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Russell T. Graham



Featured Publications

Publications

Warwell, Marcus V.; Denner, Robert J.; Andrea, Ara K.; Graham, Russell T., 2021. Chapter 4: Ecoregion 6.2.3 Columbia Mountains/Northern Rockies: Priest River Experimental Forest, Idaho
Moser, W. Keith; Coble, Adam P.; Hallik, Lea; Richardson, Andrew D.; Pisek, Jan; Adamson, Kairi; Graham, Russell T.; Moser, Cynthia F., 2020. Advances in understanding canopy development in forest trees [Chapter 3]
Cherico, Jonathan R.; Nelson, Andrew S.; Jain, Terrie B.; Graham, Russell T., 2020. Multidecadal growth of western white pine and interior Douglas-fir following site preparation
Graham, Russell T.; Asherin, Lance A.; Jain, Terrie B.; Baggett, Scott; Battaglia, Mike A., 2019. Differing ponderosa pine forest structures, their growth and yield, and mountain pine beetle impacts: Growing stock levels in the Black Hills
Shen, Chenchen; Nelson, Andrew S.; Jain, Terrie B.; Foard, Meghan B.; Graham, Russell T., 2019. Structural and compositional responses to thinning over 50 years in moist forest of the Northern Rocky Mountains
Holbrook, Joseph D.; Squires, John R.; Bollenbacher, Barry; Graham, Russell T.; Olson, Lucretia E.; Hanvey, Gary; Jackson, Scott; Lawrence, Rick L., 2018. Spatio-temporal responses of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) to silvicultural treatments in the Northern Rockies, U.S.
Graham, Russell T.; Asherin, Lance A.; Battaglia, Mike A.; Jain, Terrie B.; Mata, Stephen A., 2016. Mountain pine beetles: A century of knowledge, control attempts, and impacts central to the Black Hills
Tinkham, Wade T.; Denner, Robert J.; Graham, Russell T., 2015. Climate, snowpack, and streamflow of Priest River Experimental Forest, revisited
Graham, Russell T.; Bayard de Volo, Shelley; Reynolds, Richard T., 2015. Northern goshawk and its prey in the Black Hills: Habitat assessment
Jain, Terrie B.; Battaglia, Mike A.; Han, Han-Sup; Graham, Russell T.; Keyes, Christopher R.; Fried, Jeremy S.; Sandquist, Jonathan, 2014. A comprehensive guide to fuel management practices for dry mixed conifer forests in the northwestern United States: Inventory and model-based economic analysis of mechanical fuel treatments
Jain, Terrie B.; Battaglia, Mike A.; Han, Han-Sup; Graham, Russell T.; Keyes, Christopher R.; Fried, Jeremy S.; Sandquist, Jonathan, 2014. A comprehensive guide to fuel management practices for dry mixed conifer forests in the northwestern United States: Mechanical, chemical, and biological fuel treatment methods
Jain, Terrie B.; Battaglia, Mike A.; Han, Han-Sup; Graham, Russell T.; Keyes, Christopher R.; Fried, Jeremy S.; Sandquist, Jonathan, 2014. A comprehensive guide to fuel management practices for dry mixed conifer forests in the northwestern United States: Monitoring
Jain, Terrie B.; Battaglia, Mike A.; Han, Han-Sup; Graham, Russell T.; Keyes, Christopher R.; Fried, Jeremy S.; Sandquist, Jonathan, 2014. A comprehensive guide to fuel management practices for dry mixed conifer forests in the northwestern United States: Prescribed fire
Ross-Davis, Amy; Stewart, Jane E.; Hanna, John W.; Shaw, John D.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Jain, Terrie B.; Denner, Robert J.; Graham, Russell T.; Page-Dumroese, Deborah S.; Tirocke, Joanne M.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2014. Forest soil microbial communities: Using metagenomic approaches to survey permanent plots
Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B.; Graham, Kathy L.; Denner, Robert J.; Hardy, Colin C., 2014. One-hundred years of wildfire research: A legacy of the Priest River, Deception Creek, and Boise Basin Experimental Forests of Idaho [Chapter 21]
Miller, Sue; Jain, Terrie B.; Battaglia, Mike A.; Han, Han-Sup; Graham, Russell T.; Keyes, Christopher R.; Fried, Jeremy S.; Sandquist, Jonathan, 2014. Science You Can Use (SYCU) - Revisiting disturbance: A new guide for keeping dry mixed conifer forests healthy through fuel management
Jain, Terrie B.; Battaglia, Mike A.; Han, Han-Sup; Graham, Russell T.; Keyes, Christopher R.; Fried, Jeremy S.; Sandquist, Jonathan, 2012. A comprehensive guide to fuel management practices for dry mixed conifer forests in the northwestern United States
Jain, Terrie B.; Pilliod, David S.; Graham, Russell T.; Lentile, Leigh B.; Sandquist, Jonathan, 2012. Index for characterizing post-fire soil environments in temperate coniferous forests
Reynolds, Richard T.; Boyce, Douglas A.; Graham, Russell T., 2012. Ponderosa pine forest structure and northern goshawk reproduction: Response to Beier et al
Peterson, David L.; Agee, James K.; Aplet, Gregory H.; Dykstra, Dennis P.; Graham, Russell T.; Lehmkuhl, John F.; Pilliod, David S.; Potts, Donald F.; Powers, Robert F.; Stuart, John D., 2009. Effects of timber harvest following wildfire in western North America
Jain, Terrie B.; Gould, William A.; Graham, Russell T.; Pilliod, David S.; Lentile, Leigh B.; Gonzalez, Grizelle, 2008. A soil burn severity index for understanding soil-fire relations in tropical forests
Jain, Terrie B.; Gould, William A.; Graham, Russell T.; Pilliod, David S.; Lentile, Leigh B.; Gonzalez, Grizelle, 2008. A soil burn severity index for understanding soil-fire relations in tropical forests [Chinese version]
Dumm, Gabriel; Fins, Lauren; Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B., 2008. Distribution of fine roots of ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir in a central Idaho forest
Reynolds, Richard T.; Graham, Russell T.; Boyce, Douglas A. Jr., 2008. Northern goshawk habitat: an intersection of science, management, and conservation
Jain, Terrie B.; Graham, Russell T.; Sandquist, Jonathan; Butler, Matthew; Brockus, Karen; Frigard, Daniel; Cobb, David; Sup-Han, Han; Halbrook, Jeff; Denner, Robert; Evans, Jeffrey S., 2008. Restoration of northern Rocky Mountain moist forests: Integrating fuel treatments from the site to the landscape
Boyce, Douglas A. Jr.; Reynolds, Richard T.; Graham, Russell T., 2006. Goshawk status and management: What do we know, what have we done, where are we going?
Halbrook, Jeff; Han, Han-Sup; Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B.; Denner, Robert, 2006. Mastication: A fuel reduction and site preparation alternative
Jain, Terrie B.; Graham, Russell T.; Pilliod, David S., 2006. The relation between forest structure and soil burn severity
Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B., 2005. Ponderosa pine ecosystems
Jain, Terrie B.; Graham, Russell T., 2005. Restoring dry and moist forests of the inland northwestern U.S.
Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B.; Cannon, Phil, 2005. Stand establishment and tending in the Inland Northwest
Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B., 2004. Boise Basin Experimental Forest (Idaho)
Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B., 2004. Deception Creek Experimental Forest (Idaho)
Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B., 2004. Priest River Experimental Forest (Idaho)
Lhotka, John M.; Zaczek, James J.; Graham, Russell T., 2004. The Influence of Soil Scarification on Oak Reproduction: Review and Management Considerations
Jain, Terrie B.; Graham, Russell T.; Pilliod, David S., 2004. Tongue-tied: Confused meanings for common fire terminology can lead to fuels mismanagement
Jain, Terrie B.; Graham, Russell T.; Morgan, Penelope, 2004. Western white pine growth relative to forest openings
Jain, Terrie B.; Graham, Russell T., 2003. Fire severity classification: Uses and abuses
Guldin, James M.; Cawrse, David; Graham, Russell T.; Hemstrom, Miles; Joyce, Linda A.; Kessler, Steve; McNair, Ranotta; Peterson, George; Shaw, Charles G.; Stine, Peter; Twery, Mark; Walter, Jeffrey, 2003. Science Consistency Reviews A Primer for Application
Guldin, James M.; Cawrse, David; Graham, Russell T.; Hemstrom, Miles; Joyce, Linda A.; Kessler, Steve; McNair, Ranotta; Peterson, George; Shaw, Charles G.; Stine, Peter; Twery, Mark; Walter, Jeffrey, 2003. The Science Consistency Review A Tool To Evaluate the Use of Scientific Information in Land Management Decisionmaking
Graham, Russell T.; Bollenbacher, Barry, 2001. The role of the silviculturist at multiple scales
Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B.; Harvey, Alan E., 2000. Fuel: Logs, sticks, needles, duff, and much more
Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B., 1999. An effective and efficient assessment process
Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B.; Haynes, Richard A.; Sanders, Jim; Cleaves, David L., 1999. Assessments for ecological stewardship
Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B.; Tonn, Jonalea R., 1999. Uneven-aged silviculture in cedar-hemlock-grand fir ecosystems of the northern Rocky Mountains
Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B., 1998. Silviculture's role in managing boreal forests
Jain, Terrie B.; Graham, Russell T.; Adams, David L., 1997. Carbon to organic matter ratios for soils in Rocky Mountain coniferous forests
Ferguson, Dennis E.; Applegate, Victor J.; Aune, Philip S.; Carlson, Clinton E.; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen; Graham, Russell T.; Jacobsen, Glenn L.; Jain, Terrie B.; Powell, David C.; Shepperd, Wayne D.; Sloan, John P.; Youngblood, Andrew, 1997. Communicating the role of silviculture and Forest Service silviculture research in the interior West
Jurgensen, M. F.; Harvey, A. E.; Graham, Russell T.; Page-Dumroese, Deborah S.; Tonn, J. R.; Larsen, M. J.; Jain, Terrie B., 1997. Impacts of timber harvesting on soil organic matter, nitrogen, productivity, and health of inland northwest forests
Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B.; Reynolds, Richard T.; Boyce, Douglas A., 1997. The role of fire in sustaining northern goshawk habitat in Rocky Mountain forests
Jain, Terrie B.; Graham, Russell T., 1996. Deception Creek Experimental Forest
Jain, Terrie B.; Graham, Russell T., 1996. Priest River Experimental Forest
Graham, Russell T.; Harvey, A. E.; Jurgensen, M. F.; Page-Dumroese, Deborah S.; Tonn, J. R.; Jain, Terrie B., 1995. Response of western larch to site preparation
Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B.; Reynolds, Richard T.; Boyce, Douglas A., 1994. From single species management to ecosystem management, "The goshawk"
Bassett, Richard L.; Boyce, Douglas A. Jr.; Reiser, M. Hildegard; Graham, Russell T.; Reynolds, Richard T., 1994. Influence of site quality and stand density on goshawk habitat in southwestern forests
Graham, Russell T.; Harvey, Alan E.; Jurgensen, Martin F.; Jain, Terrie B.; Tonn, Jonalea R.; Page-Dumroese, Deborah S., 1994. Managing coarse woody debris in forests of the Rocky Mountains
Graham, Russell T.; Tonn, Jonalea R.; Jain, Terrie B., 1994. Managing western white pine plantations for multiple resource objectives
Reinhardt, Elizabeth D.; Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B.; Simmerman, Dennis G., 1994. Short-term effects of prescribed fire in grand fir-white pine-western hemlock slash fuels
Graham, Russell T.; Tonn, Jonalea R.; Jain, Terrie B.; Adams, David L., 1994. The role of silviculture in ecosystem management: a practice in transition
Harvey, Alan E.; Jurgensen, Martin F.; Larsen, Michael J.; Graham, Russell T., 1987. Decaying organic materials and soil quality in the Inland Northwest: A management opportunity
the cover of GTR 422
A new report examines the standing sawtimber inventory of ponderosa pine on the Black Hills National Forest in South Dakota and Wyoming. The report looks at 60 scenarios to evaluate how mortality from disturbances (e.g., climate change, wildfire, beetle kill, etc.) and potential growth rates will impact short-, mid-, and long-term sustainable sawtimber harvest levels of ponderosa pine in the Black Hills.
A researcher takes measurements within a stand of small pine
Imagine you are a western white pine and western larch seedling growing in a forest opening. Your ability to grow into a mature tree depends on the visible sky above you in the opening and the light it provides. Seedlings of other species around you are also racing to grow upward and fill the same canopy space that you are striving to occupy. Your ability to maintain growth and outcompete the other seedlings is critical to your long-term survival.
Northern goshawk research technician standing in an example of an idealized ponderosa pine forest on the Kaibab Plateau in northern Arizona.
Throughout the Rocky Mountains over the last century, large ponderosa pine trees provided lumber for growing cities and towns, along with fuel and timber for the mining and railroad industries. Most of these forests are now occupied by dense young and mid-aged forests highly susceptible to being killed by bark beetles and burned by wildfires. These conditions have been exacerbated by fire suppression and urban encroachment. As a result, knowledge is needed to inform management actions directed at restoring and conserving ponderosa pine forests. 
A closeup shot of a lynx face
The management of Canada lynx habitat is an issue that has generated much debate and litigation across the Northern (Montana, Idaho) and Southern (Colorado, Wyoming) Rocky Mountains. This species depends almost exclusively on snowshoe hare for food during winter, and this prey species is sensitive to changes in forest composition and structure. Research conducted by scientists at the Rocky Mountain Research Station, in collaboration with universities and local forest managers, is central in resolving management impasses by learning how changes in forest structure and composition can be implemented in ways that enhance the ability of Canada lynx to produce kittens.  
Example of a forest structure suitable for northern goshawks and producing high quality timber
Wildlife habitat and timber production are critical elements of the management of many National Forests. The Black Hills National Forest has provided a thriving timber economy for over 100 years. The forest also provides habitat for the northern goshawk, which has been severely impacted by mountain pine beetles. 
Young trees act as ladder fuel when they grow under large trees on Back Hills Experimental Forest Service.
Scientists across four experimental forests (Preist River, Black Hills, Boise Basin, and Deception Creek) worked to provide a suite of ecosystem services from removing fuels to implementing new strategies. Treatment goals were to increase the diversity of forest conditions across the landscapes and provide for a variety of ecosystem service, such as wildlife habitat, wild berries, wood for construction, and hunting opportunities.  
landscape shot of beetle killed forest
Forest restoration, resilience, and wildfire are major issues of contemporary forest management. Integral to these issues is the destruction, understanding, and management of mountain pine beetles. This is the story of 115 years of mountain pine beetles, associated organisms and the people that study them in the Black Hills. It reads much like a film-noir. This research informs forest policy and management throughout western North America.  
The research objective is to develop western white pine management strategies focused on regeneration establishment and young forest development by 1) developing canopy opening size thresholds where western white pine can establish and grow, 2) developing alternative tending methods to enable managers to continue to manage western white pine plantations, 3) evaluating plantation resilience to wildfire, and 4) evaluating understory plant diversity under 30-year or older western white pine plantations.