence; imagining a “world without fires is like a sphere without roundness” ([1], p.599). Evidence that massive and intense fires naturally occurred throughout the Holocene [1e3] demonstrates that extreme wildfires events (EWEs) are not a recent reality.

Natural fuels

Publications Posted on: August 10, 2020
Wildland fuelbeds are diverse collections of biomass categorized specifically to compute fire behavior and effects. When wildland fuelbeds are created by solely “natural” processes, fire scientists, and managers often refer to these as natural fuels (Fig. 1). NWCG (2018) defines natural fuels as fuels resulting from natural processes and not directly generated or altered by land management practices.

Historical range and variation (HRV)

Publications Posted on: August 10, 2020
Many ecosystems and landscapes are experiencing rapid and potentially persistent changes as the result of complex and potentially novel interactions of anthropogenic climate changes; shifting fire regimes; exotic plant, insect, and pathogen invasions; and industrial, agricultural, and urban development (Moritz and Agudo 2013; Joyce et al. 2014; Bone et al. 2016; Kolb et al. 2016; Smith et al. 2016; Stephens et al. 2016; Schoennagel et al.

Fire ecology

Publications Posted on: August 10, 2020
Wildland fire is perhaps the most influential disturbance over vast areas in the modern world (Bowman et al. 2009). Fire is both a natural and anthropogenic disturbance influencing the distribution, structure, and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems around the world (Bond et al. 2005; Scott et al. 2014).