Climatic conditions, particularly extreme rainfall, snowmelt, and flooding, pose substantial risks to infrastructure in and near public lands in the Intermountain Adaptation Partnership (IAP) region (box 11.1). Minor floods happen frequently in the region, and large floods happen occasionally. These events can damage or destroy roads and other infrastructure and affect resource values and ecosystem services (Murray and Ebi 2012) (fig. 11.1). Drought (extended periods of heat and low precipitation) can also affect resource values, especially as it influences fuel moisture and wildfire, soil moisture, drying road conditions, low streamflow, exposed streambanks and facilities, and interactions among drought, fire, and flooding.