Whitebark pine is a keystone species in upper subalpine forests of the northern Rocky Mountains, Cascades, and Sierra Nevada that has been declining because of recent mountain pine beetle and exotic blister rust epidemics, coupled with advancing succession resulting from fire exclusion. Whitebark pine and Wilderness have a mutually beneficial relationship because 1) half of whitebark pine’s range is in wilderness, 2) many wildlife species depend on whitebark pine ecosystems, 3) whitebark pine forests have high recreation value, and 4) whitebark pine landscapes contain unique ecological processes. Wilderness has not escaped the ravages of beetle, rust and fire exclusion, so restoration of these ecosystems may be warranted in some areas. The best wilderness restoration tool appears to be prescribed fires, especially management-ignited burns. This paper discusses whitebark pine ecology and the importance of the species to wilderness, and presents restoration treatments and management alternatives for these remote settings.