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Keyword: snow

Going to great heights for data and atmospheric monitoring

Lab Notes Posted on: December 09, 2015
Going to Great Heights for Data and Atmospheric Monitoring Posted by Carita Chan, Research & Development, U.S. Forest Service, on March 31

Meteorological tower design for severe weather and remote locations

Publications Posted on: September 28, 2015
We have developed a robust meteorological tower for deployment in locations with extreme conditions and for applications that require relatively maintenance-free structures. The basic design consists of a triangular base with two horizontal rails on each side, and uprights at the triangle vertices for various instrument configurations. The fabrication materials include 6061-T6 aluminum pipe (schedule 40 or 80), and cast aluminum connectors.

The disposition of snow caught by conifer crowns

Publications Posted on: August 14, 2015
Snow interception studies during the warm winters of 1966-1967 and 1967-1968 in northern Idaho revealed that Douglas fir and western white pine saplings caught about one third of the snow that fell in 22 storms. More than 80% of the snow initially caught in the crowns ultimately reached the ground being washed off by subsequent rain, falling by direct mass release, or dripping as melting snow. Only a small portion was lost by evaporation.

Snow catch by conifer crowns

Publications Posted on: August 14, 2015
Study of interception storage of snow by two species of sapling conifers in northern Idaho revealed that cumulative snow catch follows the classical law of autocatakinetic growth, or [equation - see PDF] where I, is interception storage, e is the interception storage capacity of the tree, e is the base of the natural logarithm, k is a constant expressing the rate of interception storage, P is accumulated snowfall, and Po is accumulated snowfal

Diffusional flux of CO2 through snow: Spatial and temporal variability among alpine-subalpine sites

Publications Posted on: May 28, 2015
Three alpine and three subalpine sites were monitored for up to 4 years to acquire data on the temporal and spatial variability of CO2 flux through snowpacks. We conclude that the snow formed a passive cap which controlled the concentration of CO2 at the snow-soil interface, while the flux of CO2 into the atmosphere was controlled by CO2 production in the soil.

Ozone and carbon dioxide fluxes in a subalpine spruce-fir forest ecosystem

Publications Posted on: May 28, 2015
RMFRES RWU 4452 has made several ozone (O3) and carbon dioxide (CO2) trace gas flux measurements in the Snowy Range, WY GLEES research area over the past few years. These measurements were made using the micrometeorological eddy correlation technique at two sites: one 6 m above tree canopy height on the Brooklyn tower (ozone only); and the other below canopy height, 1-2m above a wet alpine meadow surface near the Brooklyn tower.

Sulfur dioxide reactions on ice surfaces: Implications for dry deposition to snow

Publications Posted on: May 28, 2015
Controlled exposure of ice to a reactive gas, SO2, demonstrated the importance of the chemical composition of the ice surface on the accumulation of acidity in snow. In a series of bench-scale continuous-flow column experiments run at four temperatures (-1, -8, -30 and -60°C), SO2 was shown to dissolve and to react with other species in the ice-air interfacial region at temperatures approaching the melting point of ice.

GLEES (Glacier Lakes Ecosystem Experiments Site)

Experimental Forests and Ranges Posted on: December 04, 2014
The Glacier Lakes Ecosystem Experiments Site is a high elevation wilderness-like site where research is conducted to determine the effects of atmospheric deposition and climate change on alpine and subalpine aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and the upper treeline ecotone. Long-term physical, chemical, and biological monitoring is an important component of the activities at GLEES.

Effects of snow on fisher and marten distributions in Idaho

Publications Posted on: October 01, 2013
Studies have suggested that deep snow may limit fisher (Martes pennanti) distribution, and that fisher populations may in turn limit marten (Martes americana) distribution. We tested these hypotheses in the Northern Rocky Mountains of Idaho, a region which differs from previous study areas in its climate and relative fisher and marten abundance, but in which very little is known about their distributions.

An evaluation of the hydrologic relevance of lateral flow in snow at hillslope and catchment scales

Publications Posted on: February 06, 2013
Lateral downslope flow in snow during snowmelt and rain-on-snow (ROS) events is a well-known phenomenon, yet its relevance to water redistribution at hillslope and catchment scales is not well understood. We used dye tracers, geophysical methods, and hydrometric measurements to describe the snow properties that promote lateral flow, assess the relative velocities of lateral flow in snow and soil, and estimate volumes of downslope flow.