Bark beetles are the most important disturbance agents of western conifer forests, with more area impaced annually than wildfires. All forest values (fiber production, watershed, recreation, etc.) are substantially affected by bark beetle disturbance. Additional research is needed to enable prediction of bark beetles outbreaks in space and time so that management strategies can be initiated early. Greater understanding of outbreak effects on ecological processes will enable enlightened management of beetles and the forest they infest: negative impacts can be mitigated and positive impacts encouraged or mimicked through vegetation treatments. Novel strategies are needed to increase efficacy of management strategies.