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Robert (Bob) C. Musselman

Bob Musselman

Emeritus Scientist

240 West Prospect Road
Fort Collins, CO 80526-2098
Contact Robert (Bob) C. Musselman

Current Research

Ozone in Colorado high elevation ecosystems, Energy development and air quality in natural ecosystems, Water quality of wilderness lakes, Ozone flux and the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone, Reproduction of aspen and other woody plants on reclaimed surface coal mine lands, Long-term monitoring of meteorology, air quality, and hydrology at the Glacier Lakes, Ecosystem Experiments Site (GLEES), Ozone at high elevation ecosystems in Colorado is near exceedence levels for NAAQS. Energy development can cause deterioration of air quality in high elevation ecosystems. Wilderness lakes are highly sensitive to atmospheric deposition, A NAAQS for ozone should include a separate secondary standard for vegetation. Reproduction of woody plants on reclaimed coal mine lands requires fencing, irrigation, and protection from competing vegetation. Atmospheric deposition at the GLEES is increasing.

Research Interests

  • Air and water quality in high elevation natural ecosystems
    • Using European ICP plots to determine critical loads of sulfur and nitrogen and critical levels of ozone
    • Atmospheric deposition and air quality monitoring in remote regions
    • Trends in surface water quality in wilderness ecosystems
    • The relationship of winter recreation (skiing and snowmobiling) to air and water quality in mountain ecosystems
  • The impact of energy development on natural ecosystems
    • Tree growth on reclaimed open pit coal mine lands
    • Ozone at high elevation and relationship to oil and gas development

Past Research

Effects of ozone on vegetation and ozone metrics for the National Ambient Air Quality Standard

Why This Research is Important

Air and water quality monitoring and research guides National Forests in protecting air and water quality of lands they manage, to meet the mandate of the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts.


  • University of Wisconsin, Madison, Ph.D., Botany & Forestry, 1972
  • Iowa State University, M.S., Silviculture, 1967
  • Iowa State University, B.S., Forestry, 1964
  • Featured Publications


    Musselman, Robert (Bob) C.; Dwire, Kathleen A.; Korfmacher, John L.; Conrad, Mark, 2021. Chapter 10: Ecoregion 6.2.14 Southern Rockies: Glacier Lakes Ecosystem Experiments Site (GLEES), Wyoming
    Heath, Linda S.; Anderson, Sarah M.; Emery, Marla R.; Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Littell, Jeremy; Lucier, Alan; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Peterson, David L.; Pouyat, Richard; Potter, Kevin M.; Robertson, Guy; Sperry, Jinelle; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Jovan, Sarah; ; Musselman, Robert (Bob) C.; Schulz, Bethany K.; Smith, Robert J.; Stewart, Susan I., 2015. Indicators of climate impacts for forests: recommendations for the US National Climate Assessment indicators system
    Musselman, Robert (Bob) C.; Korfmacher, John L., 2014. Ozone in remote areas of the Southern Rocky Mountains
    Korfmacher, John L.; Musselman, Robert (Bob) C., 2014. Ozone monitoring at remote sites using low-power instrumentation
    Vose, James M.; Swank, Wayne T.; Adams, Mary Beth; Amatya, Devendra; Campbell, John; Johnson, Sherri; Swanson, Frederick J.; Kolka, Randy; Lugo, Ariel E.; Musselman, Robert (Bob) C.; Rhoades, Charles, 2014. The role of experimental forests and ranges in the development of ecosystem science and biogeochemical cycling research
    Vose, James M.; Swank, Wayne T.; Adams, Mary Beth; Amatya, Devendra; Campbell, John; Johnson, Sherri; Swanson, Frederick J.; Kolka, Randy; Lugo, Ariel E.; Musselman, Robert (Bob) C.; Rhoades, Charles C., 2014. The role of experimental forests and ranges in the development of ecosystem science and biogeochemical cycling research [Chapter 17]
    Mensing, Scott A.; Korfmacher, John L.; Minckley, Thomas; Musselman, Robert (Bob) C., 2012. A 15,000 year record of vegetation and climate change from a treeline lake in the Rocky Mountains, Wyoming, USA
    Heath, Robert L.; Lefohn, Allen S.; Musselman, Robert (Bob) C., 2009. Temporal processes that contribute to nonlinearity in vegetation responses to ozone exposure and dose
    Musselman, Robert (Bob) C.; Lefohn, Allen S.; Massman , William J. , Jr; Heath, Robert L., 2006. A critical review and analysis of the use of exposure- and flux-based ozone indices for predicting vegetation effects
    Wieser, G.; Matyssek, R.; Musselman, Robert (Bob) C.; Lefohn, A. S.; Massman , William J. , Jr, 2006. Glossary: Definitions of relevancy for the 'flux concept' in ozone risk assessment
    Musselman, Robert (Bob) C.; Massman , William J. , Jr; Frank, John M.; Korfmacher, John L., 2005. The temporal dynamics of carbon dioxide under snow in a high elevation Rocky Mountain subalpine forest and meadow
    Haddow, Dennis; Musselman, Robert (Bob) C.; Blett, Tamara; Fisher, Richard, 1998. Guidelines for evaluating air pollution impacts on wilderness within the Rocky Mountain Region: Report of a workshop, 1990
    Musselman, Robert (Bob) C.; Zeller, Karl F.; Nikolov, Nedialko T., 1998. Ozone and modeled stomatal conductance at a high elevation subalpine site in southeastern Wyoming
    Wooldridge, G.; Zeller, K.; Musselman, Robert (Bob) C., 1997. Ozone concentration characteristics at a high-elevation forest site
    Regan, Claudia M.; Musselman, Robert (Bob) C.; Haines, June D., 1997. Vegetation of the Glacier Lakes Ecosystem Experiments Site
    Sommerfeld, Richard A.; Massman , William J. , Jr; Musselman, Robert (Bob) C., 1996. Diffusional flux of CO2 through snow: Spatial and temporal variability among alpine-subalpine sites
    Wooldridge, G. L.; Musselman, Robert (Bob) C.; Sommerfeld, R. A.; Fox, D. G.; Connell, B. H., 1996. Mean wind patterns and snow depths in an alpine-subalpine ecosystem as measured by damage to coniferous trees
    Musselman, Robert (Bob) C.; Hudnell, Laura; Williams, Mark W.; Sommerfeld, Richard A., 1996. Water chemistry of Rocky Mountain Front Range aquatic ecosystems
    Reuss, J. O.; Vertucci, F. A.; Musselman, Robert (Bob) C.; Sommerfeld, R. A., 1995. Chemical fluxes and sensitivity to acidification of two high elevation catchments in southern Wyoming
    Musselman, Robert (Bob) C.; Wooldridge, Gene L.; Massman , William J. , Jr; Sommerfeld, Richard A., 1995. Wind and ecosystem response at the GLEES
    Musselman, Robert (Bob) C., 1994. Air quality [Chapter 8]
    Haines, J. D.; Musselman, Robert (Bob) C.; Regan, C. M., 1994. Floristics [Chapter 3]
    Musselman, Robert (Bob) C.; Fox, D. G; Schoettle, Anna W.; Regan, C. M., 1994. Introduction [Chapter 1]
    Musselman, Robert (Bob) C., 1994. The Glacier Lakes Ecosystem Experiments Site
    Reuss, John O.; Vertucci, Frank A.; Musselman, Robert (Bob) C.; Sommerfeld, Richard A., 1993. Biogeochemical fluxes in the Glacier Lakes catchments
    Sommerfeld, R. A.; Mosier, A. R.; Musselman, Robert (Bob) C., 1993. CO2, CH4 and N2O flux through a Wyoming snowpack and implications for global budgets
    Brooks, P. D.; Schmidt, S. K.; Sommerfeld, R.; Musselman, Robert (Bob) C., 1993. Distribution and abundance of microbial biomass in Rocky Mountain spring snowpacks
    Wooldridge, G.; Musselman, Robert (Bob) C.; Connell, B.; Fox, D., 1992. Airflow patterns in a small subalpine basin
    Sommerfeld, R. A.; Musselman, Robert (Bob) C.; Reuss, J. O., 1991. Preliminary measurements of CO2 in melting snow
    Sommerfeld, R. A.; Musselman, Robert (Bob) C.; Wooldridge, G. L.; Conrad, M. A., 1991. The performance of a simple degree-day estimate of snow accumulation to an alpine watershed
    Sommerfeld, R. A.; Musselman, Robert (Bob) C.; Wooldridge, G. L., 1990. Comparison of estimates of snow input to a small alpine watershed
    Musselman, Robert (Bob) C.; Wooldridge, Gene L.; Fox, Douglas G.; Connell, Bernadette H., 1990. Using wind-deformed conifers to measure wind patterns in alpine transition at GLEES
    Portable ozone monitor at Trout Creek Pass, Colorado.
    Ozone (O3) is the most widespread air pollutant and is highly toxic to vegetation. Station researchers are using a portable battery powered monitor to evaluate O3 at several high-elevation, remote locations in the Rocky Mountain West. Research findings will allow national forests to determine O3 levels in remote areas where Air Quality Related Values are unknown, determine if O3 at these sites exceed the federal standard, and examine long-term changes in O3 in remote regions.