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Terrie B. Jain

Research Forester

Research Forester

1221 South Main Street
Moscow, ID 83843
Contact Terrie B. Jain

Current Research

Present-day forest management goals are complex and elusive because objectives are multi-faceted and may include simultaneously producing or maintaining sense-of-place, old growth, forest products and enhancing or protecting water resources and wildlife habitat while increasing the ability to adapt to disturbance. My broad research program focus, is to develop integrated management strategies that have application for objectives including, but not limited to, producing forest products, installing fuel treatments, creating disturbance resilient and resistant forests, enhancing or creating wildlife habitat, restoring forests, and developing old forest conditions. To develop management strategies that can adapt to disturbance, also requires research on pre- and post-disturbance environments to develop fuel or other forest management treatments to encourage rapid recovery or promote adaptation to disturbances such as wildfire. To evaluate the treatments I develop, I use an experimental forest network in partnership with forest managers to determine economic and operational feasibility of implementing treatments followed by monitoring vegetation response in accordance with desired wildlife habitat components such as snags, woody debris and plant production, growth and yield of trees, and diversity in species composition and forest conditions. The advantage of my research being implemented on an experimental forest provides numerous benefits, the most important benefit is that this place-based research gives future scientists, managers, landowners, and people of all ages and backgrounds a place to learn about forest ecology and management.

Research Interests

My interest involves discovering and describing natural phenomena but also demands that such discoveries be integrated into silvicultural methods (vegetation and forest floor treatments) and systems (planned series of treatments through time) and be tested across multiple spatial scales and within multiple forest structures and compositions. Although silvicultural methods and systems are well developed for producting forest products, they are ill defined or non-existent when it comes to treating fuels, providing sense-of-place, maintaining wildlife habitat, or managing for other societal values both known and unforeseen.

Past Research

Contrary to traditional thinking that western white pine can only grow in large openings, I discovered the species can establish and grow within many different sized canopy gaps. This discovery subsequently led to developing canopy opening thresholds (i.e., establishment, competitive advantage, and free-to-grow) for the species to explicitly aid in management decisions and applications. The impact of this research has resulted in consensus building among the differing management philosophies of stakeholders and forest managers. I used my canopy opeing knowledge discovery to produce silvicultural systems to create a diversity of forest structures and compositions within and among landscapes. Contrary to applying treatments at a stand scale (~10 ha), the systems I designed are applicable for treating landscapes, a rarity in science of silviculture.

In this field of science, because it is so diverse, I have been involved in studies associated with maintaining long-term soil productivity, implimenting and understanding the benefits and trade-offs of mastication, and devoping treatment strategies for restoring old ponderosa pine and western larch.

Why This Research is Important

My goal in my job is not to succeed personally as a research scientist. I work for the citizens of the United State; thus I think it is very important to focus on applied science that is applicable to managers, forest landowners and the public. Thus the greatest compliment I receive is when managers or citizens come to me and say you taught me something and you are making a difference in the future of our forests. Only then do I know I am on the right track. Thus the results of my research studies are applicable for, but are not limited to, restoring forests, producing wildlife habitat, and for treating fuels to modify wildfire behavior and burn severity throughout the western United States. However, the concepts I introduce also have a wider range of application beyond the western United States; for example, some of these concepts are being included in a new document called Research to Practice through the European Research Institute.


  • University of Idaho, Moscow, Bachelors, Forest Management, 1982
  • University of Idaho, Moscow, Masters, Silviculture and soil process, 1994
  • University of Idaho, Moscow, Ph.D., Silviculture, landscape ecology, and applied statistics, 2001
  • Professional Experience

    Research Forester, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Forest and Woodland Ecosystems Research Program Moscow, ID
    2007 to 2016

    Research Forester, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire, Fuels, and Smoke Research Program, Moscow, ID
    2008 to 2009

    Research Forester, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Moscow, ID
    2001 to 2007

    Forester, USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Moscow, ID
    1989 to 2001

    Forestry Technician, USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Moscow, ID
    1982 to 1989

    Forestry Trainee, USDA Forest Service, Bonners Ferry Ranger District, Bonners Ferry, ID.
    1979 to 1982

    Professional Organizations

    • Society of American Foresters, Forest Science, Associate Editor ( 2011 to present )
      I am associate editor for Forest Science in fire and silviculture.
    • Ecological Society of America, Member ( 2010 to present )
    • Association of Fire Ecology, Member ( 2008 to present )
    • Society of American Foresters, Western Journal of Applied Forestry, Associate Editor ( 2007 to present )
      I have been associate editor for the Western Journal of Applied Forestry in silviculture, forest ecology, and fire.
    • Society of American Foresters (SAF), Member ( 1989 to present )
      Chair, treasurer, and councilor of Inland Empire State Society (IESAF). Member of the SAF Northwest Office Committee., I have been an active member of the SAF; in the last 15 years; I have taken different leadership roles. These have provided opportunities to network with a variety of disciplines in the field of forest resoruces.


    Outstanding technology transfer publication, 2014
    My team received this award for RMRS-GTR-292: A comprehensive guide to fuels management practices for dry mixed conifer forests in the northwestern United States
    National Accessibility Honoree for Individual Commitment and Leadership, 2012
    I was presented this award for providing consistent commitment and leadership in the advancement and integration of accessibility.
    Alumni Achievement Award., 2010
    This award is given to a college alumnus who has graduated within the past 10 years and has an exceptional career record with continued outstanding attainment in the future
    National Award for Outstanding Contributions in Silviculture, 2007
    Outstanding contributions in the field of Silviculture at the National Silviculture workshop, Ketchikan, Alaska. This award is given bi-annually by my professional peers from throughout the United States.
    Friend of Dirt, 2006
    In appreciation of your never-ending support of the Forest Soils Program on the Payette National Forest: Your efforts are greatly appreciated.
    Forester of the Year, 2005
    This was given to me by people in the forestry profession within the Inland Northwest

    Featured Publications


    McKelvey, Kevin S.; Block, William M.; Jain, Terrie B.; Luce, Charles H.; Page-Dumroese, Deborah S.; Richardson, Bryce A.; Saab, Victoria A.; Schoettle, Anna W.; Sieg, Carolyn H.; Williams, Daniel R., 2021. Adapting research, management, and governance to confront socioecological uncertainties in novel ecosystems
    Looney, Christopher E.; Peterson, Courtney L.; Nagel, Linda M.; Guldin, James M.; Swanston, ChristopherW; Janowiak, Maria K.; Battaglia, Mike A.; Bigelow, Seth W.; Brandt, Leslie A.; D’Amato, Anthony W.; Evans, Kevin; Jack, Steve B.; Jain, Terrie B.; Jenkins, Melissa M.; Sutherland, Elaine K.; Hammes, Mary; Palik, Brian J.; Tuten, Matt C.; Woodall, Christopher W., 2020. Adaptive silviculture for climate change network: learning from land manager-research partnerships
    Cherico, Jonathan R.; Nelson, Andrew S.; Jain, Terrie B.; Graham, Russell T., 2020. Multidecadal growth of western white pine and interior Douglas-fir following site preparation
    Kabrick, John M.; Romanova, Olga; Hille, Andrea; Bragg, Don C.; Jain, Terrie B.; Lampereur, John; Riling, John, 2020. The role of experimental forests and ranges for facilitating management-research partnerships: A panel discussion
    Klauberg, Carine; Hudak, Andrew T.; Silva, Carlos Alberto; Lewis, Sarah A.; Robichaud, Pete R.; Jain, Terrie B., 2019. Characterizing fire effects on conifers at tree level from airborne laser scanning and high-resolution, multispectral satellite data
    Graham, Russell T.; Asherin, Lance A.; Jain, Terrie B.; Baggett, Scott; Battaglia, Mike A., 2019. Differing ponderosa pine forest structures, their growth and yield, and mountain pine beetle impacts: Growing stock levels in the Black Hills
    Crotteau, Justin; Sutherland, Elaine K.; Jain, Terrie B.; Wright, David K.; Jenkins, Melissa; Keyes, Christopher; Nagel, Linda M., 2019. Initiating climate adaptation in a western larch forest
    Shen, Chenchen; Nelson, Andrew S.; Jain, Terrie B.; Foard, Meghan B.; Graham, Russell T., 2019. Structural and compositional responses to thinning over 50 years in moist forest of the Northern Rocky Mountains
    Jain, Terrie B., 2019. The 21st Century silviculturist
    Keane II, Robert E.; Mahalovich, Mary Frances; Bollenbacher, Barry L.; Manning, Mary E.; Loehman, Rachel A.; Jain, Terrie B.; Holsinger, Lisa M.; Larson, Andrew J.; Webster, Meredith M., 2018. Effects of climate change on forest vegetation in the Northern Rockies Region [Chapter 6]
    Keane II, Robert E.; Mahalovich, Mary Frances; Bollenbacher, Barry L.; Manning, Mary E.; Loehman, Rachel A.; Jain, Terrie B.; Holsinger, Lisa M.; Larson, Andrew J., 2018. Effects of climate change on forest vegetation in the northern Rockies [Chapter 5]
    Jain, Terrie B.; Sikkink, Pamela G.; Keefe, Robert; Byrne, John C., 2018. To masticate or not: Useful tips for treating forest, woodland, and shrubland vegetation
    Fekety, Patrick A.; Falkowski, Michael J.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Jain, Terrie B.; Evans, Jeffrey S., 2018. Transferability of lidar-derived basal area and stem density models within a northern Idaho ecoregion
    Sikkink, Pamela G.; Jain, Terrie B.; Reardon, James; Heinsch, Faith Ann; Keane II, Robert E.; Butler, Bret W.; Baggett, L. Scott., 2017. Effect of particle aging on chemical characteristics, smoldering, and fire behavior in mixed-conifer masticated fuel
    Hanberry, Brice; Kabrick, John M.; Dunwiddie, Peter W.; Hartel, Tibor; Jain, Terrie B.; Knapp, Benjamin O., 2017. Restoration of temperate savannas and woodlands [Chapter 11]
    Graham, Russell T.; Asherin, Lance A.; Battaglia, Mike A.; Jain, Terrie B.; Mata, Stephen A., 2016. Mountain pine beetles: A century of knowledge, control attempts, and impacts central to the Black Hills
    Page-Dumroese, Deborah S.; Jain, Terrie B.; Sandquist, Jonathan; Tirocke, Joanne M.; Errecart, John; Jurgensen, Martin F., 2015. Reburns and their Impact on carbon pools, site productivity, and recovery [Chapter 13]
    Jain, Terrie B.; Battaglia, Mike A.; Han, Han-Sup; Graham, Russell T.; Keyes, Christopher R.; Fried, Jeremy S.; Sandquist, Jonathan, 2014. A comprehensive guide to fuel management practices for dry mixed conifer forests in the northwestern United States: Inventory and model-based economic analysis of mechanical fuel treatments
    Jain, Terrie B.; Battaglia, Mike A.; Han, Han-Sup; Graham, Russell T.; Keyes, Christopher R.; Fried, Jeremy S.; Sandquist, Jonathan, 2014. A comprehensive guide to fuel management practices for dry mixed conifer forests in the northwestern United States: Mechanical, chemical, and biological fuel treatment methods
    Jain, Terrie B.; Battaglia, Mike A.; Han, Han-Sup; Graham, Russell T.; Keyes, Christopher R.; Fried, Jeremy S.; Sandquist, Jonathan, 2014. A comprehensive guide to fuel management practices for dry mixed conifer forests in the northwestern United States: Monitoring
    Jain, Terrie B.; Battaglia, Mike A.; Han, Han-Sup; Graham, Russell T.; Keyes, Christopher R.; Fried, Jeremy S.; Sandquist, Jonathan, 2014. A comprehensive guide to fuel management practices for dry mixed conifer forests in the northwestern United States: Prescribed fire
    Morgan, Penelope; Keane II, Robert E.; Dillon, Gregory K.; Jain, Terrie B.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Karau, Eva C.; Sikkink, Pamela G.; Holden, Zachery A.; Strand, Eva K., 2014. Challenges of assessing fire and burn severity using field measures, remote sensing and modelling
    Dobre, Mariana; Wu, Joan Q.; Elliot, William J.; Miller, Ina Sue S.; Jain, Terrie B., 2014. Effects of topographic features on postfire exposed mineral soil in small watersheds
    Ross-Davis, Amy; Stewart, Jane E.; Hanna, John W.; Shaw, John D.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Jain, Terrie B.; Denner, Robert J.; Graham, Russell T.; Page-Dumroese, Deborah S.; Tirocke, Joanne M.; Kim, Mee-Sook; Klopfenstein, Ned B., 2014. Forest soil microbial communities: Using metagenomic approaches to survey permanent plots
    Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B.; Graham, Kathy L.; Denner, Robert J.; Hardy, Colin C., 2014. One-hundred years of wildfire research: A legacy of the Priest River, Deception Creek, and Boise Basin Experimental Forests of Idaho [Chapter 21]
    Miller, Sue; Jain, Terrie B.; Battaglia, Mike A.; Han, Han-Sup; Graham, Russell T.; Keyes, Christopher R.; Fried, Jeremy S.; Sandquist, Jonathan, 2014. Revisiting disturbance: A new guide for keeping dry mixed conifer forests healthy through fuel management
    Jain, Terrie B., 2014. The human and fire connection
    Dobre, Mariana; Elliot, William J.; Wu, Joan Q.; Link, Timothy E.; Glaza, Brandon; Jain, Terrie B.; Hudak, Andrew T., 2012. Relationship of field and LiDAR estimates of forest canopy cover with snow accumulation and melt
    Hudak, Andrew T.; Jain, Terrie B.; Morgan, Penelope; Clark, Jess T., 2011. Remote sensing of WUI fuel treatment effectiveness following the 2007 wildfires in central Idaho
    Fraver, Shawn; Jain, Terrie B.; Bradford, John B.; D'amato, Anthony W.; Kastendick, Doug; Palik, Brian; Shinneman, Doug; Stanovick, John, 2011. The efficacy of salvage logging in reducing subsequent fire severity in conifer-dominated forests of Minnesota, USA
    Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B.; Matthews, Susan, 2010. Fuel management in forests of the Inland West
    Jain, Terrie B., 2010. Introduction
    Jain, Terrie B.; Gould, William A.; Graham, Russell T.; Pilliod, David S.; Lentile, Leigh B.; Gonzalez, Grizelle, 2008. A soil burn severity index for understanding soil-fire relations in tropical forests [Chinese version]
    Dumm, Gabriel; Fins, Lauren; Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B., 2008. Distribution of fine roots of ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir in a central Idaho forest
    Jain, Terrie B.; Graham, Russell T.; Sandquist, Jonathan; Butler, Matthew; Brockus, Karen; Frigard, Daniel; Cobb, David; Sup-Han, Han; Halbrook, Jeff; Denner, Robert; Evans, Jeffrey S., 2008. Restoration of northern Rocky Mountain moist forests: Integrating fuel treatments from the site to the landscape
    Jain, Terrie B.; Juillerat, Molly; Sandquist, Jonathan; Sauer, Brad; Mitchell, Robert; McAvoy, Scott; Hanley, Justin; David, John, 2007. Forest descriptions and photographs of forested areas along the breaks of the Missouri River in eastern Montana, USA
    Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B.; Sandquist, Jonathan, 2007. Free selection: a silvicultural option
    Jain, Terrie B.; Juillerat, Molly; Sandquist, Jonathan; Ford, Mike; Sauer, Brad; Mitchell, Robert; McAvoy, Scott; Hanley, Justin; David, Jon, 2007. Photographic handbook for comparing burned and unburned sites within a dry forested and grassland mosiac: a tool for communication, calibration, and monitoring post-fire effects
    Jain, Terrie B.; Juillerat, Molly; Sandquist, Jonathan; Ford, Mike; Sauer, Brad; Mitchell, Robert; McAvoy, Scott; Hanley, Justin; David, Jon, 2007. Vegetation and soil effects from prescribed, wild, and combined fire events along a ponderosa pine and grassland mosaic
    Halbrook, Jeff; Han, Han-Sup; Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B.; Denner, Robert, 2006. Mastication: A fuel reduction and site preparation alternative
    Jain, Terrie B.; Graham, Russell T.; Pilliod, David S., 2006. The relation between forest structure and soil burn severity
    Peterson, David L.; Johnson, Morris C.; Agee, James K.; Jain, Terrie B.; McKenzie, Donald; Reinhardt, Elizabeth D., 2005. Forest structure and fire hazard in dry forests of the Western United States
    Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B., 2005. Ponderosa pine ecosystems
    Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B.; Cannon, Phil, 2005. Stand establishment and tending in the Inland Northwest
    Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B., 2004. Boise Basin Experimental Forest (Idaho)
    Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B., 2004. Deception Creek Experimental Forest (Idaho)
    Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B., 2004. Priest River Experimental Forest (Idaho)
    Graham, Russell T.; McCaffrey, Sarah M.; Jain, Terrie B., 2004. Science basis for changing forest structure to modify wildfire behavior and severity
    Hudak, Andrew T.; Morgan, Penelope; Stone, Carter; Robichaud, Pete R.; Jain, Terrie B.; Clark, Jess, 2004. The relationship of field burn severity measures to satellite-derived Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) maps
    Jain, Terrie B.; Graham, Russell T.; Pilliod, David S., 2004. Tongue-tied: Confused meanings for common fire terminology can lead to fuels mismanagement
    Jain, Terrie B.; Graham, Russell T.; Morgan, Penelope, 2004. Western white pine growth relative to forest openings
    Jain, Terrie B.; Their, Ralph; Michael, Wilson, 2003. Fire effects assessment using FIA data in the northern and central Rocky Mountains
    Jain, Terrie B.; Graham, Russell T., 2003. Fire severity classification: Uses and abuses
    Peterson, David L.; Johnson, Morris C.; Agee, James K.; Jain, Terrie B.; McKenzie, Donald; Reinhardt, Elizabeth D., 2003. Fuels planning: Managing forest structure to reduce fire hazard
    Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B.; Harvey, Alan E., 2000. Fuel: Logs, sticks, needles, duff, and much more
    Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B., 1999. An effective and efficient assessment process
    Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B.; Haynes, Richard A.; Sanders, Jim; Cleaves, David L., 1999. Assessments for ecological stewardship
    Graham, Russell T.; Harvey, Alan E.; Jain, Terrie B.; Tonn, Jonalea R., 1999. The effects of thinning and similar stand treatments on fire behavior in Western forests.
    Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B.; Tonn, Jonalea R., 1999. Uneven-aged silviculture in cedar-hemlock-grand fir ecosystems of the northern Rocky Mountains
    Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B., 1998. Silviculture's role in managing boreal forests
    Jain, Terrie B.; Graham, Russell T.; Adams, David L., 1997. Carbon to organic matter ratios for soils in Rocky Mountain coniferous forests
    Ferguson, Dennis E.; Applegate, Victor J.; Aune, Philip S.; Carlson, Clinton E.; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen; Graham, Russell T.; Jacobsen, Glenn L.; Jain, Terrie B.; Powell, David C.; Shepperd, Wayne D.; Sloan, John P.; Youngblood, Andrew, 1997. Communicating the role of silviculture and Forest Service silviculture research in the interior West
    Jurgensen, M. F.; Harvey, A. E.; Graham, Russell T.; Page-Dumroese, Deborah S.; Tonn, J. R.; Larsen, M. J.; Jain, Terrie B., 1997. Impacts of timber harvesting on soil organic matter, nitrogen, productivity, and health of inland northwest forests
    Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B.; Reynolds, Richard T.; Boyce, Douglas A., 1997. The role of fire in sustaining northern goshawk habitat in Rocky Mountain forests
    Jain, Terrie B.; Graham, Russell T., 1996. Deception Creek Experimental Forest
    Jain, Terrie B.; Graham, Russell T., 1996. Priest River Experimental Forest
    Graham, Russell T.; Harvey, A. E.; Jurgensen, M. F.; Page-Dumroese, Deborah S.; Tonn, J. R.; Jain, Terrie B., 1995. Response of western larch to site preparation
    Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B.; Reynolds, Richard T.; Boyce, Douglas A., 1994. From single species management to ecosystem management, "The goshawk"
    Graham, Russell T.; Harvey, Alan E.; Jurgensen, Martin F.; Jain, Terrie B.; Tonn, Jonalea R.; Page-Dumroese, Deborah S., 1994. Managing coarse woody debris in forests of the Rocky Mountains
    Graham, Russell T.; Tonn, Jonalea R.; Jain, Terrie B., 1994. Managing western white pine plantations for multiple resource objectives
    Reinhardt, Elizabeth D.; Graham, Russell T.; Jain, Terrie B.; Simmerman, Dennis G., 1994. Short-term effects of prescribed fire in grand fir-white pine-western hemlock slash fuels
    Graham, Russell T.; Tonn, Jonalea R.; Jain, Terrie B.; Adams, David L., 1994. The role of silviculture in ecosystem management: a practice in transition
    the cover of GTR 422
    A new report examines the standing sawtimber inventory of ponderosa pine on the Black Hills National Forest in South Dakota and Wyoming. The report looks at 60 scenarios to evaluate how mortality from disturbances (e.g., climate change, wildfire, beetle kill, etc.) and potential growth rates will impact short-, mid-, and long-term sustainable sawtimber harvest levels of ponderosa pine in the Black Hills.
    Diverse ponderosa pine forest stretching across rolling hills
    This research evaluated how spatial patterns of historical ponderosa pine forest structure impacted fire torching thresholds and contributes to a mechanistic understanding of how spatial patterns were maintained. With this information, we demonstrate how treatments that seek to restore these historical forest structures can increase stand-level resistance to crown fire. Restoration treatments in ponderosa pine forests that increase the stand-level proportion of isolated trees and small tree groups will have the greatest benefits for forest resistance to crown fire. Our results indicate that tree spatial patterns at very-fine scales contribute to self-regulation in fire-prone, forested ecosystems.
    A researcher takes measurements within a stand of small pine
    Imagine you are a western white pine and western larch seedling growing in a forest opening. Your ability to grow into a mature tree depends on the visible sky above you in the opening and the light it provides. Seedlings of other species around you are also racing to grow upward and fill the same canopy space that you are striving to occupy. Your ability to maintain growth and outcompete the other seedlings is critical to your long-term survival.
    Figure 1 urban_interface_mulching
    Recently, several large fires have burned through masticated sites – including in Colorado (Brewer et al. 2013), Washington, and New Mexico. Burning under extreme weather conditions with strong winds, these fires have challenged the benefits of using mastication, even though mastication can provide many positive environmental effects, such as soil moisture retention and cool, moist environments for soil microbes. However, informing managers when, where, and how mastication is applied is based on antidotal evidence. To address, this issue we synthesized information to provide managers with a current state of knowledge on mastication.
    Northern goshawk research technician standing in an example of an idealized ponderosa pine forest on the Kaibab Plateau in northern Arizona.
    Throughout the Rocky Mountains over the last century, large ponderosa pine trees provided lumber for growing cities and towns, along with fuel and timber for the mining and railroad industries. Most of these forests are now occupied by dense young and mid-aged forests highly susceptible to being killed by bark beetles and burned by wildfires. These conditions have been exacerbated by fire suppression and urban encroachment. As a result, knowledge is needed to inform management actions directed at restoring and conserving ponderosa pine forests. 
    Example of a forest structure suitable for northern goshawks and producing high quality timber
    Wildlife habitat and timber production are critical elements of the management of many National Forests. The Black Hills National Forest has provided a thriving timber economy for over 100 years. The forest also provides habitat for the northern goshawk, which has been severely impacted by mountain pine beetles. 
    Young trees act as ladder fuel when they grow under large trees on Back Hills Experimental Forest Service.
    Scientists across four experimental forests (Preist River, Black Hills, Boise Basin, and Deception Creek) worked to provide a suite of ecosystem services from removing fuels to implementing new strategies. Treatment goals were to increase the diversity of forest conditions across the landscapes and provide for a variety of ecosystem service, such as wildlife habitat, wild berries, wood for construction, and hunting opportunities.  
    Northern Rockies managers and scientists are collaborating in a nation-wide silvicultural study to develop adaptive practices that support the endurance of these iconic forests under changing climate.
    There is widespread interest in understanding the effectiveness of fuel treatments in mitigating the trajectory of wildfire suppression costs and how their effectiveness and longevity can be extended over large areas and landscapes. To date, there have been several studies that used a modeling approach to evaluate fuel treatment effectiveness at the landscape scale. However, empirical studies at this scale are rare because landscape-scale fuel treatment strategies have not been fully implemented or wildfires have not burned through implemented landscape fuel treatments. A thorough evaluation of what is currently available in the literature and lessons learned from forest and rangeland managers has not yet been conducted.
    The research objective is to develop western white pine management strategies focused on regeneration establishment and young forest development by 1) developing canopy opening size thresholds where western white pine can establish and grow, 2) developing alternative tending methods to enable managers to continue to manage western white pine plantations, 3) evaluating plantation resilience to wildfire, and 4) evaluating understory plant diversity under 30-year or older western white pine plantations.  
    Through fire management and riparian ecosystem restoration RMRS researchers Terrie Jain, Kate Dwire, and Travis Warziniack are partnering with the University of Idaho and the Idaho City Ranger District to develop, implement, and evaluate different adaptive management strategies to improve the fire resiliency of the Boise National Forest. 
    RMRS researchers Terrie Jain, Kate Dwire, and Travis Warziniack are partnering with managers on the Boise National Forest and scientists at the University of Idaho to develop, implement, and evaluate place-based adaptive management strategies with the goal of improving the resilience of Northern Rockies ponderosa pine stands to fire and other disturbances.
    For the past three years, scientists from the RMRS Fire Sciences Lab in Missoula and the Forestry Sciences Lab in Moscow have been researching mastication as a fuel treatment in the Rocky Mountains. Specifically, they have been interested in how the materials age when they are left on the ground to decompose and how that aging affects their flammability.
    The research objective is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a broad range of fuel treatment designs, patterned on treatments applied to dry mixed conifer forest, which address multiple components of resistance to fire in diverse forest settings. The project design accounts for fuel treatment longevity by considering and comparing the effectiveness and costs of treatment over a multi-decade planning horizon, addressing the challenge of rating cost-effectiveness in the context of multiple treatment and land management objectives, and providing a framework for assessing the stand-level effects of fuel treatment on fire behavior and resistance to fire.
    Many areas in need of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) restoration are located in remote areas or wilderness.  In these areas, standard end-of-fall planting of seedlings is logistically difficult or not permitted. Studies are critical to determine how, when, and where direct planting of seeds is a viable option. In particular, they provide the probability of germination and survival from seed versus seedlings and to identify approaches that enhances germination and survival.
    Fuel mastication is becoming the preferred method of fuel treatment in areas where using prescribed fire is an issue. While much is known about mastication effects soils, fire behavior and vegetative response, little is known about how fuel particle and fuel bed characteristics and properties change over time.