Progress is being made to build the science foundation for effective limber pine management. The power of repeated monitoring assessments now provides valuable condition trends for limber pine (Smith et al. 2013, Cleaver et al. 2015). In Canada, the proportion of dead limber pine increased from 2003-2004 and 2009 and WPBR infection increased from 33% to 43% putting some populations at risk for extirpation (Smith et al. 2013). In northern Colorado, Wyoming, and southeastern Montana 73% of the stands have been invaded by white pine blister rust (WPBR) with an average disease incidence of 26%; in re-measured plots that is an increase in incidence of 6% over 8-9 years (Cleaver et al. 2015). WPBR has not yet been found on limber pine in California or Oregon although other white pines are infected in those states; Utah is WPBR-free on the pines yet C. ribicola has been identified on Ribes within the state (Vogler et al. 2016). Mountain pine beetle has caused high mortality on 75% of limber pine plots during the recent epidemic in the US Rocky Mountains (Cleaver et al. 2015). In less than 15 years, limber pine is expected to experience a 40% reduction in basal area in the US and mortality of close to two-thirds of the mature limber pine is expected over the next 100 years in Canada. Limber pine is a species of conservation and management concern in some areas of the US, is listed as endangered in Alberta, and it is being considered for national listing as such under the Species at Risk Act nationally in Canada.