Changes in forest vegetation as a result of fire exclusion, sheep and cattle grazing, and large-tree logging have been well documented for western forests (Agee 1998; Arno et al. 1997; Covington and Moore 1994; Everett et al. 2000; Harrod et al. 1999; Hessburg and Agee 2003; Hessburg et al. 2000, 2005). These changes in forest structure and composition have increased the hazard of large, highseverity wildfires (Agee 1994, Peterson et al.