Fire is a process integral to the functioning of most temperate wildland ecosystems. Lightning-caused and anthropogenic fires have influenced the vegetation of North America profoundly for millennia (Brown and Smith 2000; Pyne 1982b). In some cases, fire has been used to manipulate the species composition and structure of ecosystems to meet management objectives, including control of nonnative invasive plant species (DiTomaso and others 2006a; Grace and others 2001; Keeley 2001; Myers and others 2001; Pyke and others, in review). However, fire can also threaten human life, property, and natural and cultural resources. Under some conditions, fire can increase abundance of nonnative invasive plants (Goodwin and others 2002), which may subsequently alter fire behavior and fire regimes, sometimes creating new, self-sustaining, invasive plant/fire cycles (Brooks and others 2004; D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992). These altered fire regimes can reduce native species diversity, alter ecosystem functions, and increase the threat of fire to human communities and wildland ecosystems.