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Ned B. Klopfenstein

Research Plant Pathologist

Research Plant Pathologist

1221 South Main Street
Moscow, ID 83843
Contact Ned B. Klopfenstein

Current Research

My current research studies include molecular diagnostics (root pathogens, foliar pathogens, fungal endophytes, fungal decomposers) and evolutionary relationships among forest hosts and pathogens. My research also explores population genetics of forest hosts and pathogens, genetic relationships among forest hosts and pathogens in the northern hemisphere, the role of soil microflora in forest health, gene expression of forest pathogens causing disease, predicting potentially invasive pathogens, and influences of climate, disturbances, and other environmental factors on forest hosts, pathogens, and beneficial microbes.

Research Interests

My research interests are numerous, but include forest pathology, molecular diagnostics of forest microbes, population genetics of forest hosts and pathogens, phylogenetics of forest pathogens, predicting invasive forest pathogens, predicting climate-change impact on forest disease, environmental influences on genetic structure of forest hosts and pathogens, woody plant defense systems, host/parasite interactions, expression of pathogen genes related to disease, the role of soil microbes in forest health, and woody plant endophytes and symbioses.

Past Research

My earlier research included molecular genetics of Populus spp., especially related to plant defense.

Why This Research is Important

Forest pathogens (the cause of forest disease) and other beneficial forest microbes are key regulators of the growth, sustainability, productivity, and carbon sequestration of forests. Forest disease causes more long-term damage to forest productivity than any other natural disturbance, but this damage is frequently attributed to other factors. Furthermore, severe threats from invasive pathogens and diseases related to climate change continue to rise, and information is needed to address these threats. Precise DNA-based identification of forest pathogens and beneficial microbes is essential to determine their distribution, ecological role, and predictions of future behavior (including invasiveness), so that appropriate management practices can be developed and/or applied. Further understanding the genetic-based interactions of pathogens, host trees, and the abiotic and biotic environment is critical to managing forest diseases and maintaining healthy, sustainable, and resilient forests in a changing environment.


  • Iowa State University, Ph.D., Plant Pathology, 1985
  • Iowa State University, Ames, IA, B.S., Biology, with a minor in Chemistry, 1976
  • Awards

    Certificate of Merit, 2012
    for contributions to the Civil Rights Committee as a lab representative
    Award, 2012
    Co-recipient of RMRS Science You Can Use Bulletin Award for Range-wide Diversity of Western White Pine Populations (with Bryce Richardson and Marcus Warwell)
    Certificate of Merit, 2011
    for contributions to the Civil Rights Committee as a lab representative
    Certificate of Merit from the RMRS Civil Rights Committee, 2003
    for active leadership in Helping Orient Indian Students and Teachers to Science and Mathematics
    Award from the RMRS Civil Rights Committee, 2000
    In appreciation for your outreach to Native American youth through the HOIST program
    Spot award and certificate of appreciation, 1999
    participation in the Hantavirus cleanup, above and beyond the call of duty at the USDA Forest Service, Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Moscow, ID
    Spot award, 1999
    contributions to an outreach program directed toward Native American high school students. The HOIST (Helping Orient Indian Students & Teachers to Science and Mathematics) program was sponsored by the University of Idaho
    Cerificate of Appreciation from Tennessee State University, 1999
    for discussions with students and associated presentation on Genetic studies in forest pathology and approaches toward understanding forest ecosystem processes"

    Featured Publications


    Almeida, Rosiane F.; Machado, Patrícia S.; Damacena, Michelle B.; Santos, Samuel A.; Guimaraes, Lucio M. S.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Alfenas, Acelino C., 2021. A new, highly aggressive race of Austropuccinia psidii infects a widely planted, myrtle rust-resistant eucalypt genotype in Brazil
    Watts, Andrea; Kim, Mee-Sook; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Stewart, Jane, 2021. Disease detectives: Mapping the risk of invasive forest pathogens under a changing climate
    Warwell, Marcus V.; Hanna, John W.; McDonald, Geral; Kim, Mee-Sook; Lalande, Bradley M.; Stewart, Jane E.; Bright, Benjamin C.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2020. Armillaria altimontana, a potential natural biological control against Armillaria root disease
    Lalande, Bradley M.; Hanna, John W.; Warwell, Marcus V.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Stewart, Jane E., 2020. Assessing soil microbial communities associated with tree health in a western white pine (Pinus monticola) stand
    Hanna, John W.; Mulvey, R. L.; Kim, M. -S.; Stewart, J. E.; Bright, B. C.; Warwell, Marcus V.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2020. Bioclimatic modeling of Armillaria species in southeastern Alaska, including potentially invasive Armillaria species under changing climate
    Kim, Mee-Sook; Garfinkel, Andrea R.; Cannon, Phil; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Stewart, Jane E., 2020. Development of tools for detecting, monitoring, and managing brown root rot (caused by Phellius noxius) in the Pacific Islands
    Stewart, Jane E.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Lalande, Brad; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2020. Discovering key relationships between forest disease/health and microbial communities
    Schlub, Robert L.; Ayin, Caleb M.; Alvarez, Anne M.; Paudel, Sujan; Arif, Mohammad; Marx, Brian D.; Husseneder, Claudia; Schlub, Karl A.; Quintanilla, Marisol; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kennaway, Lisa F.; Zhang, Yong; Zhong, Chonglu; Nicodemus, Abel, 2020. Ecology of Guam’s Casuarina equisetifolia and research into its decline
    Caballero, Jorge R. Ibarra; Ata, Jessa P.; Leddy, K. A.; Glenn, Travis C.; Kieran, Troy J.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Stewart, Jane E., 2020. Genome comparison and transcriptome analysis of the invasive brown root rot pathogen, Phellinus noxius, from different geographic regions reveals potential enzymes associated with degradation of different wood substrates
    Garfinkel, Andrea R.; Cannon, Phil G.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Stewart, Jane E.; Kim, Mee-Sook, 2020. Identification of genetic groups within the invasive brown root rot pathogen, Pyrrhoderma noxium (formerly phellinus noxius)
    Hanna, John W.; Kim, M. -S.; Ramsey, A. C.; Omdal, D. W.; Mulvey, R. L.; Goodrich, B. A.; Ferguson, B. A.; Bronson, J. J.; Goheen, E. M.; Chadwick, K. L.; Kearns, H. S. J.; Lockman, I. B.; LaBarge, A. K. B.; Stewart, J. E.; Maffei, H. M.; Oblinger, B. W.; Smith, A. L.; Ross-Davis, Amy; Shaw, D. C.; LeBoldus, J. M.; Bennett, P. I; Alveshere, B. C.; Ashiglar, S. M.; McDonald, G. I; Pitman, E. W. I; Donley, J. B.; Bright, B. C.; Warwell, Marcus V.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2020. Maximum entropy-based bioclimatic models predict areas of current and future suitable habitat for Armillaria species in western Oregon and western Washington
    Stewart, Jane E.; Dobbs, John T.; Fraedrich, Stephen; Reynolds, Gregory J.; Dumroese, Kasten; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kim, Mee-Sook, 2020. Molecular characterization of Fusarium species associated with damping-off of conifer seedlings in tree nurseries
    Sitz, Rachael A.; Hanna, John W.; Stewart, Jane E.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Cannon, Phil G.; Oblinger, Brent W.; Blodgett, Jim T.; Guyon, John C.; Hebertson, Liz G.; Mulvey, Robin L.; Westlind, Doug J.; Bronson, Josh J.; Ramsey, Amy C.; Ashiglar, Sara M.; Fischer, Melissa J.; Woodruff, Bill; Reynolds, Greg J.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2020. Molecular identification and characterization of root diseases in the western USA
    Stewart, J. E.; Kim, M. S.; Ota, Y.; Sahashi, N.; Hanna, John W.; Akiba, M.; Ata, J. P.; Atibalentia, N.; Brooks, F.; Chung, C.-L; Dann, E. K.; Mohd Farid, A.; Hattori, T.; Lee, S. S.; Otto, K.; Pegg, G. S.; Schlub, R. L.; Shuey, L. S.; Tang, A. M. C.; Tsai, J.-N; Cannon, P. G.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2020. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses reveal three distinct lineages of the invasive brown root-rot pathogen, Phellinus noxius, and bioclimatic modeling predicts differences in associated climate niches
    McMurtrey, Shawn B.; Alveshere, Brandon C.; Bennett, Patrick I; Kim, Mee-Sook; Hanna, John W.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Blodgett, James T.; LeBoldus, Jared M., 2020. Phylogenetics and host distribution of Armillaria in riparian ecosystems of the northern Great Plains
    Alveshere, Brandon C.; McMurtrey, Shawn; Bennett, Patrick; Kim, Mee-Sook; Hanna, John W.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Blodgett, James T.; LeBoldus, Jared M., 2020. Phylogeography and host range of Armillaria gallica in riparian forests of the northern Great Plains, USA
    Elías-Roman, Ruben Damian; Calderon-Zavala, Guillermo; Guzman-Mendoza, Rafael; Vallejo, Moises; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Mora-Aguilera, J. Antonio., 2020. Testing resistance of rootstock materials for managing Armillaria root disease in peach orchards of Mexico
    Sitz, Rachael A.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Cannon, Phil G.; Alfenas, Acelino C.; Glen, Morag; McTaggart, Alistair R.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Stewart, Jane E., 2020. The need for rapid molecular diagnostics to distinguish biotypes of the myrtle rust pathogen (Austropuccinia psidii)
    Hanna, John W.; Warwell, Marcus V.; Sitz, R. A.; Guyon, J. C.; Hebertson, E. G.; Saavedra, A. L.; Blodgett, J. T.; Kim, M.-S; Stewart, J. E.; Ashiglar, S. M.; McDonald, G. I; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2020. Toward DNA-based and bioclimatic modeling tools to identify Armillaria pathogens, predict host/pathogen distributions, and manage Armillaria root disease in the Intermountain Region under changing environments
    Dobbs, John T.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Dudley, Nicklos S.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Yeh, Aileen; Hauff, Robert D.; Jones, Tyler C.; Dumroese, Kasten; Cannon, Philip G.; Stewart, Jane E., 2020. Whole genome analysis of the koa wilt pathogen (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. koae) and the development of molecular tools for early detection and monitoring
    Warwell, Marcus V.; McDonald, Geral; Hanna, John W.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Lalande, Bradley M.; Stewart, Jane E.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2019. Armillaria altimontana is associated with healthy western white pine (Pinus monticola): Potential in situ biological control of the Armillaria root disease pathogen, A. solidipes
    Warwell, Marcus V.; Hanna, John W.; McDonald, Geral; Kim, Mee-Sook; Lalande, Bradley M.; Stewart, Jane E.; Bright, Ben C.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2019. Armillaria altimontana is not associated with reduced growth or survival of western white pine (Pinus monticola) planted in northern Idaho
    Hanna, John W.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Ramsey, Amy C.; Omdal, Dan W.; Mulvey, Robin L.; Goodrich, Betsy; Ferguson, Brennan A.; Bronson, Josh J.; Chadwick, Kristen L.; Stewart, Jane E.; Maffei, Helen M.; McDonald, Geral; Pitman, Eric W. I; Warwell, Marcus V.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2019. Assessing potential Armillaria spp. distributions in western Oregon, western Washington, and Alaska
    Dobbs, John T.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Dudley, Nicklos S.; Jones, Tyler C.; Dumroese, Kasten; Cannon, Phil G.; Hauff, Robert D.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Stewart, Jane E., 2019. Development of tools for early detection, monitoring and management of the koa wilt pathogen (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. koae) in Hawaiíi
    Caballero, Jorge R. Ibarra; Jeon, Jongbum; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Fraedrich, Stephen; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Stewart, Jane E., 2019. Genomic comparisons of the laurel wilt pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, and related tree pathogens highlight an arsenal of pathogenicity related genes
    Lalande, Bradley; Abdo, Zaid; Hanna, John W.; Page-Dumroese, Deborah S.; Warwell, Marcus V.; Tirocke, Joanne M.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Stewart, Jane E., 2019. Metagenomic approaches to determine soil microbial communities associated with Armillaria root disease
    Fonseca, Natalia R.; Caballero, Jorge Ibarra; Kim, Mee‐Sook; Stewart, Jane E.; Guimaraes, Lucio M. S.; Alfenas, Acelino C.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2019. Transcriptome analysis of a powdery mildew pathogen (Podosphaera pannosa) infecting Eucalyptus urophylla: De novo assembly, expression profiling and secretome prediction
    Elias-Roman, Ruben Damian; Calderon-Zavala, Guillermo; Guzman-Mendoza, Rafael; Vallejo-Perez, Moises Roberto; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Mora-Aguilera, Jose Antonio., 2019. ‘Mondragon’: A clonal plum rootstock to enhance management of Armillaria root disease in peach orchards of Mexico
    Elias-Roman, Ruen Damian; Medel-Ortiz, Rosario; Alvarado-Rosales, Dionicio; Hanna, John W.; Ross-Davis, Amy; Kim, Mee-Sook; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2018. Armillaria mexicana, a newly described species from Mexico
    Ross-Davis, Amy; Graca, Rodrigo N.; Alfenas, Acelino C.; Peever, Tobin L.; Hanna, John W.; Uchida, Janice Y.; Hauff, Rob D.; Kadooka, Chris Y.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Cannon, Phil G.; Namba, Shigetou; Minato, Nami; Simeto, Sofia; Perez, Carlos A.; Rayamajhi, Min B.; Moran, Mauricio; Lodge, D. Jean; Arguedas, Marcela; Medel-Ortiz, Rosario; Lopez-Ramirez, M. Armando; Tennant, Paula; Glen, Morag; McTaggart, Alistair; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2018. Genetic and genotypic diversity of Puccinia psidii - the cause of guava/eucalypt/myrtle rust - and preliminary predictions of global areas at risk
    Park, Ki Hyeong; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Park, Myung Soo; Kim, Mee-Sook; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kim, Nam Kyu; Park, Jae Young; Kim, Jae-Jin; Han, Sang-Kuk; Lee, Jong Kyu; Lim, Young Woon, 2018. Re-evaluation of Armillaria and Desarmillaria in South Korea based on ITS/tef1 sequences and morphological characteristics
    Jeon, Jongbum; Kim, Ki-Tae; Song, Hyeunjeong; Lee, Gir-Won; Cheong, Kyeongchae; Kim, Hyunbin; Choi, Gobong; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Stewart, Jane E.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kim, Mee-Sook, 2017. Draft genome sequence of the fungus associated with oak-wilt mortality in South Korea, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae KACC44405
    Fonseca, Natalia R.; Guimaraes, Lucio M. S.; Pires, Raul P.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Alfenas, Acelino C., 2017. Eucalypt powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera pannosa in Brazil
    Kim, M. -S.; Fonseca, N. R.; Hauff, R. D.; Cannon, P. G.; Hanna, John W.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2017. First report of the root-rot pathogen, Armillaria gallica, on koa (Acacia koa) and 'Ohi'a lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) on the island of Kaua'i, Hawai'i
    Stewart, J. E.; Ross-Davis, Amy; Graҫa, R. N.; Alfenas, A. C.; Peever, T. L.; Hanna, John W.; Uchida, J. Y.; Hauff, R. D.; Kadooka, C. Y.; Kim, M.-S.; Cannon, P. G.; Namba, S.; Simeto, S.; Pérez, C. A.; Rayamajhi, M. B.; Lodge, D.J.; Arguedas, M.; Medel-Ortiz, R.; López-Ramirez, M. A.; Tennant, P.; Glen, M.; Machado, P. S.; McTaggart, A. R.; Carnegie, A. J.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Cleary, M., 2017. Genetic diversity of the myrtle rust pathogen (Austropuccinia psidii) in the Americas and Hawaii: Global implications for invasive threat assessments
    Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Stewart, Jane E.; Ota, Yuko; Hanna, John W.; Richardson, Bryce A.; Ross-Davis, Amy; Elias-Roman, Ruben D.; Korhonen, Kari; Keca, Nenad; Iturritxa, Eugenia; Alvarado-Rosales, Dionicio; Solheim, Halvor; Brazee, Nicholas J.; Lakomy, Piotr; Cleary, Michelle R.; Hasegawa, Eri; Kikuchi, Taisei; Garza-Ocanas, Fortunato; Tsopelas, Panaghiotis; Rigling, Daniel; Prospero, Simone; Tsykun, Tetyana; Berube, Jean A.; Stefani, Franck O. P.; Jafarpour, Saeideh; Antonin, Vladimir; Tomsovsky, Michal; McDonald, Geral I.; Woodward, Stephen; Kim, Mee-Sook, 2017. Insights into the phylogeny of Northern Hemisphere Armillaria: Neighbor-net and Bayesian analyses of translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences
    Stewart, J. E.; Sahashi, N.; Hattori, T.; Akiba, M.; Ota, Y.; Shuey, L.; Schlub, R. L.; Atibalentia, N.; Brooks, F.; Tang, A. M. C.; Lam, R. Y. C.; Leung, M. W. K.; Chu, L. M.; Kwan, H. S.; Farid, A. Mohd; Lee, S. S.; Chung, C. -L.; Lee, H. -H.; Huang, Y.- C.; Liou, R. -F.; Tsai, J. -N.; Cannon, P. G.; Hanna, John W.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kim, M. -S., 2017. Phylogenetic and population analyses of the invasive brown root-rot pathogen (Phellinus noxius) highlight the existence of at least two distinct populations
    Hanna, John W.; Kim, M. -S.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Ramsey, A. C.; Omdal, D. W.; Mulvey, R. L.; Goodrich, B. A.; Ferguson, B. A.; Winton, L. M.; Goheen, E. M.; Bronson, J. J.; Kearns, H. S. J.; Chadwick, K. L.; Murray, M.; Shaw, D. C.; McDonald, G. I.; Pitman, E. W. I.; Warwell, Marcus V., 2017. Toward a west-wide model of Armillaria root disease: New surveys needed in western Oregon, western Washington, and Alaska
    Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Pitman, Eric W. I.; Hanna, John W.; Cannon, Phil G.; Stewart, Jane E.; Sahashi, Norio; Ota, Yuko; Hattori, Tsutomu; Akiba, Mitsuteru; Shuey, Louise; Schlub, Robert L.; Brooks, Fred; Atibalentja, Ndeme; Tang, Alvin M. C.; Lam, Regent Y. C.; Leung, Mike W. K.; Chu, L. M.; Kwan, H. S.; Farid bin Ahmad, Mohd; Lee, Su See; Lee, Hsin-Han; Tsai, Jyh-Nong; Huang, Yu-Ching; Chung, Chia-Lin; Liou, Ruey-Fen; Kim, Mee-Sook, 2016. A preliminary bioclimatic approach to predicting potential distribution of Phellinus noxious and geographical areas at risk from invasion
    Jafarpour, Saeideh; Fotouhifar, Khalil-Berdi; Javan-Nikhhah, Mohammad; Asef, Mohhamad Reza; Davis, Anthony S.; Ross-Davis, Amy; Hanna, John W.; Margaritescu, Simona; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2016. An integrated taxonomic approach to survey Armillaria in Iran
    Hanna, John W.; Warwell, M. V.; Maffei, H.; Fairweather, M. L.; Blodgett, J. T.; Zambino, P. J.; Worrall, J.; Burns, K. S.; Jacobs, J. J.; Ashiglar, S. M.; Lundquist, J. E.; Kim, M. -S.; Ross-Davis, Amy; Hoffman, C.; Mathiasen, R.; Hofstetter, R.; Shaw, John D.; Pitman, E. W. I.; Nelson, E. V.; McDonald, Geral I.; Cleary, M. R.; Brar, S.; Richardson, B.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2016. Bioclimatic modeling predicts potential distribution of Armillaria solidipes and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) under contemporary and changing climates in the interior western U.S.A
    Kim, Mee-Sook; Ross-Davis, Amy; Stewart, Jane E.; Hanna, John W.; Warwell, Marcus V.; Zambino, Paul J.; Cleaver, Christy; McDonald, Geral I.; Page-Dumroese, Deborah S.; Moltzan, Bruce; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2016. Can metagenetic studies of soil microbial communities provide insights toward developing novel management approaches for Armillaria root disease?
    Ross-Davis, Amy; Stewart, Jane E.; Settles, Matt; Hanna, John W.; Shaw, John D.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Page-Dumroese, Deborah S.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2016. Fine-scale variability of forest soil fungal communities in two contrasting habitat series in northern Idaho, USA identified with microbial metagenomics
    Stewart, J. E.; Otto, K.; Cline, G. A.; Dumroese, Kasten; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kim, M. -S., 2016. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing Fusarium root disease on sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) in a forest container nursery in California
    Kim, M. -S.; Hohenlohe, P. A.; Kim, K. -H.; Seo, S. -T.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2016. Genetic diversity and population structure of Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, a fungus associated with oak mortality in South Korea
    Fonseca, N. R.; Guimaraes, L. M. S.; Pires, R. P.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kim, M. -S.; Alfenas, A. C., 2016. Ongoing molecular studies of Eucalyptus powdery mildew in Brazil
    Stewart, Jane E.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Shuey, Louise; Sahashi, Norio; Ota, Yuko; Schlub, Robert L.; Cannon, Phil G.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2016. Population genomic analyses of the brown root-rot pathogen, Phellinus noxius, examine potential invasive spread among Pacific islands
    Ashiglar, Sara M.; Cannon, Phil G.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2015. Aggressive root pathogen Phellinus noxius and implications for western Pacific Islands
    Blodgett, James T.; Hanna, John W.; Pitman, Eric W. I.; Ashiglar, Sara M.; Lundquist, John E.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Ross-Davis, Amy; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2015. Bioclimatic models estimate areas with suitable climate for Armillaria spp. in Wyoming
    Ashiglar, Sara M.; Cannon, Phil G.; Schlub, Robert L.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Ota, Yuko; Sahashi, Norio; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2015. DNA-based characterization of wood-, butt- and root-rot fungi from the western Pacific Islands
    Kim, Mee-Sook; Stewart, Jane E.; Dudley, Nicklos; Dobbs, John; Jones, Tyler; Cannon, Phil G.; James, Robert L.; Dumroese, Kasten; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2015. Molecular genetic characterization of the koa-wilt pathogen (Fusarium oxysporum): Application of molecular genetic tools toward improving koa restoration in Hawai'i
    Ashiglar, S. M.; Brooks, F.; Cannon, Phil G.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2015. Preliminary survey of wood-associated fungi in southeast O'ahu of Hawai'i using DNA-based identification
    Ross-Davis, Amy; Settles, Matt; Hanna, John W.; Shaw, John D.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Page-Dumroese, Deborah S.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2015. Using a metagenomic approach to improve our understanding of Armillaria root disease
    Cannon, Phil; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Schlub, Robert L.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Ota, Yuko; Sahashi, Norio; Quitugua, Roland J.; Hanna, John W.; Ross-Davis, Amy; Sweeney, J. D., 2014. Characterizing butt-rot fungi on USA-affiliated islands in the western Pacific
    Cannon, Phil; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Ota, Yuko; Sahashi, Norio; Schlub, Robert L.; Brown, Roger; Ashiglar, Sara M.; Ross-Davis, Amy; Hanna, John W., 2014. Characterizing forest root‐ and butt‐rot fungi in Yap, Palau, Pohnpei, Kosrae, Guam and Saipan [Chapter III]
    Hanna, John W.; Blodgett, James T.; Pitman, Eric W. I.; Ashiglar, Sarah M.; Lundquist, John E.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Ross-Davis, Amy; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2014. Climate-based species distribution models for Armillaria solidipes in Wyoming: A preliminary assessment
    Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Hanna, John W.; Cannon, P. G.; Medel-Ortiz, R.; Alvarado-Rosales, D.; Lorea-Hernandez, F.; Elias-Roman, R. D.; Kim, M. -S., 2014. First report of the Armillaria root-disease pathogen, Armillaria gallica, associated with several woody hosts in three states of Mexico
    Ross-Davis, Amy; Stewart, Jane E.; Hanna, John W.; Shaw, John D.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Jain, Terrie B.; Denner, Robert J.; Graham, Russell T.; Page-Dumroese, Deborah S.; Tirocke, Joanne M.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2014. Forest soil microbial communities: Using metagenomic approaches to survey permanent plots
    Keca, N.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kim, M.-S.; Solheim, H.; Woodward, S., 2014. Initial characterization of unidentified Armillaria isolate from Serbia using LSU-IGS1 and TEF-1a genes
    Cannon, Phil G.; Ruegorong, Francis; Liegel, Puis; Guerrero, Victor; Schlub, Robert L.; Sigrah, Leonard; Nithan, Maxon; Charley, Blair; Ashiglar, Sara M.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Gavenda, Bob; Friday, Katie; Waguk, Erick; Ota, Yuko; Sahashi, Norio; Santos, Gibson; Samuel, Rodasio, 2014. Next logical steps in forest pathology activities for Guam, Saipan, Yap, Palau, Pohnpei, and Kosrae [Chapter X]
    Cannon, Phil G.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Ota, Yuko; Sahashi, Norio; Schlub, Robert L.; Santos, Gibson; Samuel, Rodasio; Ruegorong, Francis; Nithan, Maxson; Charley, Blair; Waguk, Erick; Quitugua, Roland; Lehman, Ashley; Engleberger, Konrad; Guerrero, Victor; Cabrerra, Sid; Tenorio, Manny; Route, Arnold, 2014. Phellinus noxius in Guam, Saipan, Yap, Palau, Pohnpei and Kosrae [Chapter IV]
    Hoffman, Christ W.; Mathiasen, Robert L.; Hofstetter, Richard W.; Fairweather, Mary Lou; Shaw, John D.; Hanna, John W.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2014. Survey for Armillaria by plant associations in northern Arizona
    Cannon, Phil G.; Falanruw, Margie; Ruegorong, Francis; MacKenzie, Rich; Friday, Katie; Ross-Davis, Amy; Ashiglar, Sara M.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Liu, Zhangfeng; Golabi, Mohammad; Iyekar, Chancy Thomas, 2014. The causes of mangrove death on Yap, Palau, Pohnpei and Kosrae [Chapter II]
    Ross-Davis, Amy; Graca, Rodrigo N.; Alfenas, Acelino C.; Peever, Tobin L.; Hanna, John W.; Uchida, Janice Y.; Hauff, Rob D.; Kadooka, Chris Y.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Cannon, Phil G.; Namba, Shigetou; Minato, Nami; Simeto, Sofia; Perez, Carlos A.; Rayamajhi, Min B.; Moran, Mauricio; Lodge, D. Jean; Arguedas, Marcela; Medel-Ortiz, Rosario; Lopez-Ramirez, M. Armando; Tennant, Paula; Glen, Morag; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2014. Tracking the distribution of Puccinia psidii genotypes that cause rust disease on diverse myrtaceous trees and shrubs
    Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Hanna, John W.; Ross-Davis, Amy; Stewart, Jane E.; Ota, Yuko; Medel-Ortiz, Rosario; Lopez-Ramirez, Miguel Armando; Elias-Roman, Ruben Damian; Alvarado-Rosales, Dionicio; Kim, Mee-Sook, 2013. Armillaria phylogeny based on tef-1α sequences suggests ongoing divergent speciation within the boreal floristic kingdom
    Case, Anna E.; Ashiglar, Sara M.; Cannon, Phil G.; Militante, Ernesto P.; Tadiosa, Edwin R.; Quintos-Manalo, Mutya; Pampolina, Nelson M.; Hanna, John W.; Brooks, Fred E.; Ross-Davis, Amy; Kim, Mee-Sook; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2013. DNA-based approaches to identify forest fungi in Pacific Islands: A pilot study
    Elias-Roman, Ruben D.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Alvarado-Rosales, Dionicio; Hanna, John W.; Ross-Davis, Amy; Guzman-Plazola, Remigio Anastacio; Calderon-Zavala, Guillermo; Mora-Aguilera, Antonio, 2013. DNA-based identification of Armillaria isolates from peach [Prunus persica (l.) batsch] orchards in méxico state, Mexico
    Rayamajhi, M. B.; Pratt, P. D.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Ross-Davis, A. L.; Rodgers, L., 2013. First report of Puccinia psidii caused rust disease epiphytotic on the invasive shrub Rhodomyrtus tomentosa in Florida
    Ross-Davis, Amy; Kim, Mee-Sook; Stewart, Jane E.; Hanna, John W.; Shaw, John D.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2013. From diagnostics to metagenomics: Applications of DNA-based tools in forest pathology
    Elias-Roman, R. D.; Guzman-Plazola, R. A.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Alvarado-Rosales, D.; Calderon-Zavala, G.; Mora-Aguilera, J. A.; Kim, M.-S.; Garcia-Espinosa, R., 2013. Incidence and phylogenetic analyses of Armillaria spp. associated with root disease in peach orchards in the State of Mexico, Mexico
    Cook, R. James; Edmonds, Robert L.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Littke, Willis; McDonald, Geral; Omdahl, Daniel; Ripley, Karen; Shaw, Charles G.; Sturrock, Rona; Zambino, Paul, 2013. Opportunities for addressing laminated root rot caused by Phellinus sulphuracens in Washington's forests: A Report from the Washington State Academy of Sciences in cooperation with the Washington State Department of Natural Resources
    Hines, Sarah; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Richardson, Bryce A.; Warwell, Marcus V.; Kim, Mee-Sook, 2013. Return of the king: Western white pine conservation and restoration in a changing climate
    Graca, Rodrigo N.; Ross-Davis, Amy; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Peever, Tobin L.; Cannon, Phil G.; Aun, Cristina P.; Mizubuti, Eduardo G.; Alfenas, Acelino C., 2013. Rust disease of eucalypts, caused by Puccinia psidii, did not originate via host jump from guava in Brazil
    Ross-Davis, Amy; Stewart, J. E.; Hanna, John W.; Kim, M.-S.; Knaus, B. J.; Cronn, R.; Rai, H.; Richardson, Bryce A.; McDonald, G. I.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2013. Transcriptome of an Armillaria root disease pathogen reveals candidate genes involved in host substrate utilization at the host-pathogen interface
    Hanna, John W.; Graca, R. N.; Kim, M. -S.; Ross-Davis, A. L.; Hauff, R. D.; Uchida, J. W.; Kadooka, C. Y.; Rayamajhi, M. B.; Arguedas Gamboa, M.; Lodge, D. J.; Medel-Ortiz, R. Medel; Lopez Ramirez, A.; Cannon, P. G.; Alfenas, A. C.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2012. A bioclimatic approach to predict global regions with suitable climate space for Puccina psidii
    Kim, Mee-Sook; Hanna, John W.; Ross-Davis, Amy; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2012. Application of molecular genetic tools for forest pathology
    Hanna, John W.; Ashiglar, Sara; Case, Anna; Fairweather, Mary Lou; Hoffman, Chris; Kim, Mee-Sook; Maffei, Helen; Mathiasen, Robert; McDonald, Geral; Nelson, Erik; Ross-Davis, Amy; Shaw, John D.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2012. Armillaria root disease in the western USA
    Roman, Ruben Damian Elias; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Rosales, Dionicio Alvarado; Kim, Mee-Sook; Case, Anna E.; Ashiglar, Sara M.; Hanna, John W.; Ross-Davis, Amy L.; Guzman Plazola, Remigio A., 2012. DNA-based identification of Armillaria isolates from peach orchards in Mexico state
    Ross-Davis, Amy L.; Stewart, Jane E.; Hanna, John W.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Cronn, Rich C.; Rai, Hardeep S.; Richardson, Bryce A.; McDonald, Geral I.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2012. De novo assembly and transcriptome characterization of an Armillaria solidipes mycelial fan
    Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Hanna, John W.; Fairweather, M. L.; Shaw, J. D.; Mathiasen, R.; Hoffman, C.; Nelson, E.; Kim, M. -S.; Ross-Davis, A. L., 2012. Developing a prediction model for Armillaria solidipes in Arizona
    Hanna, John W.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kim, M. -S.; Ashiglar, S. M.; Ross-Davis, A. L.; McDonald, G. I., 2012. Discovery of cryptic Armillaria solidipes genotypes within the Colorado Plateau
    Kim, Mee-Sook; Stewart, Jane E.; Dumroese, Kasten; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2012. Occurrence of the root-rot pathogen, Fusarium commune, in forest nurseries of the midwestern and western United States
    Stewart, J. E.; Dumroese, Kasten; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kim, M. -S., 2012. Occurrence of the root-rot pathogen, Fusarium commune, in midwestern and western United States
    Stewart, J. E.; Abdo, Z.; Dumroese, Kasten; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kim, M. -S., 2012. Virulence of Fusarium oxysporum and F. commune to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings
    Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Hanna, John W.; Graca, R. N.; Ross-Davis, A. L.; Cannon, P. G.; Alfenas, A. C.; Kim, M. -S., 2011. Approaches to predicting current and future distributions of Puccinia psidii in South America under climate change scenarios
    Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Hanna, John W.; Richardson, Bryce A.; Lundquist, John E., 2011. Approaches to predicting potential impacts of climate change on forest disease: An example with Armillaria root disease
    Ross-Davis, Amy L.; Hanna, John W.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2011. DNA-based identification and phylogeny of North American Armillaria species
    Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Geils, Brian W., 2011. II. Pathogens
    Graca, R. N.; Alfenas, A. C.; Ross-Davis, A. L.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kim, M. -S.; Peever, T. L.; Cannon, P. G.; Uchida, J. Y.; Kadooka, C. Y.; Hauff, R. D., 2011. Multilocus genotypes indicate differentiation among Puccinia psidii populations from South America and Hawaii
    McDonald, Geral I.; Hanna, John W.; Smith, Aaron L.; Maffei, Helen M.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Ross-Davis, Amy L.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2011. Preliminary report on the ecology of Armillaria in the East Cascades of Oregon
    Graca, Rodrigo Neves; Ross-Davis, Amy; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kim, Mee Sook; Peever, Tobin; Cannon, Phil; Uchida, Janice; Alfenas, Acelino Couto, 2011. Tracking down worldwide Puccinia psidii dispersal
    Richardson, Bryce A.; Ekramoddoulah, A. K. M.; Liu, J.-J.; Kim, M.-S.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2010. Current and future molecular approaches to investigate the white pine blister rust pathosystem
    Cannon, Philip G.; Alfenas, Acelino Couto; Graca, Rodrigo Neves; Kim, Mee-Sook; Peever, Tobin L.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2010. Determining if there are lines of guava rust (Puccinia psidii) that could seriously impact ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha), in Hawaii
    Kim, Mee-Sook; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; McDonald, Geral I., 2010. Effects of forest management practices and environment on occurrence of Armillaria species
    Kim, M.-S.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Hanna, John W.; Cannon, P.; Medel, R.; Lopez, A., 2010. First report of Armillaria root disease caused by Armillaria tabescens on Araucaria araucana in Veracruz, Mexico
    Richardson, Bryce A.; Warwell, Marcus V.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; McDonald, Geral I., 2010. Integration of population genetic structure and plant response to climate change: sustaining genetic resources through evaluation of projected threats
    Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Geils, Brian W., 2010. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 4)
    Geils, Brian W.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Spaine, Pauline; Richardson, Bryce A.; Zambino, Paul J.; Shaw, Charles G.; Walla, James; Bulluck, Russ; Redmond, Laura; Smith, Kent., 2009. Recovery plan for Scots pine blister rust caused by Cronartium flaccidum (Alb. & Schwein.) G. Winter and Peridermium pini (Pers.) Lév. [syn. C. asclepiadeum (Willd.) Fr., Endocronartium pini (Pers.) Y. Hiratsuka]
    Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Geils, Brian, 2009. Summary of taxa-specific research: 2. pathogens
    Richardson, Bryce A.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Ota, Yuko; Woo, Kwan Soo; Hamelin, Richard C., 2009. Tracking the footsteps of an invasive plant pathogen: Intercontinental phylogeographic structure of the white-pine-blister-rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola
    Hanna, John W.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Smith, Aaron L.; Maffei, Helen M., 2008. Determination of suitable climate space for Armillaria ostoyae in the Oregon East Cascades
    Richardson, Bryce A.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Zambino, P. J.; McDonald, G. I.; Geils, B. W.; Carris, L. M., 2008. Influence of host resistance on the genetic structure of the white pine blister rust fungus in the western United States
    Hanna, John W.; Smith, A. L.; Maffei, H. M.; Kim, M.-S.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2008. Survey of Armillaria spp. in the Oregon East Cascades: Baseline data for predicting climatic influences on Armillaria root disease
    Kim, Mee-Sook; Richardson, Bryce A.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2008. Western forest diseases and climate relations: Root diseases and climate change
    Zambino, Paul J.; Richardson, Bryce A.; McDonald, Geral I.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kim, Mee-Sook., 2007. A paradigm shift for white pine blister rust: Non-Ribes alternate hosts for Cronartium ribicola in North America
    Richardson, Bryce A.; Zambino, Paul J.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; McDonald, Geral I.; Carris, Lori M., 2007. Assessing host specialization among aecial and telial hosts of the white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola
    Hanna, John W.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kim, M. -S., 2007. First report of the root-rot pathogen, Armillaria nabsnona, from Hawaii
    Hanna, John W.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kim, M. -S.; McDonald, G. I.; Moore, J. A., 2007. Phylogeographic patterns of Armillaria ostoyae in the western United States
    Stewart, Jane E.; Kim, Mee-Sook; James, Robert L.; Dumroese, Kasten; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2006. Molecular characterization of Fusarium oxysporum and fusarium commune isolates from a conifer nursery
    Zambino, Paul J.; Richardson, Bryce A.; McDonald, Geral I.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kim, Mee-Sook., 2006. Non-Ribes alternate hosts of white pine blister rust: What this discovery means to whitebark pine
    McDonald, Geral I.; Richardson, Bryce A.; Zambino, Paul J.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kim, Mee-Sook, 2006. Pedicularis and Castilleja are natural hosts of Cronartium ribicola in North America: A first report
    Hudgins, J. W.; McDonald, G. I .; Zambino, P. J.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Franceschi, V. R., 2005. Anatomical and cellular responses of Pinus monticola stem tissues to invasion by Cronartium ribicola
    Kim, Mee-Sook; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Hamelin, Richard C., 2005. Application of molecular genetic tools to studies of forest pathosystems [Chapter 2]
    Richardson, Bryce A.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Peever, Tobin L., 2005. Assessing forest-pathogen interactions at the population level [Chapter 3]
    McDonald, Geral I.; Tanimoto, Philip D.; Rice, Thomas M.; Hall, David E.; Stewart, Jane E.; Zambino, Paul J.; Tonn, Jonalea R.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Kim, Mee-Sook, 2005. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 13: Root Disease Analyzer-Armillaria Response Tool (ART)
    McDonald, Geral I.; Zambino, Paul J.; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2005. Naturalization of host-dependent microbes after introduction into terrestrial ecosystems [Chapter 5]
    Rippy, Raini C.; Stewart, Jane E.; Zambino, Paul J.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Tirocke, Joanne M.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Thies, Walter G., 2005. Root diseases in coniferous forests of the Inland West: potential implications of fuels treatments
    Hoff, J. A.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; McDonald, Geral I.; Tonn, Jonalea R.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Zambino, Paul J.; Hessburg, Paul F.; Rodgers, J. D.; Peever, T. L.; Carris, L. M., 2004. Fungal endophytes in woody roots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)
    Hoff, Jill A.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Tonn, Jonalea R.; McDonald, Geral I.; Zambino, Paul J.; Rogers, Jack D.; Peever, Tobin L.; Carris, Lori M., 2004. Roles of Woody Root-Associated Fungi in Forest Ecosystem Processes: Recent Advances in Fungal Identification
    Kim, Mee-Sook; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; McDonald, Geral I.; Arumuganathan, Kathiravetpillai, 2001. Use of flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, and PCR-based techniques to assess intraspecific and interspecific matings of Armillaria species
    Tabor, G. M.; Kubisiak, Thomas L.; Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Hall, R. B.; McNabb, Henry S. Jr., 2000. Bulked segregant analysis identifies molecular markers linked to Melampsora medusae resistance in Populus deltoides
    Klopfenstein, Ned B.; Chun, Y. W.; Kim, M. -S.; Ahuja, M. A.; Dillon, M. C.; Carman, R. C.; Eskew, L. G., 1997. Micropropagation, genetic engineering, and molecular biology of Populus
    Myrtle rust
    At least three different biotypes (genetic groups) of the invasive myrtle rust pathogen (Austropuccinia psidii) were identified, each with different host associations, geographic distributions, and potential distribution (suitable climate space). Each biotype poses its own distinct invasive threats to diverse hosts in the Myrtaceae (e.g., eucalypts, guava, ‘ōhi’a) grown in different geographic areas.
    Armillaria spp.
    Background Root diseases are a primary cause of reduced timber volume, decreased carbon sequestration, and impaired ecosystem function. In the inland northwestern USA, root diseases have accounted for more losses in timber volume than forest fires or other disturbances. Management options to combat losses from root diseases have been limited. Armillaria altimontana and A. solidipes are soil fungi that frequently co-occur in the northwestern USA.  Armillaria solidipes has been well-documented as a virulent primary pathogen that is among most damaging causes of mortality and growth loss in coniferous forests.  In contrast, little is known about the influence of A. altimontana on tree health and growth.
    Research Ecologist Justin DeRose measuring ring widths to crossdate and digitize tree-ring features. Photo by Lawrence Lam.
    Forest fungi in the Armillaria genus comprise destructive root-disease pathogens and beneficial decomposers. It is critical to understand worldwide distributions of Armillaria species to assess invasive threats posed by Armillaria species. This collaborative work with scientists from 15 countries focused on DNA-based analyses of Armillaria species from the Northern Hemisphere.
    Soil microbes play critical roles in forest ecosystem health, such as disease, biological control, beneficial symbioses, decomposition, and nutrient cycling. New genetic technology (metagenomics) allows tens of thousands of microbes to be identified from a small soil sample, and studies of microbial gene expression (metatranscriptomics) provides insights into microbial function in relation to forest health and ecological processes.
    Brown root rot (caused by an invasive pathogen, Phellinus noxius) impacts diverse tree species in tropical and subtropical areas, including eastern/southeastern Asia, Australia, and Pacific islands. Ongoing genetic studies have determined genetic groups within the species, identified genes associated with pathogenicity of diverse tree hosts, and predicted geographic areas at risk from invasion by different genetic groups of the invasive pathogen.
    Armillaria root disease affects diverse tree species worldwide and is a major cause of lost productivity, carbon sequestration, and other environmental benefits of forest trees. This is the first study to assemble and characterize a transcriptome (set of functioning genes) of Armillaria spp. Understanding gene expression related to disease can help develop forest management strategies to reduce disease impacts across forest landscapes.
    Fruiting bodies of Armillaria spp.
    Invasive root pathogens are a major threat to forest health worldwide, and the fungal pathogens that cause Armillaria root disease (Armillaria species) impact diverse tree species and are distributed globally. Studies to document the distribution of Armillaria species are essential for assessing potential invasive threats and potential impacts of climate change. Collaborative studies have begun to document the distribution of Armillaria pathogens in Mexico, and a previously unknown Armillaria species was found that represents an invasive threat to other areas.
    Since 2004, extensive mortality of oak (Quercus mongolicae) has been occurring in South Korea. This oak mortality is associated with a fungus (Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae), which is vectored by a wood-boring ambrosia beetle (Platypus koryoensis). High-resolution genetic markers were used to assess the genetic diversity of 54 fungal isolates from five South Korean provinces, and results suggest that this fungal pathogen was introduced to South Korea. Genomic sequencing of the fungus provided evidence of genes associated with causing tree disease, and allowed comparisons with related fungi.
    Puccinia psidii is the cause of rust disease of many host species in the Myrtaceae, including guava, eucalypts, rose apple, and ‘ōhi’a. Our ongoing project indicates a single biotype is present in the United States (as well as Costa Rica, Mexico, and Jamaica) that is capable of infecting multiple host species. Data from South America indicate multiple genotypes are present, each associated with a particular host. Furthermore, our analyses revealed that the biotype in the United States is quite distinct from genotypes found in South America.
    This project will predict the potential distribution of Armillaria solidipes (A. ostoyae) under present and future climate scenarios across the interior Western United States. The three proposed elements of the project include: