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Keyword: sediment

Wildfire contribution to desertification at local, regional, and global scales [Chapter 8]

Publications Posted on: July 08, 2019
Wildfire is a natural phenomenon that began with the development of terrestrial vegetation in a lightning-filled atmosphere of the Carboniferous Period (307-359 million years before the present). Sediment deposits from that era contain evidence of charcoal from post-fire ash slurry flows. As human populations developed in the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs, mankind transformed fire into one of its oldest tools.

Soil carbon and nitrogen eroded after severe wildfire and erosion mitigation treatments

Publications Posted on: July 08, 2019
Erosion of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) following severe wildfire may have deleterious effects on downstream resources and ecosystem recovery. Although C and N losses in combustion and runoff have been studied extensively, soil C and N transported by post-fire erosion has rarely been quantified in burned landscapes.

Effect of forest cover on water treatment costs

Science Spotlights Posted on: October 06, 2017
Intact forests preserve water quality in our lakes and streams, providing cost savings for municipal water providers. American water utilities spend millions of dollars protecting and improving their source water to ensure the delivery of safe drinking water. Knowing the value of this green infrastructure helps communities and land managers better steward the watersheds we rely on and helps the Forest Service better engage with stakeholders in watershed protection.

Rill erosion in burned and salvage logged western montane forests: Effects of logging equipment type, traffic level, and slash treatment

Publications Posted on: November 07, 2016
Following wildfires, forest managers often consider salvage logging burned trees to recover monetary value of timber, reduce fuel loads, or to meet other objectives. Relatively little is known about the cumulative hydrologic effects of wildfire and subsequent timber harvest using logging equipment.

Silt fences: An economical technique for measuring hillslope soil erosion

Publications Posted on: May 12, 2016
Measuring hillslope erosion has historically been a costly, time-consuming practice. An easy to install low-cost technique using silt fences (geotextile fabric) and tipping bucket rain gauges to measure onsite hillslope erosion was developed and tested. Equipment requirements, installation procedures, statistical design, and analysis methods for measuring hillslope erosion are discussed.

Watershed-scale evaluation of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model in the Lake Tahoe basin

Publications Posted on: April 21, 2016
Forest managers need methods to evaluate the impacts of management at the watershed scale. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) has the ability to model disturbed forested hillslopes, but has difficulty addressing some of the critical processes that are important at a watershed scale, including baseflow and water yield.

Sediment production from forest roads in western Oregon

Publications Posted on: January 12, 2016
Prevention and estimation of soil erosion from forest roads requires an understanding of how road design and maintenance affect sediment production. Seventy-four plots were installed on forest roads in the Oregon Coast Range to examine the relationship between sediment production and road attributes such as distance between culverts, road slope, soil texture, and cutslope height.

The remains of the dam: what have we learned from 15 years of US dam removals?

Publications Posted on: September 17, 2015
Important goals for studying dam removal are to learn how rivers respond to large and rapid introductions of sediment, and to develop predictive models to guide future dam removals. Achieving these goals requires organizing case histories systematically so that underlying physical mechanisms determining rates and styles of sediment erosion, transport, and deposition are revealed.

Effects of fine sediment on fish populations

Publications Posted on: May 14, 2015
To describe conditions in natural redds of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), we evaluated the particle size distribution of egg pockets, redd pits and tailspills, artificially constructed redds, and undisturbed substrate outside redds. Egg pockets were located in upper strata an average of 14.9 cm below the substrate surface. Egg pockets contained fewer fines (

Aquatic fate of aerially applied hexazinone and terbuthylazine in a New Zealand planted forest

Publications Posted on: April 15, 2015
Herbicides are used to control competing vegetation during tree establishment, and are often critical to the productivity and economic viability of a planted forest crop. Despite increasing public concern over herbicide use in planted forests and potential impact on the environment, there is limited information on the aquatic fate of many of these herbicides when applied in forests according to standard operational procedures.