Wood borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Buprestidae) and bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infest ponderosa pines, Pinus ponderosa P. Lawson and C. Lawson, killed by mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, and fire. No data is available comparing wood borer and bark beetle densities or species guilds associated with MPB-killed or fire-killed trees from the Black Hills of South Dakota, USA. We compared species assemblages of wood borers (Cerambycidae and Buprestidae) and bark beetles (Dendroctonus spp. and Ips spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) emerging from bolts collected from trees that had been killed by MPB or fire one or two years prior to harvesting. Significantly more wood borers emerged from bolts of fire-killed trees than from bolts of MPB-killed trees. Wood borer density in fire-killed trees was 13.8 per m2, compared to 4.4 per m2 in MPB-killed trees. Six wood borer species, Acanthocinus obliquus (LeConte), Buprestis consularis Gory, Chrysobothris sp., Melanophila acuminata (De Geer), Monochamus clamator LeConte, and Phaenops gentilis (LeConte), emerged from fire-killed tree bolts. Four species of wood borers, A. obliquus, Rhagium inquisitor (L.), Tetropium cinnamopterum Kirby, and Xylotrechus longitarsis Casey, emerged from MPB-killed tree bolts. Acanthocinus obliquus was the only species that emerged from both MPB-killed and fire-killed tree bolts. The bark beetles D. ponderosae, Dendroctonus valens LeConte, Ips knausi Swaine, and Ips pini (Say) emerged from one-year-old, MPB-killed trees, while I. pini was the only species that emerged from a fire-killed tree.