Mountain pine beetle has always been a significant disturbance agent in ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests in Colorado. Most studies have examined the impacts to forest structure associated with epidemic populations of a single disturbance agent. In this paper we address the role of endemic populations of mountain pine and their interactions with dwarf mistletoe infections in forest structure and, the accumulation of coarse woody debris. We also discuss how mixed forests in the Colorado Front Range have shifted over the last 1,000 years and discuss how we may be able to learn about future epidemics under climate change by understanding the past. Understanding the behavior of endemic disturbances and past stand history may allow us to "paint" a picture for the future and develop strategies to maintain the resiliency of our forests.