Fire is an important driver in ecosystem evolution, composition, structure and distribution, and is vital for maintaining ecosystems of the Great Sandy Region (GSR). Charcoal records for the area dating back over 40, 000 years provide evidence of the great changes in vegetation composition, distribution and abundance in the region over time as a result of fire. Fires have shaped landscapes and ecosystems, creating fire-dependencies and fire disturbance-adapted flora and fauna with traits to survive fire, such as resprouting post-fire and serotiny of cones and fruit. However such traits are not necessarily only developed as a result of fire as a process of natural selection, other factors may play a role in such trait development within plants. Paleo-records and modern observations show a definitive link between fire and climate (temperature and precipitation), with an increase in fire with increasing temperatures. This has serious implications in a warmer world there will be an increase of wildfire risk. Of importance is the understanding of the interactions between multiple drivers of fire regimes from the past and present. This is critical for developing fire regime management protocols for the Great Sandy Region and other similar fire-prone regions into the future.