Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae is a fungus associated with oak wilt and deemed to cause extensive oak mortality in South Korea. Since the discovery of this fungus on a dead Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) in 2004, the mortality continued to spread southwards in South Korea. Despite continued expansion of the disease and associated significant impacts on forest ecosystems, information is lacking about the origin and genetic diversity of R. quercus-mongolicae. Restriction-site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing was used to assess genetic diversity and population structure among five populations (provinces) of R. quercus-mongolicae in South Korea. In total, 179 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified among 2,639 RAD loci across the nuclear genome of the 54 R. quercus-mongolicae isolates (0.0012 SNPs per bp), which displayed an overall low expected heterozygosity and no apparent population structure. The low genetic diversity and no apparent population structure among South Korean populations of this ambrosia beetle-vectored fungus support the hypothesis that this fungus was introduced to South Korea.