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Robert E. Keane II

Bob Keane

Supervisory Research Ecologist

Address: 
5775 US West Highway 10
Missoula, MT 59808
Phone: 
406-329-4846
Fax: 
406-329-4877
Contact Robert E. Keane II

Current Research

My research includes 1) developing spatially explicit ecological computer simulation models for exploring landscape, fire, vegetation, and climate dynamics, 2) conducting wildland fuel science: the sampling, describing, modeling, and mapping of wildland fuel characteristics, and 3) exploring the ecology and restoration of whitebark pine.

Research Interests

I am interested in the landscape ecology of ecosystem processes, especially disturbance, climate, and vegetation, and the scales at which these processes interact. I am also interested in the high elevation forests of the northern Rocky Mountains of the US, especially the whitebark pine ecosystem (its decline and potential restoration). Recently I've done work in understanding the dynamics of wildland fuels - how fuels accumulate, how their properties change over time, and how they are impacted by disturbance

Past Research

I have developed several computer models that operate at many scales including CRBSUM, LANDSUM, WXFIRE, FireBGC, and FireBGCv2 landscape simulation models. I also developed the originalversions of the FOFEM (First Order Fire Effects Model) and I have written several fire hazard and analysis programs (FLEAT, FIREHARM). I also assisted in the development of FIREMON (a FIRE MONitoring sampling and database management system)and ECODATA ( an ecological inventory system). I was also lead scientists on the LANDFIRE prototype project and wrote many computer programs for that project including LF-BGC, LANDSUMv4, and WXFIRE. I have written several articles about the restoration of whitebark pine ecosystems and have documented decomposition, deposition, and accumulation rates of wildland fuels in the northern US Rocky Mountains. I have also conducted landscape ecology experiments in wildland fuels to aid in sampling and mapping.

Why This Research is Important

Long-term, spatially explicit field sampling is costly and time consuming, especially at the time scales of fire regimes, vegetation succession, and climate, so ecosystem modeling provides a valuable tool to evaluate effects of changing climate and disturbance regimes on landscape ecology and condition. Fuels are the most important management factor in manipulating fire behavior because it is the only factor that managers can control, yet we know very little of the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of fuels over time and space. Last, whitebark pine forests are declining at alarming rates and new treatments are needed to restore these high elevation ecosystems.

Education

  • University of Maine, Orono, B.S., Forest Engineering
  • University of Montana, Missoula, M.S., Forest Ecology
  • University of Idaho, Moscow, Ph.D., Forest Ecology
  • Professional Experience

    Research Ecologist, US Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory
    1992 to present

    Research Forester, US Forest Service Intermountain Research Station Fire Sciences Laboratory
    1990 to 1992

    Quantitative Ecologist, Systems for Environmental Management
    1986 to 1992

    Research Assistant, University of Montana
    1982 to 1986

    Research Technician, US Forest Service Intermountain Research Station and Northern Region
    1979 to 1982

    Research Forester, Gradient Modeling Inc
    1978 to 1979

    Professional Organizations

    • American Forests Association, Advisory Board Member ( 2012 to present )
      program committee
    • Association of Fire Ecology, Board Member ( 2010 to present )
      Program Committee
    • Whitebark Pine Ecosystem Foundation, Board Member ( 2000 to present )
      Web Committee, treasurer, program committee
    • International Association of Wildland Fire, Member ( 1998 to present )
      program committee
    • Montana Native Plant Society, Member ( 1990 to present )
      Program Committee
    • Northwest Science, Member ( 1990 to 2014 )
      Program Committee
    • International Association for Landscape Ecology, Secretary ( 2003 to 2008 )
      Executive Committee

    Awards

    Outstanding Associate Editor, 2010
    Given by the International Journal of Wildland Fire

    Featured Publications

    Publications

    Keane II, Robert E.; Gray, Kathy; Davis, Brett; Holsinger, Lisa M.; Loehman, Rachel A., 2019. Evaluating ecological resilience across wildfire suppression levels under climate and fuel treatment scenarios using landscape simulation modelling
    Higuera, Philip E.; Metcalf, Alexander L.; Miller, Carol L.; Buma, Brian; McWethy, David B.; Metcalf, Elizabeth C.; Ratajczak, Zak; Nelson, Cara R.; Chaffin, Brian C.; Stedman, Richard C.; McCaffrey, Sarah; Schoennagel, Tania; Harvey, Brian J.; Hood, Sharon M.; Schultz, Courtney A.; Black, Anne E.; Campbell, David; Haggerty, Julia H.; Keane II, Robert E.; Krawchuk, Meg A.; Kulig, Judith C.; Rafferty, Rebekah; Virapongse, Arika, 2019. Integrating subjective and objective dimensions of resilience in fire-prone landscapes
    Keane II, Robert E.; Loehman, Rachel A.; Holsinger, Lisa M., 2019. Selecting a landscape model for natural resource management applications
    Keane II, Robert E.; Cushman, Samuel A., 2018. Best friends forever: The whitebark pine and Clark's nutcracker
    Loehman, Rachel A.; Bentz, Barbara J.; DeNitto, Gregg A.; Keane II, Robert E.; Manning, Mary E.; Duncan, Jacob P.; Egan, Joel M.; Jackson, Marcus B.; Kegley, Sandra; Lockman, I. Blakey; Pearson, Dean E.; Powell, James A.; Shelly, Steve; Steed, Brytten E.; Zambino, Paul J., 2018. Effects of climate change on ecological disturbance in the Northern Rockies Region [Chapter 8]
    Behrens, Patrick N.; Keane II, Robert E.; Peterson, David L.; Ho, Joanne J., 2018. Effects of climate change on forest vegetation [Chapter 6]
    Keane II, Robert E.; Mahalovich, Mary Frances; Bollenbacher, Barry L.; Manning, Mary E.; Loehman, Rachel A.; Jain, Terrie B.; Holsinger, Lisa M.; Larson, Andrew J.; Webster, Meredith M., 2018. Effects of climate change on forest vegetation in the Northern Rockies Region [Chapter 6]
    Keane II, Robert E.; Mahalovich, Mary Frances; Bollenbacher, Barry L.; Manning, Mary E.; Loehman, Rachel A.; Jain, Terrie B.; Holsinger, Lisa M.; Larson, Andrew J., 2018. Effects of climate change on forest vegetation in the northern Rockies [Chapter 5]
    Vose, J.M.; Peterson, D.L.; Domke, G.M.; Fettig, C.J.; Joyce, Linda A.; Keane II, Robert E.; Luce, Charles H.; Prestemon, J.P; Band, L.E.; Clark, J.S.; Cooley, N.E.; D’Amato, A.; Halofsky, J.E., 2018. Forests
    Retzlaff, Molly L.; Keane II, Robert E.; Affleck, David L.; Hood, Sharon M., 2018. Growth response of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm) regeneration to thinning and prescribed burn treatments
    Ireland, Kathryn B.; Hansen, Andrew J.; Keane II, Robert E.; Legg, Kristen; Gump, Robert L., 2018. Putting climate adaptation on the map: Developing spatial management strategies for whitebark pine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem
    Schaedel, Michael S.; Larson, Andrew J.; Weisbrod, Cullen J.; Keane II, Robert E., 2017. Density-dependent woody detritus accumulation in an even-aged, single-species forest
    Sikkink, Pamela G.; Jain, Terrie B.; Reardon, James; Heinsch, Faith Ann; Keane II, Robert E.; Butler, Bret W.; Baggett, L. Scott., 2017. Effect of particle aging on chemical characteristics, smoldering, and fire behavior in mixed-conifer masticated fuel
    Bond, W. J.; Keane II, Robert E., 2017. Fires, ecological effects of
    Cary, Geoffrey J.; Davies, Ian D.; Bradstock, Ross A.; Keane II, Robert E.; Flannigan, Mike D., 2017. Importance of fuel treatment for limiting moderate-to-high intensity fire: Findings from comparative fire modeling
    Stalling, Chris M.; Keane II, Robert E.; Retzlaff, Molly, 2017. Surface fuel changes after severe disturbances in northern Rocky Mountain ecosystems
    Gray, Kathy; Keane II, Robert E.; Karpisz, Ryan; Pedersen, Alyssa; Brown, Rick; Russell, Taylor, 2016. Bayesian techniques for surface fuel loading estimation
    Tomback, Diana F.; Resler, Lynn M.; Keane II, Robert E.; Pansing, Elizabeth R.; Andrade, Andrew J.; Wagner, Aaron C., 2016. Community structure, biodiversity, and ecosystem services in treeline whitebark pine communities: Potential impacts from a non-native pathogen
    Hansen, Andrew; Ireland, Kathryn; Legg, Kristin; Keane II, Robert E.; Barge, Edward; Jenkins, Martha; Pillet, Michiel, 2016. Complex challenges of maintaining whitebark pine in Greater Yellowstone under climate change: A call for innovative research, management, and policy approaches
    Vakili, Emma; Hoffman, Chad M.; Keane II, Robert E.; Tinkham, Wade T.; Dickinson, Yvette, 2016. Spatial variability of surface fuels in treated and untreated ponderosa pine forests of the southern Rocky Mountains
    Hutto, Richard L.; Keane II, Robert E.; Sherriff, Rosemary L.; Rota, Christopher T.; Eby, Lisa A.; Saab, Victoria A., 2016. Toward a more ecologically informed view of severe forest fires
    Keane II, Robert E.; Herynk, Jason M.; Toney, Chris; Urbanski, Shawn P.; Lutes, Duncan C.; Ottmar, Roger D., 2015. Assessing three fuel classification systems and their maps using Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) surface fuel measurements
    Riggs, Robert A.; Keane II, Robert E.; Cimon, Norm; Cook, Rachel; Holsinger, Lisa M.; Cook, John; DelCurto, Timothy; Baggett, Scott; Justice, Donald; Powell, David; Vavra, Martin; Naylor, Bridgett, 2015. Biomass and fire dynamics in a temperate forest-grassland mosaic: Integrating multi-species herbivory, climate, and fire with the FireBGCv2/GrazeBGC system
    Yospin, Gabriel I.; Wood, Samuel W.; Holz, Andres; Bowman, David M. J. S.; Keane II, Robert E.; Whitlock, Cathy, 2015. Modeling vegetation mosaics in sub-alpine Tasmania under various fire regimes
    Keane II, Robert E.; Jolly, William M.; Parsons, Russell A.; Riley, Karin, 2015. Proceedings of the large wildland fires conference; May 19-23, 2014; Missoula, MT
    Keane II, Robert E.; McKenzie, Donald; Falk, Donald A.; Smithwick, Erica A.H.; Miller, Carol L.; Kellogg, Lara-Karena B., 2015. Representing climate, disturbance, and vegetation interactions in landscape models
    Hessburg, Paul F.; Churchill, Derek J.; Larson, Andrew J.; Haugo, Ryan D.; Miller, Carol L.; Spies, Thomas A.; North, Malcolm P.; Povak, Nicholas A.; Belote, R. Travis; Singleton, Peter H.; Gaines, William L.; Keane II, Robert E.; Aplet, Gregory H.; Stephens, Scott L.; Morgan, Penelope; Bisson, Peter A.; Rieman, Bruce E.; Salter, R. Brion; Reeves, Gordon H., 2015. Restoring fire-prone Inland Pacific landscapes: seven core principles
    Leirfallom, Signe; Keane II, Robert E.; Tomback, Diana F.; Dobrowski, Solomon Z., 2015. The effects of seed source health on whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) regeneration density after wildfire
    Cary, Geoffrey J.; Keane II, Robert E.; Flannigan, Mike D.; Davies, Ian D.; Parsons, Russell A., 2015. What determines area burned in large landscapes? Insights from a decade of comparative landscape-fire modelling
    Morgan, Penelope; Keane II, Robert E.; Dillon, Gregory K.; Jain, Terrie B.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Karau, Eva C.; Sikkink, Pamela G.; Holden, Zachery A.; Strand, Eva K., 2014. Challenges of assessing fire and burn severity using field measures, remote sensing and modelling
    Hahn, Beth; Saab, Victoria A.; Bentz, Barbara J.; Loehman, Rachel A.; Keane II, Robert E., 2014. Ecological consequences of the MPB epidemic for habitats and populations of wildlife [Chapter 5]
    Prichard, Susan J.; Karau, Eva C.; Ottmar, Roger D.; Kennedy, Maureen C.; Cronan, James B.; Wright, Clinton S.; Keane II, Robert E., 2014. Evaluation of the CONSUME and FOFEM fuel consumption models in pine and mixed hardwood forests of the eastern United States
    Karau, Eva C.; Sikkink, Pamela G.; Keane II, Robert E.; Dillon, Gregory K., 2014. Integrating satellite imagery with simulation modeling to improve burn severity mapping
    Keane II, Robert E.; Dillon, Gregory K.; Drury, Stacy; Innes, Robin J.; Morgan, Penny; Lutes, Duncan C.; Prichard, Susan J.; Smith, Jane; Strand, Eva, 2014. New and revised fire effects tools for fire management
    Holsinger, Lisa M.; Keane II, Robert E.; Isaak, Daniel J.; Eby, Lisa; Young, Michael K., 2014. Relative effects of climate change and wildfires on stream temperatures: A simulation modeling approach in a Rocky Mountain watershed
    Ireland, Kathryn B.; Moore, Margaret M.; Fule, Peter Z.; Zegler, Thomas J.; Keane II, Robert E., 2014. Slow lifelong growth predisposes Populus tremuloides to tree mortality
    McKenzie, Donald; Shankar, Uma; Keane II, Robert E.; Stavros, E. Natasha; Heilman, Warren E.; Fox, Douglas G.; Riebau, Allen C., 2014. Smoke consequences of new wildfire regimes driven by climate change
    Stephens, Scott L.; Burrows, Neil; Buyantuyev, Alexander; Gray, Robert W.; Keane II, Robert E.; Kubian, Rick; Liu, Shirong; Seijo, Francisco; Shu, Lifu; Tolhurst, Kevin G.; van Wagtendonk, Jan W., 2014. Temperate and boreal forest mega-fires: characteristics and challenges
    Fulé, Peter Z.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Brown, Peter M.; Falk, Donald A.; Peterson, David L.; Allen, Craig D.; Aplet, Gregory H.; Battaglia, Mike A.; Binkley, Dan; Farris, Calvin; Keane II, Robert E.; Margolis, Ellis Q.; Grissino-Mayer, Henri; Miller, Carol L.; Sieg, Carolyn H.; Skinner, Carl; Stephens, Scott L.; Taylor, Alan, 2014. Unsupported and inaccurate inferences of high severity fire in historical dry forests of the Western United States dry forests: response to Williams and Baker
    Fule, Peter Z.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Brown, Peter M.; Falk, Donald A.; Peterson, David L.; Allen, Craig D.; Aplet, Gregory H.; Battaglia, Mike A.; Binkley, Dan; Farris, Calvin; Keane II, Robert E.; Margolis, Ellis Q.; Grissino-Mayer, Henri; Miller, Carol L.; Sieg, Carolyn H.; Skinner, Carl; Stephens, Scott L.; Taylor, Alan, 2014. Unsupported inferences of high-severity fire in historical dry forests of the western United States: Response to Williams and Baker
    McWethy, D. B.; Higuera, P. E.; Whitlock, C.; Veblen, T. T.; Bowman, D. M. J. S.; Cary, G. J.; Haberle, S. G.; Keane II, Robert E.; Maxwell, B. D.; McGlone, M. S.; Perry, G. L. W.; Wilmshurst, J. M., 2013. A conceptual framework for predicting temperate ecosystem sensitivity to human impacts on fire regimes
    Keane II, Robert E.; Herynk, Jason M.; Toney, Chris; Urbanski, Shawn P.; Lutes, Duncan C.; Ottmar, Roger D., 2013. Evaluating the performance and mapping of three fuel classification systems using Forest Inventory and Analysis surface fuel measurements
    Keane II, Robert E.; Cary, Geoffrey J.; Flannigan, Mike D.; Parsons, Russell A.; Davies, Ian D.; King, Karen J.; Li, Chao; Bradstock, Ross A.; Gill, Malcolm, 2013. Exploring the role of fire, succession, climate, and weather on landscape dynamics using comparative modeling
    Miller, Sue; Keane II, Robert E.; Morgan, Penny; Sikkink, Pamela G.; Karau, Eva C.; Dillon, Gregory K., 2013. Science You Can Use Bulletin: Seeing red: New tools for mapping and understanding fire severity
    Keane II, Robert E.; Tomback, D. F.; Aubry, C. A.; Bower, A. D.; Campbell, E. M.; Cripps, C. L.; Jenkins, M. B.; Mahalovich, M. F.; Manning, M.; McKinney, S. T.; Murray, M. P.; Perkins, D. L.; Reinhart, D. P.; Ryan, C.; Schoettle, Anna W.; Smith, C. M., 2012. A range-wide restoration strategy for whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis)
    Sikkink, Pamela G.; Keane II, Robert E., 2012. Predicting fire severity using surface fuels and moisture
    Keane II, Robert E.; Gray, Kathy; Bacciu, Valentina; Leirfallom, Signe, 2012. Spatial scaling of wildland fuels for six forest and rangeland ecosystems of the northern Rocky Mountains, USA
    Keane II, Robert E.; Gray, Kathy; Bacciu, Valentina, 2012. Spatial variability of wildland fuel characteristics in northern Rocky Mountain ecosystems
    Keane II, Robert E.; Cary, Geoffrey J.; Flannigan, Mike D., 2011. Challenges and needs in fire management: A landscape simulation modeling perspective [chapter 4]
    Campbell, Elizabeth M.; Keane II, Robert E.; Larson, Evan R.; Murray, Michael P.; Schoettle, Anna W.; Wong, Carmen, 2011. Disturbance ecology of high-elevation five-needle pine ecosystems in western North America
    Keane II, Robert E.; Holsinger, Lisa M.; Parsons, Russell A., 2011. Evaluating indices that measure departure of current landscape composition from historical conditions
    Holsinger, Lisa M.; Keane II, Robert E., 2011. Fire and fish dynamics in a changing climate
    Keane II, Robert E., 2011. Foreword
    French, Nancy H.F.; de Groot, William J.; Jenkins, Liza K.; Rogers, Brendan M.; Alvarado, Ernesto; Amiro, Brian; De Jong, Bernardus; Goetz, Scott; Hoy, Elizabeth; Hyer, Edward; Keane II, Robert E.; Law, B.E.; McKenzie, Donald; McNulty, Steven G.; Ottmar, Roger; Perez-Salicrup, Diego R.; Randerson, James; Robertson, Kevin M.; Turetsky, Merritt., 2011. Model comparisons for estimating carbon emissions from North American wildland fire
    Liu, Shuguang; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Vargas, Rodrigo; Zhao, Shuqing; Chen, Jing; Edburg, Steven L.; Hu, Yueming; Liu, Jinxun; McGuire, A. David; Xiao, Jingfeng; Keane II, Robert E.; Yuan, Wenping; Tang, Jianwu; Luo, Yiqi; Potter, Christopher; Oeding, Jennifer, 2011. Simulating the impacts of disturbances on forest carbon cycling in North America: processes, data, models, and challenges
    Keane II, Robert E.; Drury, Stacy A.; Karau, Eva C.; Hessburg, Paul F.; Reynolds, Keith M., 2010. A method for mapping fire hazard and risk across multiple scales and its application in fire management
    Holley, Violet J.; Keane II, Robert E., 2010. A visual training tool for the Photoload sampling technique
    Hessburg, Paul F.; Reynolds, Keith M.; Keane II, Robert E.; James, Kevin M.; Salter, R. Brion, 2010. Evaluating wildland fire danger and prioritizing vegetation and fuels treatments
    Keane II, Robert E.; Parsons, Russell A., 2010. Restoring whitebark pine forests of the northern Rocky Mountains, USA
    Lutes, Duncan C.; Keane II, Robert E.; Caratti, John F., 2009. A surface fuel classification for estimating fire effects
    Sikkink, Pamela G.; Lutes, Duncan C.; Keane II, Robert E., 2009. Field guide for identifying fuel loading models
    Reynolds, Keith M.; Hessburg, Paul F.; Keane II, Robert E.; Menakis, James P., 2009. National fuel-treatment budgeting in US federal agencies: capturing opportunities for transparent decision-making
    Cary, Geoffrey J.; Flannigan, Mike D.; Keane II, Robert E.; Bradstock, Ross A.; Davies, Ian D.; Lenihan, James M.; Li, Chao; Logan, Kimberley A.; Parsons, Russell A., 2009. Relative importance of fuel management, ignition management and weather for area burned: Evidence from five landscape-fire-succession models
    Keane II, Robert E.; Hessburg, Paul F.; Landres, Peter B.; Swanson, Fred J., 2009. The use of historical range and variability (HRV) in landscape management
    Keane II, Robert E.; Holsinger, Lisa M.; Parsons, Russell A.; Gray, Kathy, 2008. Climate change effects on historical range and variability of two large landscapes in western Montana, USA
    Keane II, Robert E.; Agee, James K.; Fule, Peter; Keeley, Jon E.; Key, Carl; Kitchen, Stanley G.; Miller, Richard; Schulte, Lisa A., 2008. Ecological effects of large fires on US landscapes: benefit or catastrophe?
    Hessburg, Paul F.; Reynolds, Keith M.; Keane II, Robert E.; James, Kevin M.; Salter, R. Brion, 2008. Evaluating wildland fire danger and prioritizing vegetation and fuels treatments
    Arno, Stephen F.; Östlund, Lars; Keane II, Robert E., 2008. Living artifacts: The ancient ponderosa pines of the West
    Kaufmann, Merrill R.; Aplet, Gregory H.; Babler, Michael G.; Baker, William L.; Bentz, Barbara J.; Harrington, Michael; Hawkes, Brad C.; Huckaby, Laurie Kay Stroh; Jenkins, Michael J.; Kashian, Daniel M.; Keane II, Robert E.; Kulakowski, Dominik; McCaughey, Ward; McHugh, Charles W.; Negron, Jose; ; Romme, William H.; Shepperd, Wayne; Smith, Frederick W.; Sutherland, Elaine K.; Tinker, Daniel; Veblen, Thomas T., 2008. The status of our scientific understanding of lodgepole pine and mountain pine beetles - a focus on forest ecology and fire behavior
    Parsons, Russell A.; Heyerdahl, Emily K.; Keane II, Robert E.; Dorner, Brigitte; Fall, Joseph, 2007. Assessing accuracy of point fire intervals across landscapes with simulation modelling
    Keane II, Robert E.; Key, Carl, 2007. CCE fire regimes and their management
    Cary, Geoffrey J.; Keane II, Robert E.; Flannigan, Mike D., 2007. Classifying and comparing spatial models of fire dynamics
    Keane II, Robert E.; Dickinson, Laura J., 2007. Development and evaluation of the photoload sampling technique
    Keane II, Robert E.; Cary, Geoffrey J.; Davies, Ian D.; Flannigan, Michael D.; Gardner, Robert H.; Lavorel, Sandra; Lenihan, James M.; Li, Chao; Rupp, T. Scott, 2007. Understanding global fire dynamics by classifying and comparing spatial models of vegetation and fire
    Keane II, Robert E.; Gray, Kathy L.; Dickinson, Laura J., 2007. Whitebark pine diameter growth response to removal of competition
    Rollins, Matthew G. G.; Keane II, Robert E.; Zhu, Zhiliang, 2006. Chapter 1 - Executive summary
    Keane II, Robert E.; Frescino, Tracey; Reeves, Matthew C.; Long, Jennifer L., 2006. Chapter 12 - Mapping wildland fuel across large regions for the LANDFIRE Prototype Project
    Rollins, Matthew G. G.; Keane II, Robert E.; Zhu, Zhiliang; Menakis, James P., 2006. Chapter 2 - An overview of the LANDFIRE Prototype Project
    Holsinger, Lisa M.; Keane II, Robert E.; Parsons, Russell A.; Karau, Eva C., 2006. Chapter 5 - Development of biophysical gradient layers for the LANDFIRE Prototype Project
    Cary, Geoffrey J.; Keane II, Robert E.; Gardner, Robert H.; Lavorel, Sandra; Flannigan, Michael D.; Davies, Ian D.; Li, Chao; Lenihan, James M.; Rupp, T. Scott; Mouillot, Florent, 2006. Comparison of the sensitivity of landscape-fire-succession models to variation in terrain, fuel pattern, climate and weather
    Cary, Geoffrey J.; Keane II, Robert E.; Gardner, Robert H.; Lavorel, Sandra; Flannigan, Mike D.; Davies, Ian D.; Li, Chao; Lenihan, James M.; Rupp, T. Scott; Mouillot, Florent, 2006. Comparison of the sensitivity of landscape-fire-succession models to variation in terrain, fuel pattern, climate and weather
    Cary, Geoffrey J.; Keane II, Robert E.; Gardner, Robert H.; Lavorel, Sandra; Flannigan, Mike D.; Davies, Ian D.; Li, Chao; Lenihan, James M.; Rupp, T. Scott; Mouillot, Florent., 2006. Comparison of the sensitivity of landscape-fire-succession models to variation in terrain, fuel pattern, climate and weather.
    Brown, Kathryn; Hansen, Andrew J.; Keane II, Robert E.; Graumlich, Lisa J., 2006. Complex interactions shaping aspen dynamics in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem
    Lutes, Duncan C.; Keane II, Robert E.; Caratti, John F.; Key, Carl H.; Benson, Nathan C.; Sutherland, Steve; Gangi, Larry J., 2006. FIREMON: Fire effects monitoring and inventory system
    Keane II, Robert E., 2006. Fire Behavior (FB)
    Lutes, Duncan C.; Keane II, Robert E., 2006. Fuel Load (FL)
    Lutes, Duncan C.; Keane II, Robert E.; Caratti, John F.; Key, Carl H.; Benson, Nathan C., 2006. How To ... Guide
    Keane II, Robert E.; Lutes, Duncan C., 2006. Integrated Sampling Strategy (ISS) Guide
    Keane II, Robert E., 2006. Metadata (MD)
    Keane II, Robert E., 2006. Plot Description (PD)
    Keane II, Robert E., 2006. Tree Data (TD)
    Holsinger, Lisa M.; Keane II, Robert E.; Steele, Brian; Reeves, Matthew C.; Pratt, Sarah, 2006. Using historical simulations of vegetation to assess departure of current vegetation conditions across large landscapes[Chapter 11]
    Keane II, Robert E.; Reinhardt, Elizabeth D.; Scott, Joe; Gray, Kathy; Reardon, Jim J., 2005. Estimating forest canopy bulk density using six indirect methods
    Hessl, Amy E.; Milesi, Cristina; White, Michael A.; Peterson, David L.; Keane II, Robert E., 2004. Ecophysiological parameters for Pacific Northwest trees.
    Weise, David R.; Kimberlin, Richard; Arbaugh, Mike; Chew, Jim; \r\nJones, Greg; Merzenich, Jim; Wiitala, Marc; Keane II, Robert E.; Schaaf, Mark; Van Wagtendonk, Jan, 2003. Comparing potential fuel treatment trade-off models
    Keane II, Robert E.; Ryan, Kevin C.; Veblen, Tom T.; Allen, Craig D.; Logan, Jessie; Hawkes, Brad, 2002. Cascading effects of fire exclusion in the Rocky Mountain ecosystems: a literature review
    Keane II, Robert E.; Rollins, Matthew G. G.; McNicoll, Cecilia H.; Parsons, Russell A., 2002. Integrating ecosystem sampling, gradient modeling, remote sensing, and ecosystem simulation to create spatially explicit landscape inventories
    Keane II, Robert E.; Garner, Janice L.; Teske, Casey; Stewart, Cathy; Hessburg, Paul, 2001. Range and variation in landscape patch dynamics: Implications for ecosystem management
    Hoff, Raymond J.; Ferguson, Dennis E.; McDonald, Geral I.; Keane II, Robert E., 2001. Strategies for managing whitebark pine in the presence of white pine blister rust [Chapter 17]
    Blocker, Larry; Hagle, Susan K.; Lasko, Rick; Keane II, Robert E.; Bollenbacher, Barry; Fox, Bruce; Samson, Fred; Gay, Randy; Manning, Cynthia, 2001. Understanding the connection between historic range of variation, current social values and developing desired conditions
    Hardy, Colin C.; Keane II, Robert E.; Harrington, Michael G., 2000. Associated riparian communities
    Hardy, Colin C.; Keane II, Robert E.; Stewart, Catherine A., 2000. Ecosystem-based management in the lodgepole pine zone
    Keane II, Robert E.; Arno, Stephen F.; Stewart, Catherine A., 2000. Ecosystem-based management in the whitebark pine zone
    Keane II, Robert E.; Mincemoyer, Scott A.; Schmidt, Kirsten; Long, Donald G.; Garner, Janice L., 2000. Mapping vegetation and fuels for fire management on the Gila National Forest Complex, New Mexico
    Schmoldt, Daniel L.; Peterson, David L.; Keane II, Robert E.; Lenihan, James M.; McKenzie, Donald; Weise, David R.; Sandberg, David V., 1999. Assessing the effects of fire disturbance on ecosystems: a scientific agenda for research and management.
    Keane II, Robert E.; Garner, Janice L.; Schmidt, Kirsten; Long, Donald G.; Menakis, James P.; Finney, Mark A., 1998. Development of input data layers for the FARSITE fire growth model for the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness Complex, USA
    Smith, Jane Kapler; Solorzano, Lucia; Howard, Janet; Arno, Steve; Wagner, Thomas G.; Keane II, Robert E.; Lyon, L. Jack; Jones, J. Greg; Heald, Sue, 1997. ECO-Report - Collaboration at the heart of the job
    Reinhardt, Elizabeth D.; Keane II, Robert E.; Brown, James K., 1997. First Order Fire Effects Model: FOFEM 4.0, user's guide
    Keane II, Robert E.; Arno, Stephen F., 1996. Whitebark pine ecosystem restoration in western Montana
    Hall, Frederick C.; Bryant, Larry; Clausnitzer, Rod; Geier-Hayes, Kathy; Keane II, Robert E.; Kertis, Jane; Shlisky, Ayn; Steel, Robert., 1995. Definitions and codes for seral status and structure of vegetation.
    Arno, Stephen F.; Simmerman, Dennis G.; Keane II, Robert E., 1985. Forest succession on four habitat types in western Montana
    Figure 1 urban_interface_mulching
    Recently, several large fires have burned through masticated sites – including in Colorado (Brewer et al. 2013), Washington, and New Mexico. Burning under extreme weather conditions with strong winds, these fires have challenged the benefits of using mastication, even though mastication can provide many positive environmental effects, such as soil moisture retention and cool, moist environments for soil microbes. However, informing managers when, where, and how mastication is applied is based on antidotal evidence. To address, this issue we synthesized information to provide managers with a current state of knowledge on mastication.
    A Clark’s nutcracker harvesting seed from whitebark pine cones. Photo courtesy of Diana Tomback
    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests are declining across most of their range in North America because of the combined effects of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreaks, fire exclusion policies, and the exotic pathogen Cronartium ribicola, which infects five-needle white pines and causes the disease white pine blister rust. Predicted changes in climate may exacerbate whitebark pine decline by (1) accelerating succession to more shade tolerant conifers, (2) creating environments that are unsuitable for the species, (3) increasing the frequency and severity of mountain pine beetle outbreaks and wildland fire events, and (4) facilitating the spread of blister rust. Yet, whitebark pine tolerates a variety of stressful conditions and the broad genetic diversity to adapt to changes in climate and disturbance.
    High-severity wildfire.
    Land managers often need the total number of acres burned broken down by these severity classes for planning after wildfire. To meet this need, Forest Service scientists and their cooperators developed the Fire Severity (FIRESEV) Mapping project, a comprehensive set of tools and procedures that create, evaluate, and deliver fire severity maps for all phases of fire management.
    Lubrecht Experimental Forest was a study site for this project.
    Researchers with the Rocky Mountain Research Station investigated a number of fuel characteristics across major surface and canopy fuel components that comprise northern Rocky Mountain forest and range fuelbeds. They found that most fuel components have high variability that increases with fuel particle size.
    Wildland Fuel Fundamentals and Applications is a new book providing critical infomation about wildland fuels.
    A new era in wildland fuel sciences is now evolving in that fire scientists and managers need a comprehensive understanding of fuels ecology and science to realistically evaluate fire effects and behavior in the diverse ecosystems and landscapes of the world. Wildland Fuel Fundamentals and Applications is a new book that may provide fire managers and scientists the information needed to understand how fuels are used in fire behavior and effects predictions and management.
    Evaluating effects of climate change on whitebark pine trees.
    A new fuel loading sampling method is developed to quickly and accurately estimate loadings for six surface fuel components using downward-looking and oblique photographs depicting sequences of graduated fuel loadings by fuel component.
    FPARDY (Fuel PARticle DYnamics), is one of many new efforts to explore surface fuel characteristics at the particle, layer, and fuelbed levels across major forest ecosystem types in the US northern Rocky Mountains (NRM) to develop a set of products that integrate these findings into standard fuel applications.
    For the past three years, scientists from the RMRS Fire Sciences Lab in Missoula and the Forestry Sciences Lab in Moscow have been researching mastication as a fuel treatment in the Rocky Mountains. Specifically, they have been interested in how the materials age when they are left on the ground to decompose and how that aging affects their flammability.
    Synergistic interactions of climate change, mountain pine beetle infestations, and wildfire are likely to catalyze landscape-scale changes in vegetation distributions, successional stage, forest structure, and wildlife habitat suitability. Our research will provide forest managers with information they need to project changes to habitat suitability for wildlife under a range of alternative climate and management scenarios.
    Fuel mastication is becoming the preferred method of fuel treatment in areas where using prescribed fire is an issue. While much is known about mastication effects soils, fire behavior and vegetative response, little is known about how fuel particle and fuel bed characteristics and properties change over time.
    Conventional wisdom in fire management holds that forested stands containing trees that are killed by insects, disease, or fire will remain at high fire hazard for decades after the disturbance. The foliage and fine woody material that falls from the trees killed by the disturbance agents will be highly flammable and create landscapes that have high risk for abnormally severe fire, including crown fire. This assumption, however, is currently being debated for many ecosystems across the western United States.
    Whitebark pine trees, a valuable keystone species that provides food to hundreds of wildlife species, cover a significant portion of national forests in the Northern Rocky Mountains but have been rapidly declining because of blister rust infections, mountain pine beetle outbreaks, and fire exclusion. A restoration technique called daylighting, in which competing trees that surround the whitebark pine are removed, is playing an increasing role in whitebark pine restoration.
    Researchers measured surface fuel litterfall and decomposition in the northern Rocky Mountains, United States. These rates were used to estimate fuel dynamics parameters in complex landscape models of fire and vegetation dynamics.