Riparian ecosystems in the Central Arizona Highlands, and throughout the Southwest in general, provided the necessary water for humans, livestock, and agricultural crops during settlement by Europeans in the late 1800s. Other resources available in these moist environments included wildlife and fish, livestock and wildlife forage, and shade. Trees were often used for fuel, poles, and building materials. As human population increased in the early 1950s, demands for increased water supplies often dominated management of riparian ecosystems, which resulted in the destruction of many riparian areas (Horton and Campbell 1974). Within the last 25 yr people have become more aware of the diversity and multiple benefits provided by healthy riparian ecosystems.